§ 37. Education, Science and Technology
Education -learning process and the effects of systematic knowledge and skills? requiredfor practice. This - a prerequisite for life and traininglabor, a key tool in attracting the culture. The main ways ofeducation - education and training in schools. Note thatcontent, the level determined by the requirements of social production,are determined by social relations, as science, technology and culture andlevel of the schools and educational thought.
Toearly nineteenth century. vast majority of people in the world was ignorant. It becamemajor brake on the further development of industrial society. Thatovercome this negative phenomenon from the late XІX Art. in Western Europe and America began to entergeneral system of compulsory primary education, and since the early twentieth century. - GeneralThe obligatory secondary education. There were different types of schools: religious, secular, paidand free, primary, secondary, higher, public and private.
InXX century. Due to the development of science teaching wascertain improvement of education system - was a clear differentiationschools, introduced international diplomas for teachers of communicationand students used the achievements of psychology.
Thus,UK 1918 adopted a law on compulsory education to 14years, and 1944 - 15 years. Actively developed systemprofessional education (primary and secondary). Centers of higher education wereuniversities: Cambridge, Oxford, Edinburgh and others. that simultaneouslyand became centers of world science.
U.S.laws on compulsory primary education was adopted in 1918 allstates. Of 1920-iesbegan the process of differentiation of education. All the students were divided into"Academically talented" and "practical thinking" and the programadapted to the practical needs of human life. In addition, developeduniversity system. The best known are Harvard, Columbia,California, Illinois, Stanfordskyy universities.
In 30-ies unchanged and the educational system of France. Thereintroduced free education in public schools. Necessarily constantteaching children to 14 years. French universities are recognized worldeducation centers. Earned international recognition, particularly in the Sorbonne University.
Most fundamental changes in education in the 20-30's in the system for educationSRSR.Vdalosya largely overcome illiteracy of the population. It was introducedelementary and then secondary education. In 1933 reneweduniversities.
In addition to the high level of education achieved in Germany, Belgium.Holland. Sweden and others.
Despite these qualitative improvements in education leading countriesmost people on earth, it remained inaccessible. Especially in the colonial anddependent territories. Low educational level was typical for independentAsia and Latin America.
2. The development of science
20-30-ieswere crucial for the development of a number of science. A huge step forward in itsdevelopment has made Nuclear Physics: Froma Danish physicist Niels Bohr model of the atom to the practical implementationEnrico Fermi in the U.S. in 1942 nuclear reaction. The first reactor wasbuilt in the U.S. and the USSR. During the war years made a nuclear bomb that the U.S.used against Japan in 1945
The samehas created the first computer - electronic computer(EC). This is done by J. von Neumann. Now computers and other electronic equipment werean integral part of our lives.
The First World War gave impetus to the development Chemistry. Urgent created productionPoisonous gases and gas masks, expanded edition of explosives in Germanysearch for artificial substitutes were inaccessible natural products. In the 30'sin the USSR and Germany were synthesized rubber, in the U.S. - a new kind of artificialFiber, the world famous Kapron. On the Edge of Science, newdisciplines - chemical physics, geophysics.
У Biology intensively developedresearch in genetics. An important contribution in this case did AmericanT. H.Morhan-Soviet scientist and NI Vavilov. Did the mid 30'sdevelopment of genetics in the USSR slowed down, and then banned it altogether? callingpseudo although established methods of heredity, essential forBreeding more productive crop types, etc..Application of physical and chemical methods led to the establishmentbiophysics and biochemistry.
Newdiscoveries were made in Geology.Herald a major change in Geology Geophysics German study wasWegener's hypothesis of drifting continents. By comparing the opposing coastlinesAtlantic Ocean and analyzing geological and paleontological data, he expressedassumption that previously existed only pramateryk, which is then split intonow. Theoretical developments have given significant practical results. In the intelligenceminerals are widely used new methods of prospecting,apparatus and instruments.
Significantchanges occurred in economic science.They were caused by increasing government regulation of the economy. For hisstudy was needed to review the classical political economy, whichconsidered a market economy as a kind of self-regulating system, which eliminatesany external influence. Evidence incorrectness of such representation and the needto maintain market balance of state economic regulation formulated EnglishEconomist Dzh.Keyns 1936 On the basis of his works began to develop newdirection in economic science - Keynesianism. At the same time developedspecific methods of forecasting the economy in the West and inDuring the first Soviet Five-Year Plans. In the United States implemented standardizationproduction.
Significantachievements were in other branches of the humanities and natural sciences.Important in the development of science was that it all became more closely cooperate withindustry, and new scientific and technological achievements have become an important driving force inconstant improvement of people's lives.
3. Electricity and changes in production technology
InXIX-XX centuries. much of it electrified the world. Bulbelectric bulbs invented by T. Edison. Zhukovsky was a Yugoslav N. Teslacreated the first hydroelectric power station.
Electricity,up to ПershoyiWorld War II was a luxury in life, gradually became the feature of everydayresidents. Together with it appeared in homes and new electrical householdappliances - vacuum cleaners, irons, washing machines. Electricitybecame the important branch of economy. Large power plants were built, includingincluding hydro electric. The largest built in those years was in Boulder HPSColorado River in the U.S.. Europe's largest hydroelectric power station - Dneproges (Kiev).
DevelopmentEnergy gave a powerful impetus to production development. In the XX century. wasOur machines introduced. This method of production was more rationaland efficient. This enabled to establish mass production technology,technology that is mass producing standardized, relatively cheapproducts.
4. Changes in the transport sector
In the first half of the twentieth century. transport has undergone rapid change.The oldest form of ground transport - rail - quicklyimproved: increased speed and cargo, to change the enginethought locomotives and locomotives to electric traction. Railwayelektrofikuyetsya.
In the 20-30-years schvydkymy rapidly evolving new speciesTransportation - aviation. To Пershoyi World War it was kind of exciting sport and spectacle. InDuring the war she demonstrated ample opportunities not only militaryapplication. After the war, aviation is widely utilized in the transportation of mailurgent cargo, in search заgaits, and then to transport passengers. The development of aviation hasopportunity to fly over long distances with large loads. In1927 American Charles Lindbergh made the first transatlanticflight for 33 hours. Ten years of Soviet pilots VP ChkalovGP Baydukov, OV Belyakov made non-stop flight from Moscow to NorthPole-Portland (USA). Created the first airline. Opened the firstregular passenger transport routes, in particular, and Ukraine.
In the late 30's aircraftworld's leading countries (USA, England, Germany, USSR, etc.). in pursuit ofrate actively engaged in developing jet engines and rockets. Nepolyshaye humanity and hopereach space. Developed the theory of space flight. Unfortunately,for a long time were little known at home in developmentUkrainian rocket scientist and inventor Yuri Kondratyuk (Sharheya). Hiswork "The conquest of interplanetary space (1929), translatedEnglish, on the order of U.S. space agency,used to prepare space shuttle flight to the moon (60-XXcent.).
The emergence of aviation was not the only change on transportation.Car seriously make room for the railroad. With the development of motorTransport began creating a network of paved roads. End-= 3 years in Germany began construction of motorways. Rapid increaseautomobile production contributed to the introduction of H. Ford to produce carsconveyor, which contributed to the improvement and expansion of production and convertedconvenient vehicle to vehicle. In1938 in England, Germany, USA and Canada there were six million30 million trucks and cars. This number quicklyincreased.
5. Development of Military Technology and Science
All the latestachievement in engineering and technology first implemented in all developmentmilitary equipment. The First World War showed that the future for new typesWeapons: Tankbe functioningThe planeамand underwaterymy Boatамs, aircraft carrierspit etc.. Therefore, despitepacifist sentiments, is the rapid modernization of armies new samplesWeapons developed new tactics and strategy of their use. Armymotorizuyutsya, their weapons become more smertonosnishoyu. Complications of military equipment entailsfundamental changes and training soldiers and officers. The level of technical equipmentgives troops a significant advantage over the enemy.
Mass production of bombers inGermany
The development of military aviation suggests some military theorists thatfuture war, it will play a crucial role. Armada bombers willdestroy the city and industrial potential enemy to incite public fear andundermine his will to resist. Other preferred tanks that interact withother families of troops will strike the decisive blow enemy movingits territory. Theorists of war at sea been thinking hard, surface orsubmarine fleet will play a leading and decisive role.
6. Changes in the household. New quality of life
In the firstdecades of the twentieth century. with `appeared a large number of inventions which facilitated the workand changed the lives of people. They did the home work more enjoyable and leisure- Diverse. But in general, provide a new quality of life. Thus in the leadingStates began with`appear inSales are so common to us now things: refrigerators, washing machines, electric kettles, electroirons, hair dryers and otherelektropobudova equipment, radios and televisions.
Sales of the first women'sdimensionless sysntetychnyh stockings
The firstBroadcast transmission conducted in the U.S. in 1919-1920, in England andFrance - 1922 In Ukraine, began broadcasting in 1924 inKharkov.
The ideaserial image elements, which were based on inertia ofRights? first expressed independently Sanlek N. (France), A. dePayva (Portugal). In practice, this idea made a Polish engineer P. Nipkov.Further development of the robot associated with works of William Smith (USA). He combinedphenomenon of internal and external photoelectric effect in practical usecathode-ray tube. Practical implementation began with a televisionblack and white transfers conducted in 1925 Bird in England and Jenkins inUSA. In Ukraine the first teleperedavach started functioning in Kyiv in 1938
ImportantPlans for change was the invention of plastics (1910), polietilen (1933),Kapron. Important inventions were made in medicine. To new drugs andvaccines, including insulin (1922), penicillin (1928). Besides medicinebecome more accessible to the broad layers of population.
Table. The most important scientific and technological achievements ininterwar period
1919 - experimental verification of the theory of relativity Еnshteyna.
1922 - Canada F. Bentinh Dzh.Chedvih and secrete insulin andstart doing so `injections diabetes.
1924 - a successful experiment in clutch the atom.
1926 - established telephone communication between London andNew York on the basisнovi development of radio engineering.
1926 - First flight across the North Pole by airship"Norway" under the direction of R. Amundsen.
1927 May 20-21 - the first nonstop flight across theAtlantic American pilots mean Lindberg.
1928 - England A. Fleming invented pinitsylin.
1929 - round the world German dyrezhablya "Graf Zeppelin".
1929 - Construction of Мoskvi Shabolovskoyi metalевth tower (160 m) forradyaoperedach designed by V. Shukhov.
1930 - opening of the planet Pluto and the aggregateGalaxies.
1931 - Swiss physicist balloon reachesstratosphere.
1932 - beginning of industrial production in the USSRsynthetic rubber.
1933 - In Germany E. Ruska constructed the first electronic microscope.
1934 - Opening spouses Curie artificialradioactivity.
1936 - Start of the first cyclotron in Europe LeningradRadium Institute with І. Kurchatov.
1937 June 18-20 - fly an airplane over the Northpole from the USSR to the USA (V. Chkalov pilots, G. Baydukov, A. Belyakov).
1937 - 21 May 1938, February 21 - work inNorth Ocean Ldovytomu Soviet drifting station underI. Papanina.
1938 - Opening P. Kapitsa nadtykuchosti of liquid gelя.
1938 - American Singular Carlson invented a dry methodan image "(in Greek - copier). In 1946 was firstcommercial version of copy machines.
1939, September 14 - the first helicopter flightprojected I. Sikorsky.
1939 - flying the first jet aircraft that take dosyanspeed 774 km /h (Germany).
1939 - British scientists createRadar station (RLS).
7. Nobel Prize
Thatperpetuate his name in memory of mankind, the Swedish chemist and entrepreneur Alfred Nobel (1833-1896) bequeathedmuch of its heritage charitable foundation. Nobel Prize annuallyawarded the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences and other authoritative institutionsSweden since 1901 Prizes in the fields of physics, chemistry, physiology andmedicine, literature, economics, hand in Stockholm Peace Prize - inOslo on December 10, the day Mr. Nobel's death. At the ceremony are invitedWinner and his family. The winner has to deliver its high-level meetingsNobel lecture.
The uniqueness of the award is determined by what it is from the beginninginternationally. Nobel Foundation - an independent, non-governmentalorganization. The mechanism of selection of winners cruel but effective. Quite highis a monetary reward. At various times its amount ranged from 30 to 200 thousanddollars.
Max Planck (1858-1947) was born inKiel city that belonged to Prussia. He had great musical ability, butschool mathematics teacher opened it a tendency to natural and physical sciences.While studying at the universities of Munich and Berlin, M. Planck chose physicsthough one of its professors argued that there already open anything. M. Planckfascinated by the study of phenomena of heat, mechanical energy and energy conversion.He believed that electromagnetic radiation is not continuousflow and quantity. Their Einstein later called quanta. Thus, laborM. Planck marked the birth of quantum theory. It was a real revolution inphysics. For the discovery of energy quanta scientist 1919 was awardedNobel Prize.
In Germany, M. Planck was presidentBasic Sciences Kaiser Wilhelm. Used his authority todefense scientists are forced to emigrate. Open support of Einstein,outstanding scientist, who chased the Nazis. One of the sons of M. Planck wasexecuted in 1944 for participation in the assassination of Hitler.
Merit scholar highly appreciated. M. Plank was a membermany foreign academies, including the USSR, was elected asA. Einstein, a member of the Scientific Society. Shevchenko, which waspredecessor of the Ukrainian Academy of Sciences. The company, which he headed for war,renamed the Max Planck Society.
Albert Einstein (1879-1955) was born inUlm, and had passed his childhood in Munich. At school he did not likecramming and excessive discipline. Finding ability in mathematics and physics,read a lot yourself. My father wanted to see the son of an engineer, but he atentrance exams in Zurich "failed" and had all the samefinish high school. In Switzerland, Einstein renounced Germancitizenship.
In 1914 its already world-famous person invitedreturn to Germany and lead the Institute of Physics. For services to thetheoretical physics in 1921 Einstein was awarded the NobelPrize. His theory of relativity completely changed the idea of space and time.
In 20-ies Einstein was a committed pacifist. WorldHe regarded as a harmonious whole, like the great and eternal riddle. Hatework in Germany called scientist "Jewish physics" and itsachievement was considered as not meeting the requirements Aryan science.
Einstein learned of Hitler's rise to power, beingabroad. Scientific understood the danger of fascism, sought not to letNazis took possession of nuclear weapons. In the U.S., he was offered a position as professorphysics, and in 1940 granted citizenship.
After the war, Einstein sought free exchangeideas and achievement in science among countries and peoples, stressedscientist responsible for the fate of mankind. Einstein rightly believemost famous scientist of the XX century.
Niels Bohr (1885-1962) was born inCopenhagen. As a child, was an avid soccer player, and later carried away skiingsailing. In his university thesis project received a gold medalDanish Royal Academy. He studied in England in Dzh.Tomsona, which openedelectron, and E. Rutherford - researcher radioactive elements and structureatom. Contemporary physics could not figure out why the electron, while atorbit without losing energy. N. Bohr showed that the electron has a constant orbit andonly change its energy is released. N. Bohr atom model was highlymarked by the world.
Since 1920 the end of life based scientist led himBut the Institute for Theoretical Physics in Copenhagen. Merit in the pre-explorationstructure of atoms and their radiation N. Bohr in 1922 awardedNobel Prize. With him came the development of a new branch of science -quantum mechanics.
N. Bohr did not stay in the occupied Hitler of Denmark, histaken - first to Sweden and then in the aircraft bomb bay - toEngland. More N. Bohr worked at Los Alamos, USA. He played a leading role inof the Manhattan Project - the creation of nuclear weapons.N. Bohr's assistant was his son - Ohe Bor, who in 1975 also becameNobel Prize. N. Bohr tried to persuade the Prime MinisterBritain W. Churchill and U.S. President F. Roosevelt, to be frank withSoviet Union, to establish firm control over the manufacture of weaponsmass destruction. Actively advocated the peaceful use of nuclear energy andbroad international cooperation.
Enrico Fermi (1901-1954) was born inRome. He had outstanding ability in physics and mathematics. -Universityknowledge was in its own. In the 21-year-old earned his doctorate. FoundedItaly's first school of modern physics. After the Nazi dictatorshipE. Fermi left Italy and moved to the USA. In 1938 awarded the NobelPrize in physics for proof of the existence of new radioactive elements anddiscovery of nuclear reactions.
In the U.S., E. Fermi worked on Manhattan Project.The study was strictly classified. The world's first nuclear reactor builtunder the stands of the university football stadium. It is believed that E. Fermiopened the door to the atomic age. He managed to explain the nature of cosmic rays andsource of their high energy. After his death, a new chemical element infermiyem called the periodic table.
Irving Langmuir (1881-1957) was born inNew York. Studied in the U.S. and Germany. Company General Electricgave him an opportunity to do research. I. Langmuir deniedstatement that the glow lamp depends on the vacuum. Filled lampnitrogen, he proved that his lamp burns better, also requires lessamount of energy. I. Langmuir invention brought the company huge profitsGeneral Electric. Later I. Langmuir invented the pump, a hundred timesstronger than those used before. The international recognition as a scholarI. Langmuir won for the discovery and research in the chemistry of surface phenomena. In1932 he was awarded the Nobel Prize.
I. Langmuir Labour had a great impact on chemistry,biology, physics. The scientist coined the term "plasma" for gasformed in the case of strong AC. During the SecondWorld War II developed the apparatus for a smokescreen and methodsprevent icing of aircraft, was interested in ways to control the weather.I. Langmuir loved to repeat that the freedom inherent in democracy is essentialcondition for scientific discovery.
Irene Joliot-Curie (1897-1956) and Frederic Joliot-Curie (1900-1958)born in Paris. Mother Irene - Maria Sk
During the war Frederick was involved in the resistance movement. In1942 joined the French Communist Party. After hearing aboutsinister intentions of the Gestapo, he moved to the illegal situation, and Irene with twochildren moved to Switzerland. After the war, Joliot-Curie couple led an activeresearch and political activities.
Peter Debye (1884-1966) was born inMaastricht in the Netherlands. After ten years of study and researchactivities at universities in Germany went to Switzerland to Einstein. Therehe became professor of theoretical physics.
P. Debye reviewed Einstein's quantum theory in itsaspects, and could significantly expand the knowledge on the relationship between atoms and molecules.In his writings introduced the concept, which was called the "Debye temperature.Displaying formula has enabled him to lead physical properties calculationsSolid - and heat conductivity, heat capacity and so on. In1936 P. Debye received the Nobel Prize in chemistry for his contribution tostudy molecular structure of substances. At that time he has worked inLaboratory of the University of Berlin, read lectures, was member of severalforeign scientific societies and academies of science, including the USSR.
Due to lack of German citizenship P. Debye releasedthe laboratory. He moved to the U.S. to head Department of Chemistry CornellUniversity. Carried him in local laboratory study of complexpolymers have found wide application.
Karl Landsteiner (1868-1943) was born inVienna. He studied medicine, chemistry. In 1923 moved to the United States, subsequently receivedAmerican citizenship. In 1930, awarded the Nobel Prize fordiscovery of human blood. Method K. Landsteiner enabled transfuseblood of one person to another. He studied particularly dangerous disease -polio. With K. Landsteiner opened new areas of research inbacteriology, immunology, successes in practical medicine.
Questions and Tasks
1. Aschanged the role of education after Пershoyi World War?
2.Describe the scientific achievements of 20-30's
3. Whatareas of science most radical changes have occurred and why?
4. Whatchanges have taken place in transport?
5. Aschanges in technology affected the life and quality of life by leading countriesworld?
6. Onbased on additional sources make a story about one of the NobelAward.