§ 36. Latin American Countries
1.Features of economic and political processes in the region
Latin America - that part of the North,Central and South America, which lies south of the border between the U.S. andMexico. The name of this region of the world got through domination and SpanishPortuguese languages, which have been based on ancient Latin.
In Latin America, which gained independence infirst half of the nineteenth century., formed a kind of political relations, a significantlargely inherited from the colonial past.
Dominant position in political life sat differentlatyfundystiv groups - the descendants of Spanish and Portuguesenobles-colonialists who used the work of landless peasants (mainlyIndians) and blacks-slaves (slavery existed in some countries by the endNineteenth century.). Latyfundiyi became centers of these countries.
After independence, these countries? except Brazil (Empire), Was declaredrepublics, the fullness of power in them belonged to the leader, who relied on the army andsome groups latyfundystiv. However, in countries formally keptconstitution, representative bodies, imituvalosya elections.
Dominion latyfundiy determined predominantly agrarian naturedevelopment of these countries. It certainly put them in dependence on industrialdeveloped countries - first Britain, then - as Germany and the U.S., whichprovided the Latin American countries in industrial goods, capital andwere the main markets for their products. Agricultural countriesmonocropping little character. In Argentina dominated the production of meat and grainin Brazil and Colombia - coffee, Cuba - sugar and tobacco, inCentral America countries - tropical fruit, a rationalelast name "banana republic".
The combination of political sovereignty and economic dependencebecame an important feature of the region.
At the end of the nineteenth century. in Latin America begandevelop industry, mainly mining and processingagricultural products focused on markets in Europe, USA and dependentforeign capital.
The First World War are not directly touched by the countryLatin America, but for their development had significant implications. Growthconsumption of agricultural products and raw materials in the Warring Statesled to increased prices for these products. This increased profitsLatin American countries that have been used for industrial development. Incountries formed national capital and the working class which in full voiceclaimed their rights. So to unresolved agrarian issue joinedProblems? characteristic of industrialized countries. The war also led tooffsetting capital of European countries, from which immediately took advantageUSA. After opening in 1914 Panama Canal, which became the propertyU.S., increased political weight and influence of the United States.
An important political event of 1930 was the revolution in Cuba (1933-1934years). As a result of which was overthrown the dictatorship of Machado and held a number ofdemocratic and social reforms, limited the impact of foreign capital,initsyatorom which was Antonio Hiteras. But reforms have not been brought to an end. Incoup Sergeant F. Batista to power in the country right pryyshlm force.However, they did not dare to eliminate the revolution and conquest in 1940 in Cubaadopted a new democratic constitution, enshrined in social yakiybulyguarantees and the need for agrarian reform.
The period 1920-1930 he was affected and several inter-state conflicts, whichwere caused by uncertainty in remote border regions. SuchConflicts broke out between Peru and Ecuador, Peru and Colombia, Peru and Chile, Chileand Bolivia, Paraguay and Bolivia. The most serious armed conflicts havebetween Peru and Colombia - Letisiyska War (1932-1934 biennium), in which Peru has undergonedefeat, and between Bolivia and Paraguay - Chaco War (1928-1929, 1932-1935 biennium)War takes its name from the desert region on the border of two states, which werefound oil. Bolivia, which is carefully prepared for the war and notParaguay was able to overcome, lost oil region and received the Riverway to exit to the Atlantic Ocean.
Paraguayan troops overcome the desertmistsevistv Grand Chaco region
2.Reforms 20-30's The struggle for economic independence
In the 20-30's in Latin America waspopular slogan of strengthening national independence and the effects of otherStates, which prompted the governments of some countries to undertake reforms. Mostradical reform in the first quarter of the twentieth century. was conducted in Argentina andMexico.
Yes, in Argentina Ippolito Irihoyyen president (1916-1922, 1928-1930years) allowedtrade unions, has introduced 8-hour day and two weeks paidvacation. There were land reform, under which farmers peredavalosState Fund of eight million hectares of land and defended the right tenants. But these reformswas interrupted by the coup, General F. Uriburu, who ruled from 1930 to 1932
Gen. F. Uriburu
InMexico as a result of the Revolution 1910-1917 biennium their government-stupylasya newpolitical elite. May 1, 1917 adopted one of the mostat the time of democratic constitutions. It is reinforcing for the nation the right toland and its mineral wealth, obligated to return all the villagers are caught in these lands, andalso provide them with land from the state fund. In addition, each stateustanovlyuvav maximum tenure as surplus and distributed vykupovuvalysamong peasants. The Constitution recognized the rights of trade unions, established and 8-hourworking day. Primary education was compulsory and free. Mexicoproclaimed democratic presidential federal republic.
Another impetus for these changes was the economiccrisis of 1929-1932 biennium It has hit hard the economies of Latin Americancountries. Vpaly revenues from exports. In stores accumulated a significant numberagricultural products that had to destroy, to somehowkeep prices from a sharp fall. This crisis has shown all the dangerpreservation of economic dependence. Started a new growthanti-imperialist movement (largely anti-American andanti-English), which led to a convergence of Latin AmericaGermany and Italy, which rivals the U.S. and Britain. But the main purposeLatin American governments was to find a solution to the predicament.
CountriesLatin America took to industrialization, which was, In their opinion, inability to compensateimports of machinery and equipment from industrialized countries. For their ownlocal capital industry provided all sorts of benefits. The state has startedinvest in industrial development, which led to the emergence of statesector. Attempts to change the structure of exports to minimizeits dependence on only one type of product. Installed controlactivities of foreign capital. In Argentina, Mexico, Bolivia has beennationalized oil industry.
Thus,in Latin America as in Western countries, the crisis led to increasedstate regulation of economy. But the forms of transformation weredifferent. In Brazil, the initiative for reform, the president ZhetulioVargas (1930-1945 biennium). He established a regime of personal power and the first yearssympathized with fascism in his reign, trying to be like allMussolini, but the war changed the views and even sentfight on the side Аntyhitlerivskoyi 30000th coalition building, who participated in combatoperations in Italy.
Over the years of J. Vargas in BrazilIndustrialization took place, introduced protectionist customs taxesexplored and begun operation of natural resources (bauxite, iron ore,nickel, gold). Accustomed new land. In the social sphere, introducedinsurance and labor laws, introduced the 8-hour day, determinedminimum wages, pensions and vacations and more. Significant fundsdirected at development of education and culture.
In Argentina on course importzaminnuIndustrialization zdisnyuvavsya under military dictatorship. However, economicindependence is not achieved, although Argentina and becameagro-industrial country.
In Chile, the government held a similar reform of the Popular Front led byPresident Aguirre angry.
The most profound transformation undertaken in Mexico presidentLazarte Cardenas (1934-1940 biennium). During his reign was ended withlatyfundiy domination, nationalized railroads and the oil industry,became established democracies.
3. U.S. and Latin America
Since the late nineteenth century. Especially after the Spanish-American War, 1898, onLatin America USA shamelessly used the policy of the greatstick "," gunboat diplomacy "and" dollar diplomacy. " American troopsrepeatedly carried out armed aggression against the region. Almost all countriesLatin America felt the presence of U.S. troops.American monopoly shamelessly plundered natural resources (oil, copper,tin, wood toosch). In some countries, political life revolved entirelyaround the representation of some powerful American company. Yes, "Yunaytfruts "completely dominated in Central America. Cuba. Puerto Rico, the U.S. generalfaktchno turned to their colonies.
The arrival of American aid.Picture
Strengthening anti-Western, especially anti-American, sentiment has forced the U.S.CRSryhuvatytheir policies in Latin America. President Roosevelt said that the U.S.conduct a policy of "good neighbor" and not carry outintervention (in 1933 р. U.S. troops withdraw from Nicaragua). USA began to relyInter-American cooperation for development based on equality. This policycontributed to reducing the influence of Germany and Italy in Latin America, createdconditions for the participation of countries in Latin America Дruhiy World War on the side Аntyhitlerivskoyi coalition(19 countries region announcedwar Japan, Italy, Germany and joined the United Nations).Really took part in the war of Brazil and Mexico.
Documents and materials
The six year plan in Mexico, December 1933
Six yearplan becomes a vivid expression of our economic nationalism Which, Being in politicsself-defense must win for ussolid international position on a strong ideological, moral and humane manner, while maintainingeconomic independence.
Must be separated, especially those aspects of the plan, aimed at establishing socialjustice and build a new economy in the field of agriculture,to protect the rights of landlords and new to create a new system of organizedagriculture. These decisions have a specific purpose - to establishprocess of resettlement from city to village.
In order to protect our future generations from the turmoil thatmake it into the consciousness of children in elementary schools, the priests and their agents,six-year plan that ultimately determines the orientation to be followed in primaryeducation, and also suggested measures for this task.
No less important provisions that define the government's action inwork during the shestyrichchya, whichplan covers.
They will be strongly focused on the protection and developmentunionized laborers?
Agriculture and itsdevelopment. Agrarian Question
In this connection, distribution and return of land and water will lastuntil the complete satisfaction of the rural population of the republic of Mexico?
Section I. latyfundiy? Voluntarily or by the ownersthe property, either through expropriation nenasylnu provided thusconstitutional provisions.
II. Redistribution of rural population due to exposurenew agricultural areas, which may be allocated surpluspopulation not received for somereason in the place of previous residence land and water enough tomeet their needs.
The new organization and developmentAgriculture
Making the distribution of land, should seek a better wayincrease agricultural production through the respective branchehidatariyiv (users of public lands .- Red.) And landowners, support better methods of cultivationearth rotation and modern machines, application systemseed breeding, mechanization of field operations through the wider use of the lotto increase productivity and accelerate the work offertilizers, full use of all land in the fruit trade and industry?
AI will take the nationalization of mineral resources.
II. Will set the zone explored mineralminerals; this innovation ensures the needs of the country in the future.
III. The state organizes the exploration of mineral resources?
IV. It will not be admitted buying land; willexpanded area of public lands for oil in order to always have in reservea number of areas of oil that can satisfy demand in our countryfuture.
In addition, you need to trade and industrial activity,who? depleting our natural resources regulated by the state so that during the development ourcountry got the most out of its operating resources? Consequently:
1. Will be allowed foreign companies to buymineral deposits.
2. It will be easier to work Mexican mining enterprisesand given appropriate support miners cooperatives.
3. Will continue to be limited to export enriched ore asthrough the establishment of fees, and encouraging the development of metallurgicalindustry.
4. Will be encouraged to create a centralized and mineslimited production of steel, zavodiv.Rozsiyane state tariffs.
5. State intervene to ensure a balanceeconomic forces in the oil industry, stimulating the nationalenterprises?
6. Measures will be implemented in order that our oil production has reached the extentwhich would be likely to existing deposits.
7. The existing concession regime will change in the direction of reducingfuture areas coveredaction of a concession. Do not be granted a license, contrary tonational interests.
8. Will be prohibited, even if it is profitable, export all theproducts, which after processing will be subject to primary abroadbrought back.
Development in our country requires an independent economy, butthat such attention was paid to industrial and commercial activities, leading to increased nationalproduction or to improve its quality. This activity develops in twomain areas: basic import of capital goods and energy?
Inquiries to document
1. Whattestified to making the plan six years in Mexico?
2. Whatmain provisions were the basis of the plan?
3. Howindustries was given priority in development and why?
Questions and Tasks
1.Verify features of the development of Latin America in the 20-30'sTwentieth century.
2. Whatwere consequences Пershoyi World War for the countries of the region?
3. Whatreform was carried out in 30 years in Mexico, Brazil and Argentina?
4. Whatis the essence of the reforms undertaken in Latin America during this period?
5.What are the causes of economic backwardness in Latin America.
6. Asconsisted of relations between the U.S. and Latin America? Why USAadjusted its policy towards the region in 30 years?