§ 34. Countries of the Middle and Near East
The First World War, the collapse of the Russian and Ottomanled to significant changes in spividnoshenni forces in the Middle East.This situation has decided to use England, the only remaining influence in the region. It seemed thatEngland will be able to realize its long-standing aspiration: to create their continuouscolonies of the Middle to the Far East. This is achievedplanned by the subordination of the Arab possessions of the Ottoman Empire,complete colonization of Iran's control over the former RussianTranscaucasia and Central Asia, and the liquidation of the independence of Afghanistan. But thisplans were not true. England had to face powerfulnational liberation movement and opposition to Soviet Russia and desireU.S. to penetrate the region.
1. Creation of a national Turkish state
Defeatin ПershiWorld War II led to the collapse of the Ottoman Empire. Кobviously offers Аntanty sought a division ofinheritance. England and France, rozchlenuvavshy Arab possession of the Ottoman Empire?wanted to do with their own areas of the Turkish population. Entente countriesshould control the Black Sea straits, the French occupied Cilicia,English - Istanbul, Italy and Greece have landed its troops in Asia Minor (Izmir andAntalya).
In response to that in Turkey there was a movement for conservationintegrity as a nation state. Its head, General Mustafa Kemal.In neokupovaniy part of Turkey in Ankara was convened Majlis -Grand National Assembly. Majlis-formed government and the army began forming.
Sultan Mehmed VІ
Puppet sultan's government signedAugust 10, 1920 countries, withEntente Sevrskyy peace treaty? which affirm the division of the country. Turkey lost allpossession in the Middle East. Greece switched part of the European possessions andIzmir in Asia Minor. On the eastern borders of Turkey formed Armenianstate. At the same surrender of the Turkish regime introduced, effectivelythat turned it into a semi. Kemal government rejected such a treaty. ThenGreek troops with the support of England launched an offensive deep into the country, leading toGreco-Turkish War (1920-1921 biennium).
GreekArtillery conducts fire on Turkish positions
In the face of Soviet Russia, Turkey has found an ally inagainst the Entente. The reason the two countries became closer rejectionthey Versailles system. In March 1921 between two countriessigned a treaty of friendship and brotherhood. According to the agreement have been identifiedSoviet-Turkish border: Turkey gained territory in the Caucasus, whichpreviously belonged to Russia (Kara region), And Armenia, which in this way was dividedand destroyed. Turkey has received financial and military assistance from the RSFSR.
OffensiveTurkish troops. Engraving
In October that year, similarcontract was awarded to the Soviet republics of Transcaucasia, and in January 1922 was signedagreement with the USSR, whose delegation was headed by M. Frunze. The latter helped M. Kemaldevelop a plan for defeating the Greek armies.
In 1922, Turkish troops won the war.Entente was forced to sign a truce with the government of Kemal and it recognize it.Regulations Sevrskoho contract was revised. In 1923 signedLausanne Peace Treaty, under which preserved the territorial integritycountry as a nation state.
Smyrna town set ablazereceding Greek army (1922)
Foreign Policycreated the conditions for stabilization of domestic reform. Turkey wasproclaimed a republic (1923City). Separation of church and state, and the school - fromchurch. Cancelled Caliphate (1924). InVedeno Latin alphabet. All the Turks were obliged to takea surname. Mustafa Kemal Ataturk took the family name - father of the Turks. Inthe country was banned polygamy, public marriage became obligatory. Governmentbegan to support the national industry? focus on developmentimportozaminnyh industries. After the crisis of 30's elements introduced in the countryplanning economy and created the public sector.
Kemal Ataturkwith allies
Until the death of Ataturk in 1938 Turkey has been quitestrong state in the European sense, and Ataturk became the model forNationalists Middle East and Central Asia.
2. Arab world
EndNineteenth century. The Ottoman Empire, Iran and Afghanistan are in the economicdependence of European countries. The Ottoman Empire lost all their NorthAfrican ownership, which becamecolonies of European countries.
The firstresponse to increased dependence on Europe was the emergence panislamizmu -political trend to establish a single Islamic state as a counterweightEuropean expansion. This movement found support among the traditional politicalelites of the region who responded to the painful limitations of their power and opposedany internal changes in the Muslim world.
Someyoung Islamic politicians a way out of backwardness and foreign dependencevbachavsya in creating a strong national state. Such ideas visited incontradiction with the traditional political ideas, when the state was considered notnational and Islamic, which gave the opportunity to co-exist within onestate as a whole conglomerate of nations.
Thomas Edward Lawrence ("LawrenceArabia)
Ideasnationalism undermined the stable situation in the Muslim world. Thisskillfully used the Britons in supporting Arab revolt against OttomanEmpire during Пershoyi World War. Major role in organizing the insurgency has played athe most famous British spies Thomas Edward Lawrence ("LawrenceArabia). Arabsadvocated the creation of their own country. But heealizuvaty Arabs do not desire itlucky. After the war the Arab lands that were part ofOttoman Empire? was divided between France and England. France invadedLebanon and Syria, England established control over Iraq, Palestine andTransiordaniyeyu. Some Arabs of the Arabian peninsula, led by KingIbn Saud gained independence and established a state, which subsequently was namedSaudi Arabia (1932).
Кorolь Ibn Saud
InArab lands UK has produced two formally independentKingdom - Iraq (1930) and Jordan (1932). Itallowed the resettlement of Jews on the territory of Palestine to create theirnational focus, which led to a confrontation with local settlersArabs.
Homeunsuccessful effort to create Arab states gave Arab nationalismanti-French and anti-English orientation. In result in 30-ies, especially whentime ДruhoyiWorld War in this region increased the influence of Germany and Italy.
3. The Palestinian problem
The ideacreating a national center of Jewish Austrian journalist suggestedTheodor Herzl in the mid-nineteenth century. At the congress of the Zionist movement in Basel(Switzerland) 1897 This idea has received the feasibility study. It was decided to createJewish state in Palestine. In this area 25 thousand km2 expectedresettle 10 million Jews around the world. At first Zionists offeredTurkish sultan, under the rule which was in Palestine, to sell theseterritories, but he refused. Nevertheless, the Jewish population began secretresettlement in Palestine? which created closed communities which were naturaleconomy.
During Пershoyi World War sultan resorted to eviction of Jewishpopulation, accusing him of loyalty to the Entente. At the final stageWar in 1917 England and France declared Foxtail declaration in whichdealt with the return of Jews to their historic homeland and the rightcreate a national center in Palestine. This declaration ushered in the newwave of migration.
RacingBritish troops demrnstratsiyi Arabs
In Palestine were establishedJewish political and military organization. In 1922, England has received fromLeague of Nations mandate of Palestine. It immediately caused a revoltBritish and Arabs against Jews. At that time, Jews accounted for 18% of the populationPalestine. Although the rebellion was suppressed tension in relations between Arabic andevreyskoyu community and the colonial administration remained.
PoleneniArab insurgents during convoy British officer
By the end of 30's England contributed to the resettlement of Jews.When the ratio of Jewish and Arab population was threatening tostability of the English colonial empire, Britain banned the move.However, in Jewish political circles already firmly established the idea of establishing itsstate. In Palestine the Jewish created "shadow" policystructures - government, local authorities, armed groups. Under favorable conditionsthey had to declare state of Israel.
Arabs strongly opposed the creation of a JewishStates that intensified inter-ethnic fighting in Palestine.
4. Iran in the interwar period
The First World War and Revolution in Russia zachypyly Iran.Trying to prevent the rise of national liberation movement and distributionhim to India and finally zakabalyty Iran and turn it into a bridgeheadfor armed intervention against Soviet Russia, у 1918British began the occupation of the whole Iran, invaded Baku (Azerbaijan) and Central Asia.
In Tehran was established proanhliyskyy led government VosuhomED-Dohme. Having violated the constitution, without the Majlis he signed the Anglo-Iranianagreement which gave control of the British advisers and instructors Iranarmy, finance, road construction, foreign trade and other areassocio-economic life of Iran's.
Englishresorted to immediately implement the agreement. Iranian finances were subordinatedEnglish financial adviser E. Smith. British officers and instructorsthe household in the Iranian army. Anglo-Iranian Customs Convention providedlow rates for British goods and prohibited trade with the SovietRussia. With the country selling the contaminated food, resulting in higher food prices.
Hardcontrol was established over the socio-political and economic lifecountry. Any opposition to the agreements concluded prydushuvalysya force.
Occupationsparked anti-English movement. Especially, he turned to the north. 7April 1920 in Tabriz (Iranian Azerbaijan) rebellion brokeshahskoyi against the government and English, which is led by the leader of Azerbaijanautonomists Sheikh Hiabani. He opposed the Anglo-Iranian bonded agreementsrequired the strengthening of national independence, declaration of a republic of Iran,democratic reform and autonomy for Azerbaijan. The rebels capturedpower in Tabriz and other cities and districts of Iranian Azerbaijan. In September1920 rebellion was suppressed by British troops and shahskymy. SheikhHiabani and many of his supporters were killed.
In another northern province of Iran - Gilan 5June 1920 there wereHilyansku proclaimed a republic and a provisional revolutionary government headed byTunb-khan. ToIt included representatives of various political movements and social groups -landowners, nationalists, democrats, communists. The tension between members of the government andrespectively, between the political forces they represent, have causedinternal weakness of the republic. Head of government Tunb Khan rejected the agrarianreform, which pushed the Communists and representatives of national minoritiesKurds in particular.
Proanhliyska policy was defeated, and the government VosuhaED-Dohme resigned.
In a country dominated disorder. Shah could not bring itelementary procedure: in the north sought to communists in the southhazyaynuvaly English, people suffered from gangs of looters? armedgroups of nomads.
In such a situation, when the stake was the existencestate, the son of peasants, the Persian Cossack officer Reza Khan led the campaignfour thousandth detachment of Cossacks in Iranian capital Tehran. In fact, it wascoup. In February, 1921 at the request of the rebels werecreated a new government in which Reza Khan was appointed War Minister.Three months later he was removed from power Prime Minister and sent him from the country.All power ended up in the hands of Reza Khan, who was standing behind him is true CossackDivision.
Reza Khanmade a sharp turn in foreign policy the country: was eliminated politicaldependence on Britain. He forced her to withdraw its troops from Iran.At the same time it established relations with Soviet Russia (Treaty 1921).
Reza Khanruthlessly rebel movement and gave лаe in the country. Shah in thissituation has become a symbolic figure. His fate was decided. In1922 there was the National Bloc, which became the backbone of Reza Khan. Reza Khan had madehis appointment as prime minister. In the elections to the Majlis, and enlistingRepublicans support his unit received a majority.
Reza Shah Pehlevi
In1925 Majlis military pressure Reza Khan appointed supremeChief of unlimited authority. Majlis decidedresignation Kadzharskoyi dynasty and the transfer of temporary power-Reza Khan, andalso to convene a Constituent Assembly that would determine the shape of the stategovernment in Iran. December 12, 1925 elected prime minister of the fansConstituent Assembly proclaimed Reza Khan Crown Shah of Iran under the nameReza Shah-Pehlevi. Iran established a new dynasty.
Events in Iran 1919-1922 biennium can be estimated asnational revolution, whose main task was the elimination napivkolonialnoyidependence, preserving the unity of the country and modernize it.
Reza-shah based on the experience of Turkey andAmerican advisers, Began carrying out reforms aimed at modernizing the country. Financialreforms were provided profits from oil sales. The background of economicindependence the country had become industrialization.
In20-30's Iran conducted some reforms in the fields of culture andLife, introduced secular schools, a small number of female schools, openuniversities in Tehran and Agricultural Institute in Keredzhi. In1935 issued a decree on compulsory withdrawal of the veil, introducedEuropean dress, lush feudal titles replace names. ImpactClergy in the social and political life was limited, was heldcalendar reform - instead of months it became the official solar calendarzaprovadzhuvavsya Gregorian calendar).
At the same time prydushuvalysya any statements of opposition,peasant uprising.
In foreign policy in 30 years Reza-shah went intorapprochement with Germany, trying to find in contrast to the USSR and the UK.
In 1937 Iran signed conceived with anti-Sovietto Sadabadskyy pact, 1938 refused to conclude a new tradeagreement with the USSR, which led to almost complete cessation of Soviet-Iraniantrade, which amounted to almost 40% of Iran's foreign trade turnover.Iranian territory as a base for its aggressive plansGermany tried to use.
5. Gaining independence Afghanistan
Promotion of English in Iran and Central Asia (1918)created, in their opinion, the conditions to eliminate the independence of Afghanistan (twoprevious war with Afghanistan in the second half of the nineteenth century. Britons lost).
The British used the ruling regime in Afghanistan EmirHabibully to suppress anti-Performing? and to supportanti-Soviet forces in Central Asia. Proanhliyska policy regime Habibullycaused deep resentment in the country. In opposition to this policy wereleaders who supported the idea molodoafhanski (modernization of the country), and somerepresentatives of influential conservative orientation. With the recent sentiments weresolidarity and called staroafhantsi who advocated limiting foreigninfluence under the banner of "protection of Muslim antiquities, preventingany changes. Opposition sentiment intensified in conditions of increasing economicdifficulties associated with worsening conditions for the Afghan foreign trade.Reduction of customs revenue authorities tried to compensate for the introduction of the Emirnew taxes, which worsened the situation of the population. The sharp discontent in the armycaused a reduction of paid officers and soldiers.
In January 1919, Emir Habibulla conspirators killed. Afterbrief skirmish contenders for the throne of power to get one of the childrenHabibully - Amanulla-khan, closely related to the movement and molodoafhantsivsupported by the population of Kabul and the army. Taking on the throne? Amanulla triedachieve independence and make some internal reforms.
IntrusionBritish troops in Afghanistan
February 28, 1919 Amanulla Khan declared the independence ofAfghanistan. It raised wages to soldiers on duty is prohibited redeemstate taxes? abolished internal customs. The power of the new emir wasrecognized all over the country.
The Afghan government asked the British authorities in Indiaproposal to revise the Anglo-Afghan relations based on equalityparties. The answer? which came only after eighteen months, contained a factualrequirements of the terms used usurious contracts. Activities of colonialauthorities in India indicated that England is preparing a war against Afghanistan.
In this crucial period of its fully uncoveredvalues are qualitatively new conditions, which was the National Liberationfighting in Afghanistan. Soviet Russia supported the struggle and the first announcedrecognition of the sovereignty of Afghanistan.
In May 1919 Britain unleashed war of aggressionagainst Afghanistan. With numerical superiority and better technicalprovision aggressors invaded the territory of Afghanistan, trying totake the offensive on Kabul.
The Afghan army has put up stubborn resistance to the aggressor. ActiveAfghan troops provided support Pashtun tribes? residing atIndo-Afghan border. They revolted against the Britishcolonizers and carried out raids into the territory of India.
So England had to go for a truce, August 8,1919 sign in Rawalpindi Anglo-Afghan preliminary peace treaty,in the annex to which recognized the independence of Afghanistan. After signingSoviet-Afghan agreement in 1921 England signed a final peace agreementand established diplomatic relations with Afghanistan. Expanding its internationalties, Afghanistan established diplomatic relations with other nationsEurope and Asia.
Treaty of Friendship was signed between Afghanistan andneighboring Iran (1921 and 1927)? Turkey (1921 and 1928). In1926 Amanulla took the title of Sultan (King).
King Amanulla began implementing reforms? aimed atmodernize the country. This provoked strong opposition from the clergy and triballeaders. Opposition troops captured Kabul and forced to renounce the throne Amanullu. Butin October 1929 their leader was overthrown? and King Nadir-Shah was elected?Amanully cousin. In 1931 Nadir Shah accepted the constitution? whichreinforcing the country's ruling regime. In 1933 power transferred toZakir-shah. He continued moderate domestic and foreign policy.
Documents and materials
The law on labor. Istanbul, July 8, 1936
Article 35. Normal week contains 48 hours basis. Thisperiod is divided into working days so as to not exceed 9 hoursworking days for companies that must be closed at 13 o'clock inSaturday, and 8-hour day, in enterprises where the work is allowed on Saturday after13-hour ...
Article 42. Set 1 / 2 hours for restworking 8 hours and 1 hour for working over 8 hours.
Article 48. Do not operate more 8 hours children who are under 16 years despite the nature of work.
Article 72. Strikes and lockouts are prohibited.
1) Each of the workers, that begins to strike ... awarded to a small fine of 10 to100 Turkish liras.
2) If the strike was organized to do or influencepressure on the decision of the institution and state, denouncing those responsible to jailavailable from two months to two years and prohibited them from one workmonth to one year in public institutions and enterprises of generalgood.
Inquiries to document
1. Whatsocial guarantees contained in this law?
2. WhyTurkey was banned strike?
The Constitution of Afghanistan. 1931
Article 1. Religion of Afghanistan is the sacred religion of Islam?
Article 2. High Afghan government has fullindependence in the management of its internal and external affairs. All areasand all parts of the country are a unit under the supreme power and controlSultan.
Article 5. Appreciating his sacrifice and meritsMajesty Mohammad Nadir in Gaza to the independence, savingAfghan homeland, roztroschennya foundations oppression and despotism, all Afghannation recognizes its high person as Sultan - a genuine and decent mediaKoro-livskoyi power and undertakesrecognize him in this qualityflagship gratitude and respect.
General rights of Afghansubjects
Article 11. Personal freedom is provided from allattacks, no one can be arrested or punished otherwise, on the basis of regulations and laws of Shariah.Any kind of slavery is prohibited.
Article 27. House of the National Council set up underdecision and the will of His Majesty and approval Jirga, which met in Kabul(Vseafhanskoho court) in the year 1309 (1930).
Article 30. The number of representatives in the National Councilestablished by the provisions of the election.
Article 31. The term of office for all members of the HouseConvocations is three years.
Article 68. Adoption laws are bothChambers - National Council and the Chamber notable. ProposalsDid you arrive ministers made to this Chamber and after review, study andapproval by majority vote to the House passed the National Council for theirapproval. Turn, the proposals approved by the NCAA, shall bereview and approval of the Chamber notable.
Inquiries to document
1. Accordingthe document specify the form of government in Afghanistan.
2. Whatwas caused by a constitution of the country?
Questions and Tasks
1. Asthere was the creation of the national Turkish state?
2. GiveK. assessment of Ataturk.
3. Whenoriginated the idea of creating a Jewish state and how it vtilyuvalas in life?
4. Whatvalues to create a Jewish state was the declaration Foxtail?
5. Whatis the essence of the Palestinian problem?
6. Giveexplanation of such a notion: Pan-Islamism, Arab nationalism, Zionism.
7. Howway related Arab nationalism and the need to modernize all brancheslife in Arab countries?
8.Describe the events in Iran in the 1919-1922 biennium How Reza Khanestablished its authority?
9.Compare domestic and foreign policies of Iran before and after the advent of Reza Khan topower.
10. Aswhy there was a struggle for influence in Iran between the great powers?
11. Whatdriven by the deployment of the Afghan people fight for independence?
12. Whatcauses and consequences of the Anglo-Afghan War in 1919?
13. Whichinfluence events in Russia had on the development of the national liberation movement inAfghanistan, Iran?
Note the dates:
1917- Declaration Foxtail.
1919- Proclamationindependence of Afghanistan.
1922- Provision of mandatesEngland and France to Arab ownership of the Ottoman Empire.
1924- ProclamationTurkish republic.
1925-1941 biennium- Board in IranShah Reza Pehlevi.
1930- Proclamationindependence of Iraq.
1932- CreationSaudi Arabia, the independence of Jordan.