§ 33. Southeast Asia
In the early twentieth century. Southeast Asiawere dependent on Britain, France and Holland. To keepthese areas in each of them has been established specific methods of government: fromProtectorate to the political dispossession of territories.
The First World War gave impetus to the creation of nationaleconomies and, consequently, the formation of national capital and laborclass. Transforming the existing structures of society has caused the emergence of newconflicts between labor and capital between domestic capital and capitalmetropolitan countries, the decline of traditional elites.
On a new plane turned stage of national liberationmovement with national political parties? seeking to overcomeretardation through conquest of national independence andmodernization.
Indonesia (Dutch Indies) - This is a country locatedof 13 750 islands. They live many people who profess differentreligion, but Islam was dominant (90%). The most developed island of Java wereand Sumatra.
Compared to other colonies in Indonesia did not existharsh colonial regime. The Netherlands without any problems kept thisterritory due to lack of territorial and national unity.
Colonial state obumovlyuvav unilateral developmentIndonesian economy. On the territory of Indonesia was not a big industry?except mining. The main occupation of the rural population remainedeconomy. The bulk of small enterprises and commerce was in the handsChinese immigrants huatsyao.
During Пershoyi World War demand for Indonesian products -petroleum, tin, rubber, sugar, tobacco, copra, coffee has increased. This contributedraising agriculture, mining and processing industries.
After Пershoyi World Warcolonizers made some changes to the management of the colony, to zaluchyishyher of the local elite. In 1918 they created the People's Council(Folksrat) - something like a parliament. Some members intendedgovernor-general, others were elected by voters representing Dutchbureaucracy and top Indonesian society. Features of this conwell have been purely advisory. In1922 New constitution proclaimed Netherlands Niderlandsku India"An equal part of the empire." However, equalityI spreadonly the colonizers. This gave impetus to the struggle for equality`is. Turnedmassive strike movement. Head of Transport arrest union Semauka a signalbefore the first general strike in Indonesia Railway. Active participationin organizing protests were most numerous organization "Union of Islam" andformed in 1921, the Communist Party of Indonesia.
Liberalismpower is gone. There are laws that prohibit strikes,lots of meetings and rallies. Planter created paramilitaryof the suppressed statements of villagers. The colonial administration was preparingban the Communist Party of Indonesia. It was defeated publishing bodies KPI.Party moved to a semi-legal status, and its leaders have taken a course for armedanti-colonial uprising.
Considerableimpact on the preparation of the uprising were revolutionary developments in China 1925-1927 bienniumUprising began on the night of November 13, 1926 in the capital of Indonesia, Batavia (Джakarta) and other citieso.Yava. but within a month rebellion was suppressed. On the night of January 2, 1927o.Sumatra began the revolt, although it was suppressed.
Revoltwere defeated ago? that it was not sufficiently prepared or in the political,not in organizational aspect. In the absence of unified leadership of the uprisingwas the local natural and the different performances in time to facilitate itssuppression. However, it showed people that the colonial regime is not eternal.
Hystkisttheir situation and feel the colonizers. Authorities lifted hard for peasantspoll tax, expanded the Indonesian representative (25 of 61) andfolksratu powers. He earned the right to approve the budget and makepytytsiyi to the Dutch king. Governor-General made a promise notpursue national alliances.
Afterrebellion to the fore in the national liberation struggleare national-revolutionary party, which had their roots invarious "research club" traditions of the past and Indonesians. Based on these"Clubs" of young people and intellectuals in 1927 created the National Party of Indonesia(NPI), headed by Sukarno. It demands the overthrow of colonialism combined withsprvedlyvoho plans of forming a new society.
Theoreticalbasis NPI was developed Sukarno marhayenizm - simple ideologyrights, it combined elements of socialist populism and sen Suntactics of nonviolent action Gandhi. One of the mainнciples was marhayenizmuprinciple of unity of all forces of anti-regardless of ethnic and religiousaccessories. Marhayenizm included the three concepts: hoton hraynh -cooperation and mutual understanding, mushavarah - joint discussion mufanat -compromise.
Bylivonatsionalistychni party were women and youth unions. In Congresslast in 1928 under the influence of Sukarno was made public "oathYouth, in which Indonesian language, homeland and nation declareduniform for the entire population of the archipelago. This testified to the formationIndonesian nation? growth of national consciousness.
Crisis1929-1933, significantly worsened the situation of Indonesia. Exports fell by 59%.Increased unemployment. Mass destruction of the peasants. The colonial administration inthese conditions only turbuvalas bywelfare Dutch Indonesians nepereymayuchys needs. At the same time toIndonesia began massive expansion of cheap Japanese goods (they took32% of the market), which further aggravated the situationAnd so weak localEconomy.Mass destruction of local manufacturers, the Netherlands has to losemarket control of the colony. To protect ourself Gollancz, startedprogram "industrialization" of the prison that had become, and opposition to the JapaneseU.S. products. However, the "industrialization" has not acquired significant proportions.
InIn 1932-1933 found that colonizers can no longer rely oncolonial army and navy. Mass actionprotest caused the crisis roiling and colonial troops. In 1933, brokeuprising on the battleship seven provinces, which together participated as Dutch,and Indonesian sailors.
Simultaneouslybecome stricter prosecution of national unions. They were not allowedengage employees, their rallies banned by police. In 1930 occurredlegal harassment NPI leaders who claimed to dissolve the party. Butlivonatsionalistychna propaganda continued. August 1, 1933 powerSukarno was arrested, and after him and other leaders of the nationalistorganizations. All were arrested without trial evicted in remote areas of Indonesia.However, anti-colonial movement was not vchuhav it every year and gaining strengthunity.
In1939 The political union was established in Indonesia, which was thefederation of all leading political parties. It stood for unity of action instruggle for democratic reform, sought election to parliament and the formationresponsible to his government and announced that they are ready to join forcespolitical parties with the Dutch government against the threat of attack from Japan.
Inatmosphere approaching military conflict colonial authorities intensified repressionagainst the national movement, whose leaders have begun to direct views to Japan.
Vietnamconquered by France in the second half of the nineteenth century. the end Пershoyi World War togetherwith Cambodia and Laos was part of Indochina Union -French colonial possessions in Southeast Asia. During the Frenchcolonial Vietnam was divided in differentpolitico-administrative rights: Central and Northern Vietnam have modeprotectorates, led by French residents, South Vietnam was consideredcolony, headed by the governor. Residents and governor, in turn,obey the governor-general of all of Indochina. Vietnam monarchyrepresented dynasty Nguyen retained national power only inCentral and North Vietnam.
Legalv'yetnamtsiv special status was determined for the native code that you enterFrench colonizers. Based on this code v'yetnamtsiv deniedbasic civil rights: the right of free movement of the country, lawinviolability of dwelling. They were subject to arrest and detention without trial andinvestigation of suspect in threat to security. " Vietnameses notauthorized for higher positions in the colonial administrative apparatus andCommunity Services etc..
EconomicFrench colonization of Vietnam's capital, started in the second halfNineteenth century., And continued during Пershoyi World War, although its flow while significantlyslowed down. The French capital is quite firmly entrenched in the miningminerals processing industry, penetrated into the ruraleconomy.
Onearly 20-ies in French postwar economic boomcolonialists resorted to the expanded exploitation of human and natural resourcesVietnam. By country rynuv flow of French investments. The lands from whichzhanyalysya nationality purposes, a rapid pace created by French plantationrubber, tea and coffee. French business has been developing rapidly inmining and manufacturing industries.
Despitedevelopment of market relations and involvement in Vietnam into the global market, more than 94%population were forced to work in agriculture, where all weresubsistence agriculture. The farmers, mostly small diagnostic, paid for theirsometimes up to 7 sites0% Yield.
Important for Vietnam wasrevolutionary movement underway in neighboring China.
Infirst half of the 20-ies liberation movement in Vietnam was held undernational and democratic slogans. Socio-economic developments,that have occurred in the country before and after Пershoyi World War, led to changes in drivingforces and forms of liberation struggle. Center v'yetnamskoho political movementmoved to the cities. There are new social and political forces -entrepreneurs and salaried workers.
Inpolitical movement has played an active role radically adjusted youth. Nationalistpolityzuvavsya movement. One after another began to appear v'yetnamski political partiesand communities, saw a series of newspapers that criticized the Frenchcolonial regime and the requirements of democratic freedoms. Radical left wing inmovement represented ПArtie's new Vietnam ПArtie youth and others. On the right flank was Кonstytutsiyna party thatVietnam put forward demands of Dominion status, equality of French andv'yetnamtsiv in representative institutions, democratic freedoms. Its supportVietnam and the traditional elite в`yetnamski entrepreneurs County`associated with the French capital. National PartyVietnam, the program which had great influence people's principles sen Sun,was a radical nationalist party.
In20-ies Vietnam infiltrated into Marxism, which had the effect of originCommunist movement. It is becoming a big role played by FrenchCommunist Party, which paid great attention to work among the peopleFrench colonies. Known all over the world in the future Ho Chi Minh was one ofactive members of the PCF and participated in its first congress. Thanks a bunchPCF with some v'yetnamski revolutionaries went to Moscow to study inCommunist Labor University East.
In 1925 Ho Chi Minh set up in China firstv'yetnamsku of the Communist direction - Revolutionary SocietyVietnam youth. The company soon began systematically amongv'yetnamskoho proletariat and Marxist propaganda in Vietnam. Under the influenceof the company passed to the propaganda of Marxism as ПArtie's new Vietnam.In the late 20's there were several communist groups in 1930united to bring in the Communist PartyVietnam. Soon she was called by the Communist Party of Indochina(KPIK).
Ho Chi Minh
1930-1931 bienniumwere sometimes rising revolutionary movement in Vietnam, caused by economiccrisis of 1929-1933, The crisis has deeply affected the economy of Vietnam, closelyassociated with a world market. It led to the collapse of almost all sectorsproduction, mass dismissal of workers, destruction of thousands of peasantfarms.
Beginningrevolutionary movement laid anti-French uprising yenbayskoho Garrisonin North Vietnam, a number of armed appearances in the Red River Delta and Hanoiorganized by the National Party of Vietnam (NSW). That party? advocatingnational revolution, failed to develop social programs to attract trafficpeople on their side. Her tactic was based on the methods of individual terror andrevolts. Therefore yenbayske uprising (1930-1931 biennium), despite his heroismparticipants were defeated, and the NSW practically ceased to exist.
Anti-colonial movement led the Communist Party of Indochina. Adoptedprogram put her political priorities include: the distribution of land betweenpeasants, the abolition of the colonial regime and gain independence.
On the political situation in Vietnam before Дruhoyi World War largeinfluenced victory in 1936 Popular Front in France.
Byactive participation of Communists in Vietnam emerged a movement for the convening of IndochinaCongress to develop national requirements for the French government. Movementhelped unite the various segments of the population in the united front. In 1937 byproposal KPIK Democratic Front was created, which togethercommunist legal groups, Indo-Chinese section of the Socialist PartyFrance, the legal mass organizations of workers, intellectuals, smalltraders.
Due to the general democratic movement in Vietnam and FranceVietnamese people in those years had some success. Democratic Front couldhold their elected representatives to advisory bodies and the NorthernCentral Vietnam and all of Indochina. Through the activities of DB has been madegradual reduction of working hours to 8 hours, set a weekly dayrecreation, prohibited night work for women and children.
Thus, in Vietnam, as in other countries that were incolonial dependence, the national liberation movement entered a new phasestruggle. Dominant role in it won power pro.
Documents and materials
Sukarno's speech before the court of Dutch colonizers.1930
"National Party of Indonesia sees imperialisminherent beliefs that are contrary to our, she sees imperialismuse their political power to protect their interests, so she saysthat we can truly resist imperialism, we can get ridit if we take political power inhands, we can reconstructour society and make it perfect, if we are free and because it encourages people of Indonesiapursue this voli.Natsionalna Party of Indonesia is a party of resistance, the partyopposition. NPI is a revolutionary party as it seeks to make as soon as possible a radical transformation. IdealNPI is a strong broad mass movement, mass action which will be attended by thousands, tens of thousands, millions of people. "
Questions to document
Findaims and methods of the National Party of Indonesia.
Questions and Tasks
1. Whatsocial strata were carriers of ideas of national liberation movements of peoplesSoutheast Asia after Пershoyi World War?
2.Discover the similarities inherent in the economic development of countriesSouth-East Asia.
3.Name the peculiarities of the national liberation movement in Indonesia.
4. WhatSukarno role played in the national liberation struggle?
5. Asdeveloping national-liberation movement in Vietnam?
6. Why does the national liberation movement was dedicated to Indochinapro-communist forces?
7. What impact had the revolution in China for developmentnational liberation struggle in South East Asia?
Note the dates:
1922- ProclamationNetherlands India "an equal part of the empire."
1927- CreationNational Party of Indonesia.
1930 - 1931 рр. - Enbayske uprising in Communication inVietnam.