§ 31. China
1. National-liberation struggle. "May 4th Movement"
China with its population of many millions and history ofThere are several thousand years, painfully perceived the establishment of the Europeandomination. Because the Chinese have traditionally regarded their country as the center of the universe,Celestial Empire, vassals, and surrounded by barbarians. The stronger was the shock?experienced after the Chinese defeat not only of Europeans but also from Japan.The Chinese government started to fall apart quickly, and imperial powerConfucian ethics were discredited. Spread among the Chineseconvinced of the need for internal transformation of Chinese society,without which the integrity and independence of China is impossible.
In1912 Sinhayskoyi China after the revolution was proclaimed a republic. Inestablished a National People's Party Homindan, which set aaim - to transform China's strong national government in a parliamentaryRepublic. Moral leader of the party was sen Sun, who expressed his party's goalPeople in three principles: nationalism, democracy and prosperity.
The real power after the dissolution of the imperial power passed to localmilitary groups (militaristiv.) that do not obey the central government. Each of the local rulersmaintained its own army and carried out all power. China split up into separatewarring parts. The Beijing governmentled by Duan Tsyzhunom controlled a small part of the territory in the north.Central China controlled the marshal in Peyfu. South formed a truemosaic rulers. Tibet and Xinjiang are virtually independent. Dо Moreover, the country remaineddivided between the great powers - Britain, France, Japan, USA.
In1919 at the Paris Peace Conference it was decided to transferShandong Peninsula of Japan, whose troops occupied the area during Пershoyi World War. Itdecision caused a wave of discontent in China. The constant drive to expandanti-imperialist, national liberation struggle. Students started the fight Beijing. 4May 1919 They went on demonstrations and meetings with government requirementsturn the peninsula free of proyaponskylashtovabureaucracies and announce boycottJapanese goods.
Policebroke up the demonstrators and arrested their leaders. The next day, and ralliesdemonstrations continued. Students joined students to high schools andthen the workers and artisans Shanghai. Motion supported by Chinese entrepreneurs andindustrialists. It lasted over two months and ended because the government went tosome concessions: it was removed from office proyaponskyh officials dismissedarrested students, the Chinese delegation did not sign the Versailles Peace.
Demonstration students during"May 4th Movement"
The movement, called "May 4th Movement", led to an increasenational identity, the formation of political parties and organizations of the leftdirection that favored the unification of the country, the release of foreignof dominance and social reforms. He waves spread and succeed in the fight"New culture", including introduction to literature, language, close tohousehold. It was possible to obtain education to many millions of Chinese. Movementled to the radicalization of the national liberation movement.
In1921 established Chinese Communist Party (CCP), seeing inRevolution, the only way to resuscitate the country. Its founder, BeijingProfessor Lee Dachzhao. It quickly became an influential force CCP cities in China.
2. National revolution 1925-1927 biennium On`unification of China
Outstandingevent on the way to restore national unity and sovereignty of China wereEvents 1925-1927 biennium, largely inspired by (orhanzovani, provoked)USSR.
On the evethese events in China were three influential forces that fought for power:government official in Beijing, Homindan led by Dr. Sun Yet Sin and PDAs. In addition, theyhad to fight against the militaristic factions (Localrulers who usurped power)As well as the colonizers.
In1921 Red Army of Soviet Russia, counteracting the Japanese aggressionFar East and battling against the anti-Bolshevik forces, Captured the territoryExternal Mongolia. It was declared a National Republic of Mongolia.An argument with the Chinese government, whichважав цю territory part of China.
In1922 to China has left the Soviet diplomatic mission. It was agreedquestion of relations with the government official in Beijing, and also simultaneouslyHomindan support in the struggle for power, the center is located in Canton.The Soviet government considered it Homindan toyu force based on thatpossible to realize the idea of world revolution in Asia.
Afterfailure of negotiations in Beijing, the Soviet mission went to Canton, wheresigned an agreement with Sunni sen. The agreement included the establishment of independent, butbased on the Soviet Union for leadership Homindanu? China. SovietRussia obliged to provide financial and military support in Homindanovistruggle for power. For this purpose, China has been assigned a group of militaryheaded by V. Blyukhera representative of the Comintern and M. Borodin, who for someyears played a key role in relations between the CPC and Homindanom.
Meanwhile, the USSR, Twin playing game, has signed an agreement withBeijing government on the mutual recognition and preservation of control by the USSR overChinese-Eastern Railway (KVZHD) External and Mongolia.
On the recommendation of the Comintern in 1923 in Guangzhou (SouthChina) was formed government ofHomindanu representatives and PDAs. It was a joint army. The Communists werewith Homindanom. Sunni government headed sen. But on the eve of the revolutionEvents 1925 he died.
Anti-imperialistdemonstration in Shanghai, "May 30 Movement"
The impetus for the revolutionary events wasBritish police shot Textilshik peaceful demonstration in ShanghaiHeld under the theme exile colonizers. May 30, 1925 a signprotests erupted in Shanghai uprising, supported by all sectors of society("May 30 Movement"). A powerful strike movement, covering 500 thousandCity workers took place under the slogan: "Cast out devils Overseas!.
It was a spontaneous patriotic enthusiasm, which gave impetusinitial national revolution.
The aim of the revolution:
· restore the sovereignty of China;
· elimination of militaristic groups;
· socio-economic transformationwith the aim of modernizing China.
The peculiarity of the national revolution in China was that inIt intertwined struggle with the imperialist powers, performance of varioussectors of the population for their rights, acute power struggle and peasant war.
The Government announced in Guangzhou and started a national strugglea unification of China. Chief of Army Homindanu was Chiang Kai-shek. InOctober-December 1925 troops under his command took possession of the provinceGuangdong, which strengthened the base of the revolutionary movement. In July 1926 his armyNorth started the march, a plan developed by the Soviet advisor Blyukhera.
Becausecombat troops Chiang Kai-shek in autumn 1926 Wuhan was in February1927 - Nanjing, in March of that year - Shanghai. Aftercapture Nanjing Chiang Kai-shek moved the capital there and created a national governmentwhich received support from some militaristic factions North. He andhis supporters believed that the goal has been achieved and should undertake to reformingactivity. However, the CCP insisted that the revolution must continue and becomethe path of socialist construction. In the revolutionary camp split.
Host ChanKai Shek come in Nanjing
Chiang Kai-shek, who had authority, but tyazhyvsya alliance with the CCP thatpuppet of the Soviet Union did it, resorted to drastic action. In April 1927 heorganized mass executions of communists in Shanghai, that is revolutionary,setting personal power.
Through these actions Chiang Kai-shek was able to unite China under hisauthorities. Trying Communist uprising in Nanhuni failed. Afterof diplomatic relations between the USSR and China has been disconnected. PDA on the pathguerrilla struggle against Homindanu. Outbreak of civil war, which ofintermittently continued until the early 50 th century.
3. Internal and External Homindanu policy
End1928 The Central Executive Committee adopted a formal decision Homindanuthe completion of the military phase of the revolution and the beginning of political transformation.Dostupyvshys to power? Homindan center of its socio-economic policymade to further strengthen the state economy. The government took under itscontrol of the country's financial system - banks? insurance companies? taxand custom on-e-circulation? created a mechanism of state control over the systemplanning economic development. However, state and private sector contributedinvestments. Remained dominant public sector? that was in the spirit of Chinesetraditions and trends of world development. Such an economic policy? by restrictionbenefits of foreign capital? contributed to the development of local capital andrespectively? diminishment of China.
Preparing Army Chiang Kai-shekAmerican instructors
Homindanivski leaders adopted labor laws? createdsystem of official government trade unions? have established minimumwages. It was also a number of other laws? that guarantee certaincivil rights? especially property rights? which helped to increase privateentrepreneurship. In 1930, Agrarian law was passed. He limited theamount of rent? set the boundaries of land holdings? protected rightstenants. This law was designed to extinguish the social conflicts in the village.Significant reform has had no effect? Although ensured relative stability.
During homindanivskoho rule in China dominatedChinese system of management? where the state supreme performedowner and senior government officials.
The mainforeign policy goals Homindan considered abolition of unequal treaties withgreat powers. Already in 1928 nankinskyy government announced the reopening ofCustoms Authority. At the same time was eliminated internal customs barriers. ThroughBargaining in China was given 20 out of 33 concessions. But all attempts to getforeign loans for the reconstruction of the country ended in collapse. Began evenoutflow of foreign capital from the country.
Foreign policyChina's situation further deteriorated after Japanese aggression in Manchuria. Allefforts of the Chinese leadership to get assistance from the West in the fightagainst Japan were unsuccessful. Then Chiang Kai-shek in 1935-1936 biennium againenlisted the help of the USSR.
4. A confrontation between the CCP and Homindanom
After the split single revolutionary front in 1927 incountry's civil war began. CCP to survive on the path of armedstruggle. This battle was fought under the banner of establishment of Soviet power.
During the struggle between the CCP and Homindanom was formedChinese Communists leading ideas: revolution in China is mainlypeasant and take the form of guerrilla warfare.
In 1930-1934 he army of Chiang Kai-shek made five tripsagainst Soviet regions, formed by the Communists. Adviser to the Army in Homindanuimplementation of these operations performed German General Sect. As a result of these campaignsHomindanu army crushed the main Red Army forces and eliminated the Sovietareas. Movement for the Soviet regime in China was defeated, but was notdestroyed.
У 1931 CCP was led by Mao Zedong, whoremoved from the leadership of Beijing intellectuals. He, being a simple peasanther son, was more understandable for common people. He said simple things:should give the land to the peasants, all who support him will be rewarded,criminals and traitors punished. Under his leadership in the 1934-1935 biennium 100thousand guerrilla army, completing a "big trip" (passed with 12 thousand battleskm), perebazuvalysya to Northern China - closer to the Soviet Union and Front, whichformed after the occupation of Manchuria by Japan. Here at the junction of threeprovinces - Shaanxi, Gansu and Ningxiawas formed special border area, which became the base for further recoveryand deployment of the communist movement.
"Long March" of the CommunistArmy
Japanese aggression and Soviet pressure forced the CCP in April 1937 Homindan was againjoin forces. Undernegotiations between the CPC and Homindanom was reached agreement on the cessationfighting against each other. CCP councils obliged to turn in bodiesdemocratic government and the Red Army - the military connectionPeople's Revolutionary Army, to stop the confiscation of land and landowners intransferring it to farmers.
Japanesetank unit in China
The burden of fighting against Japanese aggression hastrymilyonna army itself Chiang Kai-shek. His government became a major, who received Americanand Soviet aid. USSR and the United States provided loans, military equipment? counselors.Soviet advisers headed by General V. Chuykov.
Japaneseatrocities in China
Actions Chinese army be called successful. To1939 All Eastern China - from Manchuria to the border v'yetnamskohoOccupied Japan. Chiang Kai-shek at the same time every opportunity tried toto strike his "allies" - the communists, in which heubachav main rivals in the struggle for power. Failures Homindanu automaticallyraised the credibility of the Communists, who pretty consistently and successfully foughtagainst the Japanese in their controlled areas of Northern China. Besides thesedistricts were a proving ground for reforms aimed atimprove the lives of peasants who were the main social base of the CCP. At the same time toarea? Homindanom controlled? peasants were subjected to all kinds of harassment ofLandowners.
Chineseprotect farmers harvest of Japanese
Later became widespread PDApeasant party that had considerable military force (8 army NDA and 4 new armyNDA). It gaveher to enter a decisive phase of a power struggle that ended with hervictory.
Documents and materials
Postcard that was spread by students duringdemonstration of May 4, 1919 Beijing
Currently, Japan has demanded the rejection at the Peace ConferenceQingdao and Shandong right to control and has achieved this success. Itsvictory - it is our failure. Transfer of rights in Japan undermines ShandongChina's sovereignty, leading the country to destruction. Therefore we, the students organizedwe go to foreign embassies to urge all countries supportjustice. We hope that the workers, traders and other groupspopulation will rise and take measures to convene the National Assembly,protection of national sovereignty and national traitors punishment because ofChina depends on the existence or his death. All Koreans nowmust learn the truth that can not be assumed to people bowed his head.The country is in danger! Compatriots, straight up!
Inquiries to document
1. ThatPeking University students led to radical action?
2. Whatrequirements for nominating students?
In an interview with Chiang Kai-shek Shanghai newspaper December 141927
"Now we must firmly establish the direction of our foreignrelations. Now the consulate is all over Soviet Russia by the communistparty. My position comes to the following: in the future to complete successnational movement to sever diplomatic relations with the USSR andrestore them only after the success of our business in China? Where once we stood foralliance with the Soviet Union, now - there are opponents to such a union. My beliefis that we must not only break with the Soviet Union, but also join withother countries in the fight against communist parties? Huandunskyyrevolution - just the beginning? All circles of Chinese society haveunite to overthrow communism. "
Inquiries to document
1. Whatwas caused by this change in foreign policy of Chiang Kai-shek?
2. OnUnion of the States expected to Chiang Kai-shek?
Questions and Tasks
1. Find out the situation in China after Пershoyi World War.
2. Give a description of "May 4th Movement." What are itsResults
3. What impact had the Soviet Union on developments in China?
4. How can we assess developments in China 1925-1927 years? Why so?
5. Describe policy toward the Communists, led byChiang Kai-shek during his rule.
6. What features of economic policy Homindanu?
7. Compare agrarian transformation Homindanu and PDAs.
8. Identify the foreign policy priorities Chiang Kai-shek.
9. What impact did the Japanese aggression in the relationship between the CCP andHomindanom?
Note the dates:
May 4, 1919- Origination"May 4th Movement."
1925- The beginning of the struggle forunification of China.
1927- Coup Chiang Kai-shek.
1934-1935 biennium - LargeCampaign "communists.
1937- Agreement oncooperation between the CPC and Homindanom.