§ 30. Japan (textbook)

Theme VIІ 
Countries in Asia, Africa and Latin America

 

 

§ 30.Japan

1.Japan after ПershoyiWorld War

DuringПershoyi World War, Japan,speaking on the side of the Entente, reduced occupation of German coloniesFar East and Pacific Basin. Japan used the maximumsituation, to increase their military capabilities, especiallyfleet. Strengthening military power was paying the population. In August and September1918 country a wave of "rice riots" -natural population of speeches against rising prices for basic foodsnutrition. Hardly had the government to suppress these statements, as in 1919 country coveredstrike movement of workers, and in the main colony of Japan - Korea explodedantyyaponske uprising.

 

Tokyo after the earthquake in 1923

 

Post-warinstability resulted in a sharp political struggle. Saw the use of force outputthe situation in the territorial expansion in the Asia-Pacific, The left - in the revolutiondemocratic reforms. These difficulties were added the economic crisis1920-1921 biennium earthquake and 1923, which completely destroyed the capitalTokyo, killing According to some data 150 thousand persons.

2.Rivalry with the United States and Britain. Washington Conference

After Пershoyi World Warsharp struggle of great powers for influence in the Pacific. No U.S.nor Britain would not tolerate the fact that Japan has strengthened during the warits position in the Far East. Controlled half of Japan's foreignChina's trade? captured the German colonies and dependent territories in the region?claimed by the Far Eastern regions of Russia. Early 1920-ies relationsJapan? Britain and the United States worsened, especially in the control of China.To overcome nazrivayuchoho conflict in Washington November 12, 1921 -February 6, 1922 conference was held. At the conference, Japan andBritain had to go for major concessions to the United States. United Kingdomrejected the alliance with Japan? concluded in 1902 Japan signed"Nine of the contract? so recognized territorialintegrity of China and proclaimed the principle of "equal opportunities" and"Open House" on China. So? Japan for a whileabandoned its ambition to dominate China.

Washingtonagreement could not lay the stability in the Pacific region throughinequality and the different sides of their capabilities. Japan was economically muchweaker at the end of the 20-ies inferior to the Chinese market and the U.S.UK. In order not to lose the Chinese market? Japan applieddumping (exporting at low prices) and repeatedly resorted to limitedmilitary actions, and eventually moved to an open aggression in 1931

3.Democratic Movement

Postwar instability and a sharp political struggle became the basis formohutnohodemokratychnoho deployment motion. A major cause of democraticgrowth were changes in the economy and social structure of the country. In Japanincreased share of skilled workers, that launched the struggle for improvementtheir position.

Repressionagainst strikers pushed workers into unions. Unionsbegan to impose not only economic demands, but also political slogans. Growthlabor organizations and movements in 1920 Single unionCenter demanded unification of socialist organizations in Japan. End1920 Socialist League was created - artificial associationideologically different groups of socialists, communists, anarchists. Despite the absenceunity and the strong influence of anarchism and syndykalizmu, the government in ubachav ЛEasy dangerous organizationIn May 1921 it was dissolved.

In January-February 1922 in Moscow, a congress, attended Saint Katayama, TokudaKyuyiti and other famous Japanese revolutionaries. Congress delegates supportedneed for unification of all revolutionary forces in Japan. Summer 1922 in Tokyorepresentatives of the socialist groups announced the formation of the Communist PartyJapan. Soon it was established and the Communist Youth Union.

Demonstration of the requirementsdemocratization of political life  country(1925)

 

Deploymentdemocratic movement and contributed to multi-parliamentarysystem. In 1925 democratic forces have achieved entry into the countryuniversal suffrage for men? social security system.However, these laws have come into force only in 1928, aggressive growthJapan and the dominance of the ruling circles in the chauvinistic sentiments were preventeddevelop democratic processes? are completely stopped in late 1930's

4.Return to the aggressive foreign policy. The growing influence of military

RefusalJapan under pressure from the dominance of great powers in China and its defeat aggressionagainst Soviet Russia in the early 20's, shovynistychno configuredstrata of Japanese society perceived it as a national humiliationdignity. Most radical advocates of chauvinistic ideas were grouping"Young officers" ("old" in the army were considered natives samuraimembers of the Russian-Japanese War 1904-1905). They demandedcancellation and multi-government accountability to Parliament,establishment of military dictatorship and a return to traditional expansionistpolicy. Under their influence in April 1927 the government came to power, GeneralTanaka, one of the organizers of Japanese intervention against Soviet RussiaFar East. The new government immediately and liked the drawing up plans for war againstChina and the Soviet Union. June 27 - July 7, 1927 in Tokyo under theTanaka held the chairmanship of the Eastern Conference, attendedMinistry of Foreign Affairs, Military and Marineministries and the General Staff. The conference reviewed the proposedgovernment program of "positive", that is openly aggressive, actionChina - "base" of Japanese policy in China. As the nearesttask proposed to capture the Northeast and North China, andMongolia. The decision of the conference identified the essence of a secret memorandum Tanaka,which had a comprehensive plan of aggression and domination in JapanSouth East Asia and the Pacific Basin.

Tanaka

 

Earlier, in late May 1927 R., Japan? using civilwar in China? directing troops to Shandong Province, Qingdao and capturedJinan. GoalThis military intervention was to delay the offensive homindanivskyhtroops to the north and thus prevent the unification of the country. Because ofantyyaponskoho wide movement and boycott Japanese goods in China, Japanwas forced to withdraw its troops. In April 1928 Japanese troopsunder the pretext of "protection of vital interests and property of Japanese residents"again came to Shandong? occupied the most important strategic points andan ultimatum demanding withdrawal of Chinese troops from the province. Boycott movementJapanese goods, which resumed in China, strong performance the world againstnew act of aggression by Japan again forced to retreat.

In 1929Japan swept the deep economic crisis. At 30% reduced output inkey sectors - metallurgy, machine building, weaving. Significant losseszaznlo agriculture, especially shevkovodstvo. Exports of goods fell sharplythe world market.

Mainpolitical crisis was the result of the weakening position of liberals who wereagainst the aggressive policy. Imperial same environment, policymakers andmajor Japanese corporations have seen out only in increasing militarizationcountry, collapse of democratic freedoms and the creation of the colonial empire. But theirmoving gradually in this direction is not satisfied "young officers" wholike everything and immediately. In addition to dissatisfaction with foreign policy course, theyopposed staryiyu bureaucracy and generals who were associated with it. Inthey saw them brake on their way to promote military officerssteps.  The "young officers" are beginningpreparing a coup to dramatically change policy. Homeso their plot was exposed in 1931

Onbeginning of May 1932 National Federation of Young Officers "distributed leaflets with demagogic attack on monopolies. In the Cardsnoted that Youth Officers help people in against speculative business circles, politicians andlovers of easy money. Thereafter  conspirators invadedto the residence of Prime Minister Imukayi and killed him. In house board rulingParty and the Mitsubishi Group was thrown a bomb.

Thistries to establish a military dictatorship was not too successful. Social demagogyconspirators dominant classes seemed dangerous. The Government has taken action againstconspirators: they were disarmed, and some arrested. However, the head of collusionGeneral Araki was not arrested and even retained his position as militaryMinister in the new coalition cabinet of national unity. Byimplementation of chauvinistic slogans Young undertook the ruling elite. From that timebefore 1945 in Japan by authorities were only officers: in 1932-1934 he was the Japanesegovernment headed by Admiral Saito, in the 1934-1936 biennium - Admiral Okada etc.

6.Growth of Japanese aggression

Despiteat the conclusion of the Washington Treaty, which fitted the sovereignty of China, and largeStates are committed not to divide it into spheres of influence, shamelessly robbedthe country continued.

Underthe economic crisis 30's Japan, U.S. and Britain tried to makesecure a wider presence in the Chinese market. Politics"Open House" and "equal opportunities" give preference toU.S. in the fight for the Chinese market.

In1931 in the United States was drafted to provide "silver" Drawingto repurchase in Japan of Chinese railways. American bank in Shanghai decidedset up dozens of its branches in Northeast China with centraloffice in Harbin. That same year the United States ahead of other countries inTrade with China, Japan vidtrutyvshy in second place, and England - in the third.Japan was unwilling to accept the fact that the most important position in China, which itdecided to turn to their colony, pass into the hands of Americans. Havingfailure in economic competition, she sought out inforeign intrigue. Japan decided to attack the North-EastChina, economic wealth and strategic location which attracted Japanesewar lords. After that were planned aggression against China and CentralMongolian People's Republic.

Speakingthe plan a "Great Japan" - a powerful colonialEmpire, Japanese policymakers hoped to use to their advantageanti-Soviet sentiment governments of the United States, Britain, France and other countriesand served as its aggression against "communist threat".Soviet policy in the Far East gave a reason for this. After the failureattempts to ignite the fire of world revolution in Europe, the leaders of the Comintern drewits attention to Asia.

Japanesediplomacy deployed in this area a great activity, and Japanesegeneral staff meanwhile finished drafting an operational plan for the annexationNortheast China - Manchuria.

Summer1931 Japan has completed an attack on China. Selected timeit seemed very profitable. Rivals Japan cared internal problems?caused by the global economic crisis. In China itself there was a civilwar.

18September 1931 Japanese troops began the invasion of North-EastChina. Within five days of Japan captured all the important towns and toFebruary 1932 conquered all of Northeast China. In invadedJapanese territory formed maryonetkovu state Manchukuo ledrepresentative of the last dynasty in China manchzhurskoyi Pu I. Also in 1932Japanese troops landed near Shanghai and trying to master the largestcity of China.  However, there did not get an easy victory,Chinese army and people of the city have committed violent resistance. The world communitycondemned the aggression. In 1933, Japan withdrew from the League Нtions.

Forcontinuation of its aggressive plans in the Pacific basin was not okenapossible without the powerful ocean fleet, but its a constrainedWashington Conference agreements (1922). In 1934 Japan statementлаThat refusesrestrictions of the Treaty fivefive. In 1936 Japan has already had 200 aircraft carriers, battleships,cruisers and launched construction of new, more powerful ships.

During the rebellion of young officers (26February 1936)

 

Despite the overtly aggressive, the most radical circles weredissatisfied with the slow pace of implementation. February 26, 1936 in Tokyo againthere was a coup organized by the "young officers".  Although it was suppressed, the requirements of youngofficers "do not go unheeded. Summer conclave was rulingcircles, in which the question about the prospects of "colonial rozshmrennya"in East Asia. November 27, 1936 between Japan and Germany was signedAnti-Comintern Pact.

7.The attack on China in 1937 Militarization of the economy Japan

InJuly, 1937 began Japan's armed invasion of the North andCentral China. The reason for the war became a conflict between Japanese andChinese soldiers at the Marco Polo Bridge, located on the neutral bar.Subsequently, military operations were spread throughout the country. Activeoffensive operations against the Japanese army in China lasted until 1939 Japanesemanaged to master the most developed areas of China? received considerableraw materials and human resources? partially solve their economic problems.

 

Mork Polo Bridge, armed incident onwhich became the pretext for the Sino-Japanese War 1937-1945 biennium

 

EconomyJapan was placed at the service of war. Military expenditures absorbed 70-80%budget. This was the reason fall in 1937-1941 biennium living standardspopulation. Permanentneed for military-strategic raw materials prompted the Japanese government to resort tosignificant increase in imports due to the reduction of gold and strengthenedcommodity export dumpingymy prices.

Japanese troops enter the Shanghai(1937)

 

Preparationeconomy into a wider war under the slogan was the creation of neweconomic structure. "It included the concentration of production,active development of heavy, especially military, to the detriment of industry sectors,who worked on the domestic market for podvyschennya living standards."New Economic Structure" means the installation of military-statecontrol of the country's economy. As the controlling government bodiesManufacturers Association created in different areas of management. Ledassociations were representatives of major corporations that actually meanttransfer of control of all processes in the economy. Thus in Japan wascreated this economic model, which was characterized by totalitarian andavtoritarnym regimes 1920-30's.

Growthmilitary industry, mobilizing the army somewhat reduced unemployment.The bulk of the people? who came on heavy industry,were temporary workers. Under the military regime, business ownerskept them under pain of dismissal. To guide manufacturers crazyused lawlessness and permanent workers. Officially established workingday period usually lasted for 12-14 hours 14-16 hours, increased intensitywork.

Hardwas the situation of the peasantry. Mobilization of the army of the most deprived villageworking population. Acute shortage of industrial goods foragriculture led to a sharp drop in productionagricultural products. Increased taxes due to the militarizationcountry. Expulsion of tenants from their land turned a village into the arenapermanent social conflicts.

Startingwar in China, cabinet Prince Konoye strengthened the struggle against fascist andof similar sentiments in the country. Officially it was called "Movementmobilization of national spirit. "All democratic institutions thateve of the Sino-Japanese War were from anti-fascist slogans, it wasde-hromleno. December 15, 1937 police conducted mass arrests of Communists,trade unionists and representatives of progressive intellectuals. EndDecember was prohibited activity of democratic parties? unionfederations. By March 1938 number of those arrested for politicalmotives  exceeded 10 thousand people. Soon to replacedissolved political parties was established Asoiatsiya help throne, and to replaceTrade Union - Patriotic Industry Association of Japan great.

Japanese soldiers learnarmored car

 

In order to create favorable conditions for companies working in war andmobilize all forces and assets in 1938 was released laws mobilizationmilitary industry, the general mobilization of the nation, about investments, maintenancewhich was to promote the comprehensive development companies, servingmilitary production. Special law limited the consumption of raw materials and steelnonferrous metals for the peaceful production. It was forbidden to export gold outsidecountry. The purpose of Japan proclaiming "the creation of Greater East Asianareas of common prosperity "That is identifying Japanesedominance in the Asia Pacific region by colonial conquest.

 

DocumentsMaterials

Actelection of deputies to the lower house of parliament. March 29, 1925

(Excerpt)

Article 5.The right to vote by men - subject to the empire of the age of 25.

The right to beMen have chosen - subjected to the empire with 30 richnooho age.

Article 6.Those that more people do not have active and passive voting rights:

1. Personsrecognized incapable or unable to dispose of the property almost.

2.Voting rights denied bankrupt,  have not eliminated their debts.

3.Persons   who get through povertyprivate or public assistance.

4.Persons   who do not have a locationresidence.

5. Personssentenced to 6 years of hard labor or 6 or more years imprisonment.

Article 12.? Voters   have no substantiveConditions - osidlosti qualification? can not be registered in the voters list.

Article 68.Necessary  that the person  that makes his candidacy or candidacyanother person, made in 2000 yen for each candidate or government securities, securities of thesame value.

Article 69.Considered to be elected person  who receivedthe largest number of valid votes.

Article 78.The term of office of members - 4 years from the date of general elections.

Article124. Persons   crowds that gather toon elections or show units, or use lights and torches,or pounding the bells and beating drums in, or used flags and othertypes of icons, or perform other actions and inspiring, getting banpolice work that is not it will respond to the orders, subject to prisonimprisonment for a term of 6 months or a fine of 300 yen.

Questionto document

1. Howread law limited the democratic transformation in the country?

2. Whatyou see the positive and negative aspects of the election law?

 

In the memorandum Hiyiti Tanaka: "A positive policyManchuria and Mongolia. July 25, 1927

In Manchuria and Mongolia are Fyntyan province, Girin,Heilongjiang and Inner Mongolia and Outer Mongolia. Three EastProvince were defective in the political side of the area to the Far East. Fromto defend itself and to protect other Japan can not fix whatever is wrong inEast Asia  if not carrypolicy of "blood and iron." But pursuing this policy, we find ourselvesface to face with America  in which natskovuyeWe China  making policy onagainst poison with poison. If we take in the future we wantcontrol over China, we must overwhelm the United States. But forTo conquer China, we must first conquer Manchuria and Mongolia.In order to win the world, we must first conquer China. ForTo get real rights in Manchuria and Mongolia, we mustuse this area  as a base forpenetration in China under the pretext of development of our trade. Possess allresources of China, we move on to the conquest of India, South Seas, andafter the conquest of Asia Minor, Central Asia and finally Europe. ThatAs for the rights of Manchuria, we must take decisive steps on the basis of the 21 threquirements and obtain for the rights that we won, the following:

1) After the expiry of lease agreement on tradewe should get the opportunity to extend the term of our desire.

2) Japanese citizens should have the right to drive around and livein the eastern part of Inner Mongolia and there conduct commercial and industrialactivity.

3) We should have the right to operate 19 coalmines and iron mines in Fyntyani and Girin, and the right to operateforest resources.

4) We should get preferential right to buildrailways in South Manchuria and Eastern Mongolia and to place loans forsuch purposes.

 

Questions to document

1.      What is the reason for the appearance of this document?

2.      As this document describes the aggressive plans of the ruling circlesJapan?

 

An American journalist who was in Japan, onexisting regime in the country

The more  I acquaintedwith position,  the more I understand thatworld conquest  Japanese militarists andultranationalists trying to turn Japan into a totalitarian statesame type  that built HitlerGermany? The country has taken the same action against liberalism and democracy;against capitalism, materialism and individualism,  which  the words of Hitler  wereset of "dangerous thoughts" and filed the Japanese people asadverse impact of the West.

 

Inquiries to document

1. Aboutwhat processes are evidenced in the document the facts?

2. Thatwas common and different in the regimes established in Germany and Japan?

 

Questions and Tasks

1.      Оcharacterize the consequences Пershoyi World War Яpony.

2.      How has the democratic movement in Japan? Why democratic processesearly 20's did not have their prodovzhennya7

3.      What causes aggressive foreign policy of Japan?

4.      What was the main idea of the memorandum Tanaka? Definesequence of aggressive plans of Japan?

5.      Find the main stages of Japan's aggression in China.

6.      Prove that the 30-ies increased military role in politicallife in Japan. What are the consequences of this process?

7.      Why conspiracy "young officers" suffered a defeat?

8.      What steps are being taken to accelerate the development of militaryindustry in Japan?

9.      Compare process всtanovlennya totalitarian regimes inJapan, Germany, Italy and the USSR. Consistencyь Just as a table.

 

Note the dates:

1925- Enter the totalsuffrage.

1927- Memorandum of GeneralTanaka.

1931- Japanese Invasiontroops to northeastern China.

1932, 1936 рр. ­ Stick"Young officers".

1937- HomeSino-Japanese War.