§ 28. Bulgaria
1. Vladayske uprising (Radomyrska rebellion). ConsequenceWorld War
The First World War brought the country to the acute political andeconomic crisis. Massive performances came against the continuation of war("Women's riots"). King Ferdinand replacing the government in June 1918tried to fixBut in vain.
In September 1918 Entente forces broke through the frontBulgarian Army in the Dobropole. In parts it began retreatingSpontaneous actions against the army high command and government. Soldiers seizedBulgarian Army headquarters (general headquarters) and moved to Sofia. Insuch difficult circumstances, the Government, without force, entered into negotiations with the rebels,including the delegation of popular Bulgarian agricultural workersPeople's Union (BAPU) A. & R. Stambolijsky Daskalova. At the same time startednegotiations with the Entente to conclude an armistice.
The delegation Daskalova and Stambolijsky disappointedgovernment. September 27 Daskalov in Radomir overthrow the monarchy and declaredestablishment of the Republic of Bulgaria headed by Stambolijsky. The rebels cameto the capital and demanded an ultimatum to hand over Sofia. Usingindecision rebels, the government stripped of committed, September 29, signed a trucewith the Entente and German forces through insurgent defeated in the BattleVladayskom.
Rise and armistice with the Entente forced King Ferdinandabdicate in favor of his son Boris III.
King Boris III
Despite the rebellion, the situation in the country remaineddifficult. To somehow bring down a wave of popular discontent, the king went to some concessions:entered the 8-hour workday, paid holidays, tax abolishedon profits in wartime and so on.
Warcostly to the country. Killed fivefifth of the male population aged20 to 50 years. Total losses were: 155 thousand people, 400 thousandwounded at the front and 150 thousand deaths from typhoid, cholera, influenza tsivilnohopopulation. The country has lost a third of national wealth.
2. A. The government Stambolijsky
After World War politicallife was extremely turbulent, despite the fact that the BulgarianSociety from Eastern Europe has been quite progressive, open andmost democratic. It was not the nobility, and the system of education was the most progressive andavailable (the state spent on education 3 /1910 budget, graduates Bulgarianleading universities occupied cities in the Balkan countries). In ethnic and linguistic, religiousagainst Bulgaria was among the most homogeneous countries in Eastern Europe.Bulgarian elite formed mainly from among the peasants and artisans. By itsviews of the Bulgarian elite were technocrat. The socialprotection and insurance was the most advanced in the Balkans, covering all segmentssociety. An additional guarantee of social stability was that farmers andof urban dwellers were provided with land, which was in their ownership.
In August, 1919 was held early postwarElections in the People's Assembly, held in an atmosphere of apathy and frustration afterhow much blood was spilled. The elections witnessed a landslide of similar forces:majority entered leftist forces have been analyzed and the BulgarianCommunist Party ("close" socialists, or"Tisnyakiv"), the Social Democrats (moderate). Right party received only66 mandates out of 236. The right to form a government leader was charged BAPUA. Stambolijsky. He formed a coalition government with representatives BAPU and rightparties. BKP (tisnyaky "), the Social Democrats refused to signthe government. After elections in 1920 vinsformuvav one-party government.
Stambolijsky,as a strong ideologue and human emotion, being able to use demagoguery(A brilliant orator and polemicist), has become a unique leader of farmers among theEastern Europe. He was determined to establish the dictatorship of the peasantry and ruralin Bulgaria and throughout Eastern Europe to destroy the dominant role of cities, with them ashe said, "degraded, parasitic population. He advocated the creation"Green International" Agrarian party, which povynyn oppose peasantideology impact Westand the communist East. In international affairs, he called for the creationBulgarian-Yugoslav federation. He did not object to separationMacedonia, considering this step in the restructuring of relations in the Balkans. Пrahnuv eliminate MacedonianBulgarians from their impacton political life in the country. To implement its plans Stambolijsky used anyFunding: shot in the course of paramilitary Orange Guard agricultural unionpidtasovuvav election results, opposition leaders and others destroyed. Incarnationpeasant concept Сtamboliyskoho in the country resulted in a number of social and politicalexperiments.
On the initiative of the last People's Assembly passed in December 1919The law of punishment in national disaster. Company punishment "of warcriminals " actually became demonstrationsєu Stambolijsky political force. Thus, bulo held a referendum on thisquestion on which most population court favor. Although the court did not take place, the company was way intimidateuvannyam oppositionsї.
In 1920 Bulgaria introduced a total laborduty. Under this law, every person aged 20 to 40 years hadfor 8 months to perform physicalwork to the state and another 21 days a year to work in his district. ForWomen from 16 to 30 years lifespan was four months. This system waspositive consequences for the country. ДTo build national objectsfacilities (roads,railways, bridges, canals, etc.) engage the additional labor. BesidesBulgaria thus avoided a total ban on military duty. Youngmen during labor and initial duties were militarytraining. Next bolharki governments have kept this system.
In 1921 a law on maximum tenure(Installed at a rate of 30 hectares to 4 hectares per family memberth, which wasmore than 4 people).The law was designed to ensure a relatively equal distribution of land among peasants. ThisEquality meets peasant ideology Stambolijsky. Moreover, this lawtestified about government attempts to develop agriculture, because only largeeconomy allows to introduce new technologies and techniques.
Also in favor of peasants was revised taxlegislation. To eliminate middlemen in trade in agricultural products, creationyuvavsya State grain consortium(Although it had to eliminate the pressure of Аntanty). Poormoved home in "rich", those who fell under the law in 1919punishment of war criminals. Assisted in the development of cooperative movement.Banking krydytna system focused on the needs of the village. Implementedprogressive income tax and tax on profits of banks, industrial andtrade companies, has raised the ire of Industrialists and Entrepreneurs.
In November 1919, Bulgaria signed a peace Neyyiskyycontract under which she lost 1 / 10 territory. Decreasing the number offorces likvidovuvalasya general conscription. Bulgaria hadto pay reparations, to convey the winner countries many cattleand had to keep occupants.
Signing the agreement put in opposition to the governmentBulgarian army officer corps.
In foreign policy, the government failed to alleviate the conditionsNeyyiskoho contract, and it undermined his credibility.
At the end of 1920 began the process of consolidationopposition forces who tried to overthrow the government. Since the 1922 reform andexperiments are now beginning to failure. Growing number of dissatisfied, especiallyurban residents. Summer 1922 law and tsentryski party formedDemocratic harmony, which uniteла their efforts with the Military League(Organization of retired military officers on contract Neyyiskym). In addition to thesejoined a secret organization VMRO Macedonian Bulgarians, who had extensivean experience of use is a serious act. These forces have relied on the support of the kingThat wasmaster of political intrigues. In opposition and became BKP (tisnyaky), which consideredStambolijsky "Bulgarian Kerensky.
Taking advantagefavorable conditions for the night from 8 to June 9, 1923 "Peopleconspiracy "and did military coup League. Stambolijsky Government wasarrested and brutally killed himself. Power seized the government, which is ledleader of Conspiracy People "economist Professor Alexander Tsankov. By GovernmentPublished on June included representatives of almost all human and tsentryskyh parties. The new governmentmade a real hunt for the leaders of peasant and communist parties.Died about 3 thousand people. For this Tsankov earned a poor reputation.
3. Communist uprising in 1923
LeadersComintern assessed the situation in Bulgaria as conducive to rebellionand the establishment of Soviet power. Bulgaria had become a base forexpansion of world revolution. BKP, together with the left wing have been analyzed, and beganpreparations for armed insurrection, scheduled for 22-23 September 1923It was created Military Revolutionary Committee headed by GM Dimitrov?V. Kolarova and G. Genova. Аle of these plans became known to the government, which begins to hold pryvintyvnimeasures. September 12 there were mass arrests (two thousand people were arrested). Itprovoked the premature beginning of the uprising. The first performances began a militarySeptember 13 and lasted until September 27, 1923 Government troops were able tosuppress the scattered performances. As a result of the uprising were killed or committed toCourt 20 thousand persons. Then the Communists were new persecution. April 4In 1924 they were outlawed. Trying to move to the communistsuse is a serious methods of fighting only intensified repression against them (FortiusCommunists use is a serious act of bombing was in St. Sophia Cathedral (April 161925), where the king, during which 128 people died.). Politicalstructure of the Communists and left wing have been analyzed were completely defeated.
4. Bulgaria in the interwar period
GovernmentTsankov, prydushyvshy uprising, the regime has achieved relative stability, whyand contributed to economic stabilization. Was increased wage war andservants, artisans given tax breaks, introduced social insuranceworkers and so on. But the repressive nature of the regime, which increased afterunsuccessful assassination attempt on Tsar Boris III, nivelyuvav all positive developments
King Boris III and head of governmentA. Lyapchev
InJanuary 1926 there was a change of government. He led Andrew Lyapchev representativeDemocratic harmony. The new government repression eased, announced an amnesty. It wasallowed the political parties and organizations. Tsankom stood in opposition tonew government (he was criticized for its softquality), In 30 or 40 years of a frankLimited number of fascist supporters. Since erosion of the advantageCommunists, who founded the legal labor party that year after year gainingpopularity.
Economiccrisis has affected Bulgaria in 1928 and continued until 1934 capturing all industriesBulgarian economy. The number of unemployed has reached 200 thousand Sharplydeteriorated financial situation of the population. Home 1934 Nationalincome countries amounted to 61,4% in 1929 (although compared with neighboring statesdepth of the decline in production was much less).
Crisisled to a regrouping of political forces and strengthen the struggle for power. AfterDemocratic elections in 1931 lost power accord. Coalition government formeddemocratic parties and have been analyzed. Government headed Аleksander crimson, which after some time passedpower to his colleague never Mushanovu. Tsankov formed Fascist Peoplesocial movement (NDS), which is focusing on Italy and Germany. Hiscompetitor was the group-level managers, which consisted of tsivilnyh thatsought to modernize the country. In foreign policy, they ascribedHope for England and France. They were military allies of the Military League.
InMay 1934 have a governmental crisis, which decided to take advantage of NDS and"Level managers. Tsankov planned to start a march on Sofia like "campaignof Rome "of Mussolini. ahead of his group-level managers, which May 191934 carried out a coup. At the head of government has kimono Georgiev.The coup was carefully prepared, perfectly vykonanyyy but not insurgentshave a clear future goal. Their desire to "rebirth" of the country by "cleansing"and "rationalization" of all institutions and livelihood were not clear forpeople. Accordingly, the Government had Georgieva social support. This took the kingBoris III, who was cunning and clever politician. His behavior, he made himself,that politics does not interest him, the only object of his admiration is the locomotives, whichhe collected. The king gradually removed the young and inexperienced politicians,rejected their socio-economic initiatives, but left their authoritarian methodsmanagement. There was abolished the constitution, dissolved the National Assembly,denied party (VMRO especially) and unions. It was determined statecontrol of the banks that carried his newly created Bank of Bulgariacredit with the state. was introduced state monopoly on alcohol, salt,tobacco, petroleum. In foreign policy, Georgiev went to joinEngland and France, normalizuvav relations with Yugoslavia and in 1934established diplomatic relations with the USSR.
Georgievsought to restrict the power of the king. In late 1935 achieved lastGeorgieva removal from power and established personal monarchical dictatorship. In 1938King was allowed to hold elections based on party affiliation to the National Assembly.With 158 deputies elected in 1956 had a pro-opposition views (11 of them were Communists).This arrangement ensured obedience to Parliament, while rentedaccusation that the king is choking the opposition. His election in repeated experiments king1939 and 1940. This time the opposition were only 20 members (9communists).
Inperiod of 1934-1939 Bulgarian economy suffered the biggest in postwar yearsrise, especially agriculture. This was due to transfer tohigh-yield production of industrial crops (fiber, oil,garden). There was taken a course light industrial development district that wouldcomplement agriculture. This policy gave rise industrialproduction for the period 1935-1939 he was 64,1%.
Inforeign policy, the king went to the rapprochement with Germany. For her supportBulgaria has achieved the abolition of articles Neyiskoho agreement (agreement Soloninska 1938City). In 1940 Bulgaria, Romania returned to South Dobrudja (the main granarycountry where 20% of agricultural products produced country). But this is Bulgariarozplatylasya vtupom in Дruhu World War on the side of Germany. However, it stronglyrefused to take part in the war against the Soviet Union, limiting the occupation of Macedonia andThrace (captured in Yugoslavia and Greece in 1941).
A. Stambolijsky about the prospects for social developmentBulgaria
"We do not want to bury this system, but we do not wantleave it to those ulcers, thosehybamy, з we see it now? We are for privateproperty, but not parasitic on private property. We want to destroy whatthat makes a bug that property? This social order should perevlashtuvaty notdestroying it. We perevlashtuyemo it, we want to change it. "
Questions to document
How candescribe the main goals have been analyzed?
With the disposal of Bulgaria Council of Ministers to dissolve the party-politicalorganizations. June 12, 1934
Creation and existence of party-political organizations:parties, movements and so on. prohibited. The existing party-political organizations andtheir department dissolved.
The relevant courts should the court immediately cancelregistration of entities registered as party-political organizations andtheir offices.
All party-political publications: newspapers,magazines brochures, etc.., such as private pursuing party-political purposes orhave declared or undeclared affiliation to any party-politicalorganization closed.
Forbids any party-political meetings and campaigning.
Nobody can stay in the party-political organizationor provide facilities for the creation or maintenance of such an organization.
Whoever forms the party-political organization ortransforms such dissolved in another? punishable by imprisonment of up tothree years and a fine up to 100 thousand BGN.
Inquiries to document
1. Whatwas the result of such strict instruction?
2. Whatthe consequences of prohibition was party-political organizations?
Questions and Tasks
1. Whichinfluenced ПershaWorld War II on the development of Bulgaria? Analyze the international and domesticposition.
2. Whyreforms initiated by A. Stambolijsky not acquired development? What basicgoal pursued Stambolijsky?
3. Giveassessment of developments in 1923
4.Describe the development of Bulgaria in the interwar years.
5.Compare coup in 1923 and 1934
6. Whatmain political parties struggling for power in the 30's he?
7. Thatled to establishment of the monarchical dictatorship in 1935?
8.Describe the development of industry and agriculture in Bulgaria30 years.
9. WhyBulgaria joined the Дruhu World War on the side of Germany?
Note the dates:
September 27-29, 1918 - Vladayske rebellion(Radomyrska rebellion).
June 1923 - Coup d'etat anda dictatorship. Eliminating Stambolijsky from power.
September 1923- The Communistuprising.
1934Establishment of diplomaticrelations with the USSR.
1935-1944 рр.Monarchical dictatorship in Bulgaria.