§ 22. Spain
1. The situation in the country after the firstWorld War
Spain was one of the backward countries of Europe. After the defeatin Spanish-American War she joined the band of deep crisis. Formerpower of the Spanish monarchy has now disappeared. Lack of resolution of land andNational deepening of this crisis.
During Пershoyi World War II, Spain remained neutral. Warcontributed to increased demand for Spanish goods and, consequently, economicelevation. But it was not long. The war has caused economiccrisis exacerbated the problems of Spanish society. More active leftpolitical forces: the influence enjoyed most anarchists, who advocatedElimination of the state means rebellion, strikes, terrorist acts andetc. In 1920 established ICP - Spanish Communistparty.
Spanishblow out fight with the troops rifamy
Summer 1921 Spain launched an urgent politicalcrisis. It was caused by the defeat of Spanish troops in Morocco from rebelstribes (Republic of Rif). The ruling party and the king lost the trust of the population. Inthese circumstances, policymakers have not prevented the holding of the coup d'
2. Prima de Rivera dictatorship
Prima de Rivera formed a military directory (the junta), whichreplaced by the government, dissolved the Cortes (parliament), has entered a state of emergencysuspended the constitution. Local authorities have been transferred to militarygovernors. Dictatorship has announced its aim of "renewal" of Spain.But the update resulted in fashyzatsiyu society modeled after Italy. Proceededviolent Catalans and Basques ispanizatsiya. In foreign policy course has been takento create a "Greater Spain.
M. Prima de Rivera speaks at rally
The stabilization of economic situation for the time being strengthenedmilitary-monarchist regime. In 1925 Prima de Rivera replaced the militarycivilian rule, but the nature of this regime has not changed. Positiveachievement of the regime was of relative social peace and sustainableconditions of the workers. This was achieved by the cooperation with trade unions.But the beginning of the economic crisis 1929-1933, undermined resistance dictatorship. OfIt turned even the army, January 28, 1930 Prima de Rivera collapsed inresignation. The country has turned a mass movement for the establishment of the republic. 12December 1930 There was an unsuccessful attempt to overthrow the monarchy. Rebels and organizerswere arrested.
3. Revolution 1931
12April 1931 Spain held municipal elections, which wonsupporters of the republic. April 14, King Alfonso XIII fled from the country, andthe same day, Spain was proclaimed a republic. It was a peaceful democraticrevolution. Authority took over the interim government headed by Mr. Zamora. The newGovernment faces old problems: the agrarian reform in a country wherelandowners owned 67% of the land, solving the national question, liquidationunemployment reached 40% of the working population. At that time in Spainformed four nations - Spanish, Catalan, Basque, Galician.The last three demanded autonomy. They owned 15.6% of the country withpopulation of 6 million people. On the agenda were relations and crisisof the Catholic Church, the Spanish national defense industryreform the army, whose top officers were onlycame from the landowners, and more - a number of social problems.
King Alfonso XIII
Temporarygovernment held elections to the Cortes, and adopted a series of laws aimed atsolve the above problems.
Proclamation of the Republic inSpain
Presidentchose A. Zamora. It was a new, democratic constitution. Churchseparated from the state. Likvidovuvalysya monastic religious orders. Cataloniagained autonomy. Оholosheno of the agrarian reform (in the purchase of state landownersland and its distribution among the peasants).
But indecision in government reform and the attack onLaw of the Catholic Church, which traditionally had a strong impact on farmers, ledto ensure that the elections in 1933 party won the right block. Theycurtailed reforms. Basque was denied autonomy. Againstopponents of the government used military force.
At the end of 1933 kolyshno second son of the dictatorJose Antonio de Rivera formed Prima Spanish Falange party (Spanishfascists). She advocated for the elimination of the republic, the establishment of a unitaryStates with strong authority for the empowerment of the Catholic Church.
JosePrima Antonio de Rivera
In1934 against the policies of the government began massive public appearances.Catalonia declared its independence in Asturias flared armeduprising. Because of the lack of unity of left forces all these performances was suppressed.
Notzmyryvshys of defeat, the left у January 1936 formed the Popular Front, who wasbroad reform program. Envisaged amnesty to all political prisoners,restoration of democratic rights and freedoms, granting autonomy to Cataloniahigher wages, lower taxes, the agrarian reform.The program was supported in elections in February 1936 Frentecame to power.
Basedon the army, right-wing forces began to prepare a revolt. At the head of the conspirators wereJose Antonio de Rivera Prima, General Sanhurno, directly preparedrebellion, and General Franco.
4. Civil War1936-1939 biennium
Mutinybegan July 17, 1936 in Spanish Morocco. The next day hespread to other parts of Spain. On the side of rebels took over 80% ofSpanish army (20 thousand officers on the side of the republic only 500 left)but the air force and navy remained loyal to the republic. The country startedcivil war. In the rebels immediately have a problem: where X A.PrimoRiver was arrested and executed, Sanhurno killed in plane crashFrench Moroccan troops from the Republican fleet was blocked inMorocco. Riot threatened to defeat, but came to the aid frankistamItaly and Germany, which threw the Moroccan army planes from Spain andgave the rebels arms. Subsequently, 200 thousand Italian and German troops tookin the war on the side frankistiv.
Remove the Spain! Francopropaganda poster
Franco,that in September 1936 led rebels, proclaimed goal rebellion: a"Totalitarian state, social peace and common prosperity."
General Franco and Mol -leaders of revolt
Beginningrebellion immediately turned to the Republican government the task of organizingfrankistam resistance. The challenge was the fact that Spanish industry did notproduced many kinds of military vehicles and equipment. Not enoughtrained military personnel. On appeal to the governments of Britain, France and USAwith a request to sell weapons Republicans have refused. The governments of these statesrelied on international law, prohibiting interference in internal affairsother states. Western governments and take into account their experience in Russia, where theirarmed intervention and support anti-Bolshevik forces were reverseresult.
Fighters from one interbryhad
Between 27countries signed an agreement on non-intervention in Spanish affairs. But Italy andGermany were not going to do this and is actively supplied weapons frankistam. InOctober 1936 USSR announced that it would not comply with the agreement, sendmilitary advisers to Republican supply them weapons. In Defense of the RepublicSpain came to various estimates from 35 to 42 thousand people who soughtfight against fascism. Of these teams were established internationally.
Table: Supplymilitary equipment to Spain (1936-1939 biennium)
USSR Germany Italy
Aircraft 648 593 656
Tanks / armored vehicles 347/120 250 950
Guns 1186 700 1930
Machine guns 20486 31000 3436
Guns 497813 157306 240747
Mortars 340 6174 1426
Cartridges (million units) 826 250 324
Shells (mln.sht) 3,4 1,1 7,7
InSeptember 1936 was formed the new Republican-led governmentLargo Caballero, who held a series of reforms. On the territory controlled by him wasabolished landlordism, the land transferred to farmers nationalizedlarge-scale industry. Other enterprises were transferred to control the unions.Catalans and Basques have autonomy. But the political regime graduallyevolved in the direction of democracy, protection of which was the main objectiveWar. This is partly explained by time of war, the main reason wasthe growing influence of Communists, who relied on the support of the USSR. Spanish Communists who copied the actions of communistsin the USSR, began to struggle against the Trotskyites, who had considerable influence inCatalonia, and anarchists. There vstanovyvsya terror punitive organs. InSpain even an attempt was made to hold a demonstration by the Soviet exampleThe trial of Trotskyists, who allegedly maintained links with the Nazis.Thus, the Spanish democracy ceased to exist before the Spanish killedRepublic.
Frankisty in combat positions
In1936-1937 biennium major hostilities there were around Madrid, but all offensivesfrankistiv was repulsed. Did not help them and "fifth column" (Secret supportersrebels) in the same city. After an unsuccessful attempt to capture Madrid frankistivGermany and Italy started to openly intervene by entering the country its troops(German Legion Condor, an Italian expeditionary force, Portuguesetroops, etc., total about 200 thousand). Attempting to cause the Italian caseblow from the northwest by the Republican troops that defended Madridwas unsuccessful. In the town of Guadalajara in March 1937Italian building was destroyed.
Death during the attackRepublicans
Afterthis defeat frankisty concentrated major efforts in Catalonia, tryinguse conflict between the Communists and Trotskyists. 3-6 May1937 Trotskyites? Largo Caballero supported, made in Barcelonaarmed speech to protest the policies of the communists. In April 1938Army snapped frankistiv Catalonia from the rest of the country. AttemptRepublicans break the blockade army offensive in July 1938 no successsmall. In early 1939 Catalonia was captured. Territorycontrolled by Republicans, appeared to be isolated from France.
Republicans are movingFrench border
Frank after victoryrewards its supporters
February 27, 1939 by England and France broke diplomatic relations with the RepublicanGovernment and recognized the Franco government. Once in the international isolation (USSR almost ceasedarms, 1938 from Spain were brought internationallyCDR), March 6, 1939 Defense commander Colonel Madrid Kasadomade a coup toppled the Republican government and entered into negotiations withFranco. Trying Communist uprising was suppressed. In the areacontrolled by Republicans, joined Franco's troops. In Spain it wasset up a dictatorship of General Franco (March 1939 - November1975). Frankisty resorted to reprisals against their opponents. From1939 until 1944 extraordinary tribunals carried out executions 200thousand, 270 thousand were prisonprisoners, 300 thousand were forced to leave home.
Warcostly Spaniards: killed 1 million people, 500 thousand leftcountry. She lay in ruins. The Popular Front in Spain was a form of struggleagainst fascism, but it was not an alternative.
Documents and materials
Requirements for the rally organized byFrente February 29, 1936
1. Restoration work on all workers and employees, retiredfor participating in strikes or political movements since 1934, andcompensation for their losses.
2. Distribution of amnesty for those political prisoners which was condemned as a criminalcriminals.
3. A to responsibility for arbitrarinessduring the rebellion in 1934, punishing all membersmilitary and civilian authorities are guilty of brutal conduct of politicalprisoners.
4. Discharge officers - enemiesrepublican regime.
5. Development of public works programs to combatagainst unemployment.
6. Disbanding and disarmament of fascist gangs are dangerous for the democraticdevelopment.
Inquiries to document
1.Differentiated socio-economic and political demands of protesters.
2. Whatmeeting the requirements of the program coincided with the provisions of the Popular Front in France?
Chief Military Adviser to the MilitaryCommissariat Republican Army IM Nesterenko strategy of Frank
"The evolution of French strategy can be singled out three stages.The first - when the operation was designed as a colonial punitive expeditions.Second - when following the failure of these operations has started a war of positionapproaches to Madrid. Finally, the third, when moved to the maneuverability of war thatcompleted in spring 1938 breakthrough toward Vinaresa. In CatalanBattle 1938-1939 biennium frankisty won with a considerable number ofmilitary equipment?
Inquiries to document
1.Specify the chronological limits of each period specified military advisor.
2. Whatcan we explain this evolution strategy Franco in the civil war?
Questions and Tasks
1. Asinfluenced ПershaWorld War II on the development of Spain?
2. Givecharacteristic of dictatorship M. Prima de Rivera.
3. When andas was overthrown the monarchy in Spain?
4.Describe the government's A. Zamora.
5. Thatled to the creation of the Popular Front? Give an assessment of its program.
6.Find out the causes of civil war in Spain.
7. Asdeveloping events on the fronts of the civil war?
8. Whatposition occupied by the great powers of the civil war?
9.What are the main reasons for the defeat of Republicans in the Civil War.
Note the dates:
1923-1930 biennium- Military-monarchicalPrima dictatorship M. de Rivera.
April 12, 1931Victory for Republicansmunicipal elections.
1936- The coming to powerPopular Front.
July 1936 -March 1939The Spanish Civil War.
1939-1975 biennium- The dictatorship of GeneralFranco in Spain.