§ 21. Germany
1. The defeat of Germany in Пershiy World War
July 18, 1918 Entente forces entered the decisiveoffensive against German troops. The German army quickly vidkochuvalysya back. Bysuch circumstances, the Chief of General Staff of the German Hindenburg finallyconvinced that the war is lost.
August 14, 1918 He told the emperorWilhelm II, the need to achieve a diplomatic end to a warway, while German troops are on enemy territory. Besidesone by one began to capitulate allies Germany: Sep 291918 - Bulgaria, 10 October - Turkey, November 3 -Austria-Hungary.
October 3, 1918 German Chancellor has been appointedMax Badin, who appealed to President Wilson asking fortruce.
In response, Wilson demanded even before the negotiationsGerman forces withdraw from captured territories, Kaiser resignation, creatingresponsible to the Reichstag government. Germany was forced to agree tothese conditions. Article of the constitution was abolished, which fixed the responsibilitygovernment to the Kaiser. It began discussions about resignationWilhelm II. He meanwhile went to bid the German troops in the Westfront.
Costly war Germany: more than 2 milliondead, millions wounded and hurt, considerable material losses, althoughthe fighting was done not on its territory and it has not been destroyed duringhostilities.
2. The revolution in Germany
Revolutionary Unit (November 91918)
German Revolution began with revolt November 3, 1918 by militarysailors in Kiel, angry attempt to quit Command fleet in the last battlethat by sacrificing him, achievebetter terms of armistice. Transition of power in the hands of Kiel sailors and foundationtheir first council in Germany has caused a chain reaction throughout the country. The government slipped from the handsgovernment. November 9, 1918 Reich Chancellor Max Badin hastenedover power to the Social Democrat Friedrich Ebert Foundation and the Kaiser's abdication was announced onWilhelm II, who fled to the Netherlands. Germany was declaredrepublic. November 10 Berlin Council has established a provisional government - CouncilPeople of Commissioners, consisting of representatives of the two workers' parties:Social Democratic Party (SPD) and the Independent Social DemocraticParty (NSDPN). The Council of People's Commissioners abolished the emergencylaws, established 8-hour day and ordered businesses to signcollective agreements with trade unions, called for the convening of the Constituent Assembly forconstitution-making. Its name was signed Komp'yenske truce, warover.
Council of People's representatives -Revolutionary Government of Germany
At the same time the country entered the socialist movement forrevolution for the establishment of government councils and the immediate socialization of property. Ledthis movement stood a group of "Spartacus", whose members were in formalNSDPN. Led a group of Karl Liebknecht and Rosa Luxemburg. There was a polarizationforces from the obvious benefit to the government side. Vsenimetskyy First Congress of Soviets in December1918 refused to endorse the slogan "All power to the Soviets!" andcalled for elections to the Constituent Assembly, scheduled for January 191919 In early January, the Communist Party formed SpartacusGermany, together with part of the "independent" tried to establishcontrol over Berlin and several other cities, giving a pretext for openarmed the speech of their political rivals. The Social Democrats, and enlistingsupport the military, took decisive action. January 12, they crushed the performanceCommunists and established full control over Berlin. January 15 were killed KarlLiebknecht and Rosa Luxemburg. Trying Communists come to power through armedwas eliminated.
Fights in Berlin in January 1919
3. Weimar Republic
Conducted January 19 elections to the Constituent Assembly gave victoryright and centrist parties. Communists boycotting the elections.
Constituent Assembly worked in the quiet town of Weimar, whichsouthern Germany. Developed their constitution and the republic, founded on itsbasis, called the Weimar.
The Constitution has introduced in Germany and universal suffragecivil liberties. Germany proclaimed a federal republic withstrong presidential authority, but responsible to the Reichstag government.Friedrich Ebert was elected the first president. The second and last presidentWeimar Republic was in 1925 General Field Marshal Hindenburg.
But revolutionary sentiment in Germany has long been givenevident. April 13, 1919 for three weeks in the Soviet government establishedBavaria in 1920 the law forces committed mutiny (Kappovskyy putsch ") for three daysseized power in Berlin, but strong resistance to narazyvshys population haveto retreat, 1923powerful performances of workers occurred in Saxony and Thuringia, and in Hamburg infuture direction of the German Communist Party leader Ernst TelmanArmed rebellion broke out, provoked by the Soviet Union.
Parade "red soldiers" -paramilitary organization of CPN (1926)
Apart from the political turmoil the young republic had to cope with economic andcrisis caused by the demands of the Entente countries to pay reparations incredible. AttemptFrance and Belgium by occupation of Ruhr - the industrial heart of Germany - whichdava 70% coal and 50% of steel, yet moreaggravated the situation. In Germany, began an unprecedented hyperinflation: in the middle1922 dollar was worth 10 marks, then 1 million a year makes. One hundredprinting factories not keep printing new money and zeros on bank notesdomalovuvaly in banks. For wage workers hadto the basket. Prices in shops changed every hour. But due to hyperinflationstate got rid of all the war debts, and businesses were actuallykrydyty bearing. Greatly reduced salary - it was 40%war. Unemployment reached 6 million people.
Banknotes in the twenty-one hundred billionsbrands
Workers from basket clothes go get wages
In this situation all the raised head antyveymarski force as from the left (Communists)and the right (Nazi). Only through decisive action by governments Shtrezemana thatsupported the army managed to rescue the situation. A plan will be implemented Dauesafacilitated the economic situation of the country. In 1929 Germany received 11 billionkrydytiv dollars, which helped restore pre-war economic performance.The main thing over the years in the German economy qualitative changes have occurred: theradical modernization, pidpryyenytstvo covered the broad massespopulation, Germany has taken top positions in the automotive, aviation andchemical industry. Wages grew by 60%. In 1929 Germaneconomy gave 10% of world production and 12% of world trade. Butfigures could be much better, as not paying reparations that were2.5 billion marks a year. For their benefit introduced high taxes (2 timesexceeded pre-war), both direct and indirect, particularly on beer.
4. ConceptionFascist (Nazi) movement
The fascist movement arose in Germany immediately after World War II.
The cause was retribution mood after losing the warand signing the humiliating Treaty of Versailles conditions, social insecuritymost of the population because of the growing post-war devastation, reactionBolshevik policy of export of world revolution.
Treaty of Versailles was the father of Nazism.Cartoon
National Socialist Labour PartyGermany (NSDAP), which became the center of gravity of all fascists, was established in 1919 (up to 1920it was called the Workers' Party of Germany). Relatively quickly leader of this partyAdolf Hitler was. In 1923 Nazis tried to organize a revolt inBavaria ("Beer Hall Putsch"), but failed. All Nazi Party leadership has ended up inin `prison. Herein in 'prison Hitler wrote a book "Mein Kampf" (My struggle), whichoutlined the main program provisions fascist movement in Germany. In20-ies they barely zhyvotily. The rapid growth of their influence began underthe economic crisis, 1929-1933,
Speech by Adolf Hitler on one of the firstMeeting Nazis
GermanNazism is not raised at the city level, it had its ideological roots.Predecessors of Nazi ideology was a French sociologist Joseph Arthur deHobino and English aristocrat and Houston Сtyuart Chamberlain. Hobino created chotyrohtomnu work"Experience of inequality of human races", which argued that the white race hasadvantages over others, and its elites are Aryans. Aryans he attributed to population Сkandynavskoho PeninsulaEngland, Ireland, Holland, parts of France and Germany. Hobyno thought Germans,living in western Germany the best Aryans. Chamberlain formed racialtheory that proved the benefits of the Aryans: "Lord God now relies on only oneGermans? ". Chamberlain became more avid German nationalist than most Germans.Meeting with Hitler made him at last a huge impact.
Importantrole in the formation of Nazi ideology played little Thule Society, whichwas formed in Мyunheni byexample of Masonic lodges. His declared objective of the study and itdavnohermanskoyi popularization of literature and culture. Also, members of the associationpromoted racial superiority of Germans and the need to create the Third Reich. OnEmblem of the Society was drawn swastika, and the company divisions were: "MonumentRemember, youGerman. Keep your blood clean. "
Also, the Nazis borrowed frazyolohiyu "superhuman", which will rule onEarth and the cult of the strong person in the philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche. The Nazis considered themselves"Nadlyudmy.
Not to not after the Nazis came to power and not createcomplete, rigorous philosophical and ideological systems. Their ideology wascompilation of racism, anti-Semitism, chauvinism, nationalism, conservatism,socialism and so on.
5. CrisisWeimar Republic. Nazis coming to power
ЕCONOMIC crisis of 1929-1933, became the Weimar crisisRepublic. High unemployment, mass destruction of peasants and artisans demandedextreme government measures to alleviate the situation of the people. But governmentschanged, were in thrall to old patterns, they pursued a policysavings urizayuchy the already low social costs. Was increasedtaxes on essentials, reduced pensions deniedhelp the unemployed who have not attained 21 years of age.
Such a policy could not but cause frustration and givecause for criticism not only of those who was in power, but democracy in general.In the fall of the Weimar Republic Affected authority and widespreadbelieved that it contributed to creating infamous Versailles Treaty. Somehow in the yearscrisis began gaining strength of the party that opposed democracy, and among them,above all, the Nazis, who promised to establish a firm rule and lead the country outcrisis. Influence of parties that were in support of the Weimar Republic, quicklyfell, and 1932 they already represent a minority of citizens. The Nazis werelargest political party in Germany.
Distribution of the Nazis free lunchunemployed
Base mass fascist movement werenationalism artisans, peasants, war veterans, the unemployed. Support is provided Nazisinfluential circles of the large capital of Germany.
The working class less exposed to the Nazis, butsignificant part of it also opposed the Weimar Republic, supportedCommunists - supporters of the socialist revolution. Fierce disputes andacute struggle between them and the Social Democrats made it impossible to singleanti-fascist actions of leftists, as it was in France in 1934-1936 biennium Nazismanaged to attract to their side in desperate young democracies: 1 / 3 members of the NSDAPwere people under the age of 30 years. Impact on voter behavior and tacticsstruggle that has been used by the Nazis. Fighters, and attacked the SSrallies political rivals, beating activists of other political parties,intimidate the population of entire districts. Their actions, in turn, showed weaknesslegitimate authority, which sometimes was unable to maintain order in the elementarycities and ensure safety of citizens.
Fatal to the Weimar Republic played a rolerepresentatives of the traditional military-bureaucratic elite of Germany, politicaleffect are not removed Revolution 1918 Its representatives believed that itNazis are the force that is able to address the risk rvolyutsiyi, economic collapse andensure the revival of Germany. In October 1931 its nationalistminded representatives formed the Hartsburhskyy Front ", which proclaimedNazis force the country's most promising and encouraged industrial and financial circlesto finance them.
Policeclears the way for the Reichstag deputies Nazi
In April 1932 held elections of the President. Althoughthey won Hindenburg, Hitler was not far behind from it. That same year,held parliamentary elections that have strengthened over the Nazis. For themvoted 14 million voters or 37%. The main rivals of the Naziselections were the Social Democrats and Communists, which in case of objectstheir unionmohlyb efforts to prevent the victory of the Nazis. But this did not happen. Afterelections were formed government headed by von Papenom. This government was called "officebarons "of the large number of titled people in its stock. Ole this governmenthad no support either in Parliament, not the people. He sought to supportthe Nazis by giving free rein to Stormers (SA), but it only strengthenedposition of the Nazis. Finally in November 1932 took place earlyparliamentary elections. During these elections, no party will not nabрala majority. Naziseven lost some votes. Over voted 33% of voters. By Communists voted 17%voters. Hitler was in despair. Rumor has it that he was prepared to impose on themselveshands. It was at this moment when the crisis approached to the end and there are signsthe fall of Nazi influence, the crucial role played by the military-industrial elite, whichused his influence on President Hindenburg, handed it to mandateGovernment of Adolf Hitler. January 20, 1933 it becameReich Chancellor - the head of government.
6. Becoming Fascistdictatorship
Dostupyvshys the executive power, the Nazis were consistentElimination of the regime of political democracy in Germany. Using as a pretextarson of the Reichstag that his own and organized, they have resorted to openterror against their political opponents - the Social Democrats andcommunists. Against the last was held open trial. First of all, Hitler had madeHindenburg signed a special decree on the protection of people andState, which eliminated the fundamental rights of citizens and provided unlimitedpunitive powers authority. The Nazis held new elections to the Reichstag,hoping to get a majority in it. But election results inMarch 1933 they are not satisfied: the Communists and Social Democrats whowere in hiding, received 30,6% of votes, the Nazis - 43,9%.Do not assemble an absolute majority, since the Nazis finally refusedfrom trying to cover up his regime at least visibility and preservation of democracyconstitution.
Nazimarch in honor of the appointment of Adolf Hitler reyhkantslerom (1933)
An important step in strengthening the power of Hitler was destroying himtheir political opponents in the party. Leader Stormers (SA), Ernst Remfavored the continuation of the national-socialist revolution ", ie reProperty in Germany that Hitler could deprive the support of big capital.To settlejazaty problem kordynalno Hitler by security detachments (SS) vnichon June 30, 1934 physically destroying the SA leaders. This event became knowncalled "Night of Long Knives"
The principle of separation of power, lying at the heart of Weimarrepublic has been rejected, the government submitted legislative functions. Hitler isassigned the powers of President Hindenburg, who died in 1934 So allfullness of power in Germany was in the hands of Hitler. There wereadministrative reform, which cleared the land and local parliamentsgovernment. Authorities at all levels do not pass into the hands of elected andappointed by top officials.
In1933 already been formally banned all political parties? NSDAP except thatmerged with the state. Party functionaries automatically became stateofficials of the appropriate level. Such a drastic change of political system and sociallife accompanied by violence and gave rise to increased punitive organsstate. SA and SS are part of the apparatus of violence. , The Statesecret police (Gestapo), and since 1933 across the country wereconcentration camps to hold them all useless regime people. It waseliminated the basic political rights of citizens - freedom of speech, assembly,security of home and privacy of correspondence.
The first prisoners of Nazi concentrationcamps
7. Economic policyNazis
Important changes have occurred in the German economy. Government Hitlerwent on to unprecedented peacetime expansion of government regulationeconomic life, at first - in order to resolve the crisis.
The money was deployed state buildingnationwide network of high-speed freeways, allowing once sharplyreduce the number of unemployed and revive the construction industry. Sometime afterfocused on accelerated development of military industry.Military spending increased from 620 million to 15.5 billion Reichsmark in1933-1938 biennium In order to stimulate economic growth introducedtax benefits. With increased spending and tax cuts camebudget deficit, which covered the release of paper money. To preventimpairment and their prices, the government introduced price controls and wageand began a gradual transition to the card distribution system. This increasedextent of state regulation of economy.
The feature of the economy of Nazi Germany was a directadministrative regulation of economy of the state. To do this, all entrepreneurswere united in cartels and subordinated to the imperial ministereconomy. When in 1936 adopted a four-year development planmilitary industry, authorized to implement the plan assignedH. Hering. Office created it took control of the entire economy.The state became a direct holder of many enterprises that weremainly confiscated from the Jews during the ariyizatsiyi "industry. Yesfactories of public concern "Herman Goering" was employed600 thousand employees and 7.29 million tons vyplavlyalosya steel.
FascistState also has established control over the labor market and laborrelations. In the last years of the Weimar Republic was built on the recognitionconflicts of interests of workers and employers, which was resolved throughtariff agreement between organizations representing the interests of eachparties. For the Nazis, such an approach was unacceptable in principle. Employmentthey tried to build relations based on their ideas about the superioritynational interests and considered possible harmony between labor and capital undersupervision of the state. In Nazi Germany was eliminated trade unions, andinstead they created the German working front, which included workers andemployers. Managers were "leaders of laborteam, and control over labor relations went to special"Trustees of labor", appointed by the government. Control over salaryfee was added for the general labor duties.
During hardstate control in natsystskiy Germany were taken and foreign trade. The purpose of herregulation was to reduce the country's dependence on imports. Respectivelytake any measures to promote those industries that import zastupaly:synthetic gasoline, rubber. All this is also dictated the overall militaryNazis and the preparation was calculated to neutralize possible in casewar, blockade of Germany.
Tobeginning ДruhoyiWorld War I German economy has changed dramatically. By savingprivate property has been significantly restricted freedom of enterprise. Market goodsand services, labor market was replaced by state regulation. Almost stoppedfunctioning market economy. All these events precipitated complex outGerman crisis. In 1935, it reached pre-crisis level of production, anduntil 1939 considerably exceeded it. Reduced unemployment: 1933it amounted to 6 million people in 1934 - 3 million in 1936 - was almosteliminated. But the crisis itself was not anything phenomenal, because of1933 All Western countries take a strip of economic recovery. Shouldkeep in mind that higher rates of recovery in Germany were largelycaused by the militarization of its economy. The price of this success was the complete eliminationrights and freedoms established in the country forced atmosphere of mindchauvinist revelry and general suspicion.
8. Mass violence.Repression. Anti-Semitism
Life нацGermany strongly ystskiydiffered from those cherished pictures that were created propaganda. Violencebecome massive. Until early 1935 killed more than 4200opponents of Nazism, arrested 515 thousand people. Prior to 1939 incustody, there were more than 300 thousand souls. Hundreds of thousands of Germans emigrated inincluding the flower of intellectuals - the physicist Albert Einstein, writersThomas and Heinrich Mann, Lion Feyhtvanher, Bertolt Brecht, composers Uysner Gan,Otto Klemperer, Paul Hindemit.
The public humiliation by the NazisJews
Anti-Semitismbecame official policy of the fascist state (in 1933 in Germany livedabout 500 thousand Jews). Already in spring 1933 began the organized powerboycott all establishments that belonged to Jews. In 1935, adopted a series oflaws that deprived Jews of German citizenship and forbade them to holdpositions within the state apparatus ("Nyurberzki laws"). Mixed marriages were prohibited. From1939 Jews began to turn out in designated buildings and quarters(Ghetto). They were not allowed to appear in public places, many resort toactivities, they were obliged to wear a yellow embroideredhexagonal star. Against the night from 9 to November 10, 1938 powerorganized pogrom against the Jews ("Crystal Night", when it was broken andlooted Jewish shops, pharmacies, etc.), whose victims were dozensthousands of people. It was prepared soil for extermination of Jews in occupiedGermany during the war countries. 6 million Jews were victims of racialNazi madness.
Besides Jews Racial Discrimination since 1935 weresubjects and Roma (in Germany they lived about 22 thousand people.). They hadbe cut off as representatives of "nyschoyi" race.
НацChg sought to establish control over and awareness of people.The media - print, radio - depended on the ministerPropaganda Joseph Goebbels. His office was at the service of Nazism:artists, poets, composers had to glorify Hitler sing advantagesAryan race and the new order. Germany had to personify greatness cyclopeanbuildings.
Nazi Book Burning
Control of the mass consciousness and was carried throughtotal coverage of Nazi organizations and politicalcampaigns. German labor front linking 23 million people in the youthof "Hitler-Jugend owned over 8 million Membership in thesewas mandatory. In addition, there were various Nazi alliances thatunited people under occupation, aptitudes, hobbies and more. All they had toattend rallies and meetings, participate in public events. Evasionall this was evidence of dissent and allowed to purposefully deal with itsymptoms.
Documents and materials
From conversations with Deputy EbertChief of Staff Hrenerom November 9, 1918
Hrener: "Does the government intend toprotect Germany from anarchy and restore order?
Ebert: "Yes," intends ".
G. - In this case High Command supportdiscipline in the army and peacefully bring it home.
E. - How to put High Command SoldiersTips?
GA - Given orders to treat them amicably.
E. - The High Command that he expects from the government?
GA - High Command expects the Governmentcooperate with the officer corps in the suppression of Bolshevism and inmaintaining discipline in the army.
E. - Do keep Field Marshal (Hindenburg) command?
G. - Yes.
E. - Field Marshal Give thanks to the Government.
Questions to document
What the consequences brought this conversation?
Weimar constitution. August 111919
? Article 20. Reichstag is composed of members of Germanpeople.
Article 21. MPs are representatives of the people. Theysubject only to their conscience and not bound by mandates.
Article 22. Deputies are elected by universal, equal, direct andclassified on the basis of submission of votes proportional representation, men and women have reached 20 years of age.
Article 23. The Reichstag is elected for 4 years.
Article 41. The President is elected to the German Empirepeople. May be elected every German, are at least 35 years.
Article 43. Empire is elected president for 7 years.Re-election is possible ...
Article 109. All Germans are equal before the law. Men and womenin principle have the same rights and bear identical responsibilities. Public-legalprivileges and limitations caused by birth or status, are subject to cancellation.
Article 114. Personal freedom is inviolable.
Article 115. Accommodation of every German is its free storage.It is inviolable.
Article 118. Every German has the right within the generallaws to freely express their opinions orally, in print, picture or massotherwise. This law can not hinder any work or in relationshipsservice, and no one has the right to inflict damages for what he enjoysthis right. Censorship is not allowed.
Article 123. All Germans have the right to assemble peacefully and withoutweapons, without previous notification and without asking special permission.
Article 124. All Germans have the right to form unions orunions for purposes not contrary to criminal law. This right may notface restrictions on coercive measures.
Article 125. Guaranteed freedom and secret elections.
Article 153. Properties in the Constitution.
Questions to document
Prove that the Weimar constitution was democraticcharacter.
Utterance after the defeat of Hitler"Beer Hall Putsch (1923)
? If I vdamsya back to politics, it will be a new policy.In a change to win power by force of arms, we, for evilMPs Catholics and Marxists, straightway nose in the Reichstag. However, youwill have more time to their pereholosuvaty than the fact that they shoot? Buttheir own constitution will lead us to success. Every legal procedure lastslong?, but sooner or later we will win a majority, and therefore Germany.
Inquiries to document
1. WhyNazis despised democratic procedures, and used them to bothseizure of power?
2. Whatprovisions of the Weimar constitution contributed to the plans of the Nazis?
The problem with German textbookMathematics for secondary schools. 1939
"Junkers" departed with a cargo of 12 dozen bombs, eachweight of 10 kg. The plane is headed towards Warsaw, the center of world Jewry. Hebombards the city. In case of relegation with a full bomb load and fullFuel tank containing 1500 kg of fuel. plane weighs 8 tons Ofplane returning from his crusade, he still has 230 lbsfuel. What is the proper weight of the aircraft? "
Inquiries to document
1. WhatYour opinion about the problem?
2. With whatrelated to her appearance in a school textbook?
3. Whatrole played by propaganda in the formation and consolidation of totalitarian regimes?
4. Whatideological punches were laid in the problem?
Questions and Tasks
1. Whatcauses and consequences of the November revolution in 1918?
2. WhyCommunists could not take power during the revolutionynyh Events 1918-1919 рр.?
3. Onwhat principles established Weimar Republic? Find out weaknessesWeimar Republic.
4. Whatcauses of fascism in Germany?
5. Whateffects of economic crisis 30's for Germany?
6.Find out stages of the coming нацystiv topower. What factors contributed to this process?
7. Givecharacteristic нацystskohoregime in Germany.
8. Ascan assess the economic policies of Nazi?
9. Whatobjective pursued by the Nazis in their domestic politics? Give moral and legalassessment methods that were used нацysty to achieve his goal.
10. WhyRacism was one of atSnov нацyzmu?
Note the dates:
November 3, 1918- Start a revolution inGermany.
November 9, 1918- The overthrow of the monarchyand the proclamation of the republic.
January 1919- Armed performanceCommunists in Berlin.
1919-1933 biennium- WeimarRepublic.
April-May 1919- The Bavarian SovietRepublic.
1923- Mutiny NazisBavaria.
1933- Installationfascist dictatorship in Germany.