§ 20. Italy
1. Implications Пershoyi World War
Italy was serednorozvynenoyu country in Europe. Participation inFirst World War had cost him very dearly: 700 thousand people, 450 thousanddisabled, 1 million casualties, the country lost a third of the nationalwealth. After defeat at Kaporetto in October 1917 She appeared on theoutside of a disaster, and only support troops Allies saved Italy from that.
The economic situation was extremely critical of the country: noenough food, fuel, basic necessities. Millionspeople who came to town to factories and army were mobilized to find themselvesredundant. In the country there were more than 2 million unemployed. During the war yearscountry's external debt increased by 4,5 times, which had nothing to give.
Italians hope that peace will bring relief, not justified.Great Powers, in assessing the contribution of Italy to the war as too low, did not observehis words (secret agreement on the transfer of Italy's eastern Adriatic coastSea and even some areas)? given before the entry of Italy into the war. Itreceived only South Tyrol and Trieste. Italy was "among the vanquishedwinners.
Severe financial and economic situation deprived the government of the countryopportunities to take actions to improve people's lives. And trustto the constitutional order collapsed. Postwar decline in production, demobilizationArmy further sharpened social problems and led to the deployment in the 1920-1921 bienniummasslabor movement, which dominated the radical movements. Strikes workersaccompanied by seizure of factories and the creation of factory councils (FZR)Who took over the functionslocal authorities. Formed Red Guard units. This movementcovered mainly the northern industrialized countries and areas entered inhistory as the "red biennium.
Workers at the plant seizedFiat
Thissituation in the country led to the loss in popularity of traditional parties. Allsegments of society demanded changes. Prior to these changes even called the Catholic Church.The most popular socialists. But the split in their ranks onsupporters of Bolshevism (later formed the Communist Party Italy led by Togliatti) andSocial Democrats have not given them to capture вorder hochab or consolidate the achievements of the labor movement.
The working wife
2. The emergence of fascism
Call ownership configured against the labor movementsmall hosts (artisans, merchants, etc.) and the peasantry, to whichthey did not trust the current authorities.
The mood of these segments of the population wandered in the Fascistmovement that arose in 1919 He combined the ideas of revanchism, anti-communismand social demagoguery. The Nazis professed ideas subordination of all interestscountry's state and nation. They believed that social performances that split andweakened the nation must ruthlessly suppress.
In 1919-1920 he Nazis were not serioushazard. In the elections of 1919 they received no mandate.
IdeologistItalian fascist Gabriele d'Anuntsio leads a conversation with Mr Mussolini
Growth of their influence helpedretribution mood that includes all segments of Italian society. This wave of Nazis resortedto force action, capturing the territories that they had promised, but gave no Entente.Yes, the autumn of 1919 detachment of Nazis led by the poet Gabriele D'Annunziocaptured the port of Rijeka. This contributed to the emergence of Nazi halo around the Patriots.
Gabriele d'Anuntsio vyizhdzhaye in Rijeka(1919)
Spring 1921 Nazi troops in the name restorationorder and preservation of the "great nation" pogroms began workingorganizations. In response, workers organized themselves into "people'sWarriors, who entered into real battles with blackshirt. Italy wasscene of mass violence, and the government was unable to lead the country out of this state andto restore legitimacy. In November 1921 fascists have merged to formNational Fascist Party, led by a Mr Mussolini (Il Duce -leader). In 1932 she won the elections of deputies of the city. The attack of the fascistscaused the resistance of the workers. In 1922 was organized by Anti-Fasciststrike. But his poor organization led to the defeat.
3. The coming to power of fascism
Under such conditions, Mussolini, supported by largeindustrialists, and enlisting the "neutrality" of Vatican, compassionKing Victor Emmanuel III,, put the request to transfer power to the fascists.Proponents maintain the old order that no guarantee of order andlegitimacy, it turned out very little, and King ordered Mussolini to form a government.
Mussolini meets with the KingVictor-Emmanuel III
October 30, 1922 Mussolini-led troopsblackshirt entered Rome and head of government ("march on Rome").Thus in Italy opened the way to eliminate the liberal democracy andestablishment of fascist dictatorship.
"March on Rome"(30 October 1922)
First, the government of Mussolini was limited. Government whichhe headed, composed of representatives of the old right-wing parties were givenemergency powers for one year to organize and finance guidanceorder. Mussolini's government passed into private ownership unprofitable statecompany reduced the budget deficit. Suppressed the strike movement. To fixNazis begin to create success napivpartiyni parastatal bodiesbegin to assume governmental functions. So, at the head of government wascreated by the Fascist Grand Council, along with the police (carabineers) createdVoluntary national security police, which was formed from blackshirt.
The advent of fascists to power coincided with a period of economicexaltation. Industrial production rose from 1920 until 192860%. Italy turned in industrial and agricultural country. But the developmentindustry has been uneven, the advantage had military industry. In additionBut the southern region remained underdeveloped.
4. Fashyzatsiya country
The firstNazi successes have provided them the sympathy of the majority. Mussolini hastenedThis fix the election. Adopted a new electoral law under which a party thatgaining 50% 1 votes gets 2 /3 seats. And the success of the fascistselections in 1924 has been challenged opposition parties(Communist, socialist, some liberals) who formed a "Aventynskyyblock. To clear the way for an exclusive power of Mussolini resorted to drasticaction. The impetusfashyzatsiyi country to become a "cause Matteoti. One opposition leaderGiacomo Matteoti June 1, 1924 delivered a speech in parliament, in whichNazis accused of rigging elections and demanded cancellation of mandatesMPs-fascists. After 10 days he was kidnapped and murdered. But the king did notMussolini was removed from power? as demanded by the majority population.
"AventynskyyBlock на markprotest left the parliament, hoping that it would thus be paralyzedthe work of parliament and new elections will be appointed. But this did not happen.Mussolini announced that the rising second wave "fascism" and put forward the slogan:"All power to the fascists." After the country began pogroms opposition. ByMussolini had no opposition through parliament a series of laws thatrestrict democratic rights. Duce was released from liabilityParliament and received the right unilaterally to issue decrees. Localreplaced by the prefect, who was appointed by Il Duce. Banned all trade unions andpolitical parties except the Nazi. Created the tribunal and the secret police. Was introduceddeath penalty. Began mass arrests (one day arrested12 thousand communists). In 1926, the country was established one-partysystem. Political life died
Foreconomic management in 1927 created the corporate system (in1934 there were 22 corporations in all sectors of the economy). Eachcorporation united representatives of industrialists, trade unions and fascistNazi Party functionaries. It was eliminated unemployment. The Government wasreplaced by the Fascist Grand Council and the Parliament - the Chamber of corporations.
Importantelement of state economic regulation was the InstituteIndustrial Reconstruction (IRI), which shifted control of several largebanks and corporations.
OutsideDuce remained only power church in conflict with which Il Duce did not dare, becauseMost Italians were devout Catholics. In 1929 Mussolini madeagreement with the Pope (Concordat)Under which the state formed the Vatican, CatholicChurch received a number of privileges.
Signing of the Lateran Agreements(Concordat) between the Pope and B. Mussolini
Fascistsfelt that they created a perfect model of the state. And in 1929 to ІII came waist economiccrisis. In 1932 bilshys companies were unprofitable, unemployment amounted to amillion people, real wages declined by a third. Major banksedge of bankruptcy. To overcome the crisis of Mussolini resorted to moremore governmentalization all sides of society. IRI was directlymanages 30% industry, and indirectly another 49%. Populationmobilizovuvalos to massive "Battle for Bread", when all the Italians, along with Il Duce("First tractor") - to the silver screen - worked the fields. For success in this"Battle" given combat orders. Opened massive work on milioratsiyi ValleyBy river, by building hundreds kilomentriv highway, dams and so on. Began massrebuilding of Rome, held enormous excavation. But despite alleffort, felt the lack of finance, rapidly growing national debt, taxesgrowing, declining gold reserves. The internal resources of the country had been exhausted.Mussolini was left to rely only on success in foreign expansion. "Warfor men too, and that motherhood for women, "- said Mussolini.
5. Expansionist claimsItaly. Creation of the Empire
Dostupyvshysto power, the Nazis tried to revive the Roman Empire and turn the Mediterranean Seain the "mare nostrum" ("our sea" as it was called oldRomans). Implementation of these aggressive plans - a direct path to war.The Nazis, along with the elimination of democratic institutions, have begun the processmilitarization of the economy and all aspects of community life. Resources of the countrymobilized for future aggressive wars.
Italian troops sentin Abessiniyu (Ethiopia)
The first victim of aggression of Italy was Ethiopia, which Italian troopscaptured in 1935-1936 he Aggressionagainst Ethiopia was condemned by countries (England, France, USA andetc..) against Italy introduced an economic blockade. The blockade was completeMussolini surprised that on the eve of aggression vytorhuvav rightEthiopian occupation in England and France (the Rome Pact 1935). In responseMussolini declared policy avtarhiyi (self). Population supportedDuce. There was limited imports. Buy foreign goods was considered unworthy.Gradually, Italy has a positive balance in foreign trade. Fascistactively disseminate propaganda Heads of Mussolini's "proletarian nation" thathave to deal with their existence under the sun with "rich and selfish"(England and France).
Proclamation Italian Empire
Onwave of patriotic exaltation May 9, Italy, 936 was declaredEmpire. Duce required "to raise the level of all imperial national lifecountry. Mass military and sports training, even children of fouryears. For the education of youth in fascist spirit created massive youthorganization. Pryscheplyuvavsya cult of strength and will. Nasadzhuvavsya personality cultMussolini. Everywhere visily slogans: "Duce is always right!". BillPanel crazyPreparation for War: Army increased numerically, naroschuvavsya issue weapons.Created with stress hard enough the country's army appeared to be armednew types of weapons and poorly equipped to conduct modern warfare. Imperialaspirations extremely exhausted the economy of Italy. It became clear that the fascistmodernization of the country failed. The situation does not benefit the country.The final collapse of Italian Fascism vidtyanuv Union, Germany, which gavesubstantial economic assistance, and sliding Дruhoyi World War.
Italian caricature of sanctionsEuropean States against Italy
6. Union of Germany
Desiremanufactured to world quickly led Italy to the rapprochement with Nazi Germanyand Japan, despite some disagreements over Austria and the Balkans. In addition,being the first fascist, Mussolini did not want to relinquish this role"Vyskochtsi" Hitler.
But, the first aggression against Ethiopia has proven that without Germany Italy incapabletake any serious action. Nevertheless, the rivalry between the two fascistleaders lasted until 1940, until Mussolini did not put up with the statusjunior partner in Germany.
In1937 Italy joined the Anti-Comintern Pact in 1939 andItaly and Germany made a "pact steel.
Hitler and Mussolini afterconclusion of "pact of steel"
The first joint action of Germany and Italy continued support in frankistivSpain in 1936-1939 he Italysent there 200,000th military corps and a large number of weapons.
У April 1939 Italy capturedAlbania? and 1940 entered Дruhu World War on the side of Germany. Enters the Warprecipitated the collapse of fascism in Italy.
Documents and materials
From the statement following the appointment of Mussoliniits head of government of Italy
"What what toThere were no, is - the government. That's me.And all I hear something good, allItalians must and will obey. Italians to this day no one obeyed.No government was in power in Italy. Italians should be managed?always, in all spheres of life. "
Inquiries to document
1. As youevaluate the application of Mussolini?
2. Whatwas caused by a daring performance Duce? What strength he has relied?
Reform of political representationMay 17, 1928
Article 1. The number of deputies tothe entire Kingdom is set in 400?
Article 2. Presidential Election held as follows:
a) Representation of the candidates organizationsspecified in Articles 3 and 4;
b) the appointment of deputies great NCAAfascists;
c) the approval of MPs voters.
Article 3. The right to nominate candidates isfirst officially recognized National Confederation of Trade Unions?
Article 4. In addition, to nominate candidates haveofficially recognized the right of educational, cultural, educational,propaganda and charitable nature that are of nationalvalue?
Article 5. Secretariat and the Great Council of fascists receivedproposal creates a single list of candidates in alphabetical order, indicatingagainst each name, which put forward? Great Council of fascists islist of assigned deputies way of free choice from the list of candidates, andalso if necessary, through the appointment of persons are not included in the list, but distinguished inon science, literature, art, politics and military affairs. MinistryInterior shall immediately publish the list.
Article 6. Voting for approval the list of designatedDeputies must be held the third week after its publication in"Gazzetta ufficiale. Voting by ballot? byformula: "Do you approve of the list of deputies appointed by the UnitedNCAA fascists? "
Poll responsesYes or no?
Article 10. The right to vote are Italianpeople over 21 and those of citizens, are aged 18 to 21 years married and have children, besides those andthey must meet one of the following conditions:
a) to pay union dues in accordance with the law? orbe an administrator or a member of one of the companies or any otherorganization which they would paycontributions under the same law, in joint stock companies and anonymous onlymembers recorded at least one year receive the franchise;
b) to pay no less than 100 lire per annum tax stateprovince, commune, or at least one year to be the holder of government securitiessecurities, bank or holder of securities issued or provincescommunes of 500 lire;
c) receive a stipend, salary or pension or otherpermanent salaries from the budget of the state, province or commune or fromother organizations approved by the law on guardianship and custody of stateprovincial or municipal level;
d) be a member of the Catholic clergy?
Inquiries to document
1. What was to be a representative body electedunder this law?
2.Provide examples from the document that indicate the nature of totalitarianfascist regime.
3.Using the story and paragraph document, make a scheme of stateauthorities in Italy.
Questions and Tasks
1. Whatwere consequences Пershoyi World War to the economic and socio-political developmentItaly?
2.Specify the territory annexed to Italy пince Пershoyi World War.
3. Whatcauses of fascism in Italy? Who became the leader of fascist movement inItaly?
4.Find out stages fashyzatsiyi Italy. Analyze the structure of governanceIt was created by the Nazis.
5. Thatcommon and distinctive features of fascist regimes in Italy and Germany?
6. Whatforeign policy conducted by the Nazis?
7. WhyItaly became the junior partner of Germany?
8. Whatfeatures of Italian Fascism?
Note the dates:
1920-1921 biennium - Redsecond anniversary "
1922 Coming fascistів до вin Ladakh Italy.
1929- Creation of StateVatican.
1935-1936 biennium- Italo-Ethiopianwar.
May 9, 1936 - Declaration of ItalyEmpire.
1939- SteelPact between Italy and Germany.