§ 19. USSR 20-30's
1. Industrialization in the USSR
Rebuilding the economy, ruined by years Пershoyi world andCivil War, the Bolsheviks set for the further developmentcountry. All was clear that the country needs modernization, which would have brought it toeconomic backwardness. The question was how to do it.
Industrialization Collectivization Mass repression "Cultural Revolution"
In XIV Congress of the CPSU (B) in December 1925 there wereapproved a strategy for accelerated growth industry? implementationimportozaminnoyi industrialization.
Launching the policy of industrialization began implementationGOELRO Plan (1920) - Plan the electrification of the country. Finally, this policy was adopted after approvaldirectives first five-year plan for economic developmentYears 1928/29-1932/33
Farmer interest with regardselectric light bulb ("lamp Ilyich)
The basis of the discussion that occurred in the party leadership was the question ofthatand IIPscale industrial construction in the USSR. Crucial here was the ideologicalfactor and the growing personality cult of Stalin. In this regard, the partymanagement were two key positions:
· A. Rykov? Sovnarkoma chairman, favored thebalanced development of agriculture and industry;
· L. Trotsky demanded implementationnadindustrializatsiyi (high rates of industrial development in the shortest possible time).
Propaganda poster the end of 1920years
Most members of CPSU (B) supported Rykov, but since 1928 Stalin began byEmergency policy measures on the peasantry and the accelerationindustrialization. This situation contributed to the development tasks and first five-yearplan. Of the two proposed options - minimal, which provided 18%growth rates of economic development for the year, and optimal, which involved20-22% increase was approved last that he subsequently adjusted in the directionsharp rise in indicators of development of heavy industries (Korehovanyyplan has involved the growth by 37% annually).
First five-year performed in difficult economic andpolitical conditions. Overstatement targets of economic development has causedimbalances and led to disruption of tasks. Official propagandadecided not to introduce the Soviet people with such failure and repeated the words ofspeeches of Stalin's insistence on the early tasks for the first five-year4 years and 3 months. Real growth rate of around 16%. But they werephenomenal for the economy. A planned is the first fiveyatyrichky withoutput of some product groups have been made only in the mid 1950's.
To implement these ambitious changes were required considerable resources.The main railwaySource ofindustrialization were:
· useincome public sector;
· nationalization of industry;
· increased direct and indirect taxes;
· use of labor and workers' enthusiasmgratuitous labor of political prisoners;
· forced collectivization of agricultureEconomy etc..
"Nadindustrializatsiya" led to the fallproductivity, reducing the number of consumer goods, increased cashemission (Juncordingceased to be converted), inflation, deterioration of financial positionpeople and as a result - introducing the card system and fallliving standards.
In the second Five (1933-1937 biennium) Stalinleadership moved to a more or less balanced policy rateseconomic development of the country. Although the result of itseconomy has performance targets for 10 indicators, in general, the taskfive years of development, despite official statements also not been met.
Results of industrialization in the estimation of modern historiansremain rather ambiguous.
On the one hand, the Soviet Union from a country that vvozyla machineinto a country that began independently to provide a machine and equipment. The economy creatednew areas: aircraft, automotive, chemical industry,agricultural machinery, power industry and others. but forvolumes of industrial production the Soviet Union ranked the second inworld. Soviet Union transformed from an agro-industrial to industrial and agriculturalcountry. On the other hand, the price was too high industrialization: the USSRwas undermined agricultural production, reduced production inlight and processing industries, coupled with a sharp decrease in qualitygoods, there was isolation of the Soviet economy from the world, held a generalgovernmentalization production facilities, increased centralization in the managementeconomies in establishing the command and administrative methods.Naynehatyvnishyy aspect of industrialization - and has not been addressedfor rising living standards. The interests and needs of people completely ignored?and her personality nivelyuvalas. In addition there were also numerous casualties
2. Collectivization in the USSR
Oneindustrialization of the sources was collectivized, now had to ensurecontrol of the CPSU (b) of the peasantry and suppress any attempts of peasantperformances. Collectivization began in decision XV Congress of the Bolshevik Party(1927), it has become an important part of the totalitarian system.
Implementationindustrialization exacerbated the situation in the agricultural sector. Spring 1928began with supply disruptions bread. When market prices risegrain farmers refused to sell the country grain at lower prices. SituationYou can easily change to adjust pricing - lowering pricesindustrial goods and increase purchasing prices for agricultural productseconomy. Violating decision XV Congress of the CPSU (b) the balanceddevelopment economics, Politburo (b) in January 1928made a decision on the compulsory withdrawal of surplus grain in the peasantry andneed for forced collectivization of agriculture. Group membersCPSU (B), headed by N. Bukharin opposed renewalmilitary and communist methods of economic policy, but failed.Won supporters point of view of Stalin, who insisted onof total collectivization, ie, solid stand systemcollective farms.
Farmers applying for membership of thefarm (1930)
Demonstration of benefits farmersnew technology
Solidcollectivization began to take place already in 1929, named "the yearlarge fracture. "Leaders of some areas, driven by" highleadership, competed, who first shall report the completioncollectivization. There was lots of completely non-viable groups communeand collective farms-giants. In response to these events peasants began a mass slaughtercattle, if only she has not got the collective farm. There were many reports ofarson, terrorism, massive peasant performances. There was a threat to disruptspring sowing.
March 2, 1930 in "Pravda" published an articleStalin "Dizziness From Success", which has included seriouserrors in the village, namely: violation of the principle of free entry into the collective farms?rejection of the diversity of conditions in various regions. The error"Leaders of nations" brazenly accused only of local partymanagers.
Article and published after the decision of CC CPSU (b)were no more than a tactical move by the Stalinist leadership toreassure public opinion. The farmers accepted the new guidelines as a signal forexit from collective farms. By June 1930, compared with March, the levelcollectivization fell from 58 to 24%. But after the sixteenth congress of the CPSU (b) beganA new wave of collectivization.
Directive was developed a plan whereby grain areas bydeadline of the collectivization was divided into three categories:
· the first category is classified grain areasNorth Caucasus and Volga region. This collectivisation was completed in spring1932;
· the second category - and UkraineBelarus (spring 1933);
· the third - and all other nezernoviareas (spring 1935).
Individual peasants impose intolerable taxes.
The main method of collectivization (collectivebuilding in the country) became terror against the peasantry.
Supposed to turn all the workers' village in the stateworkers, and land ownership - the state.
Demonstration of peasants against the kulaks
Social composition of the collectivization of the peasantry on the eve markedheterogeneity and its relation to the strata of Soviet power was alsoambiguous. Poor(Bidnyatski ") and" proletarian "category of the peasantry weresocial basis of Soviet power in the countryside during collectivization.As for the "middle" Soviet power for some time showedtolerance.
Mainedge "class struggle" was directed against "kulaks" (Richpeasants)Thatintended "to destroy, as the bourgeois class" although kulaks 20 years, that those farmers whobelieved the Soviets, voyuvavshy for it, his work reached a relativewelfare.This stratum of the peasantry was the main opponent of the socialist experimentin the village.
Soviet propaganda posters
Since autumn1929 Soviet authorities began an active attack"Kulak" farms. At first the attack was carried out byadministrative pressure - installation of high zernopodatku,prohibition of land leasing and join collective farms. In December 1929 Sovietpower passed to the Open terroru. It was established categories"Class enemies in the countryside.
Respectivelythe category defined by punishment and the number of "enemies."
Specificfigures "dispossession" predicted that the first category (activeenemies of Soviet power) are 60 thousand families, the second (active saboteurcollective construction) - 150 thousand Gradually policy"Dispossession" became a means of struggle against all peasantfarms that resisted collectivization. It has spread to farmsmiddle, even on the poor. There were "de-kulakized Under 15%farms and administrative sent 20% of villagers.
Filing of state grain
In1935 law came into force on the protection of socialist propertyvillage? popularly called a law "about the 5 ears. According to himslightest theft was punished or executed 10 years in labor camps. Amnesty wasprohibited. Only 5 months of the law had been shot two thousand persons, and55 thousand imprisoned in the camps.
Collectivizationled to complete disruption of agricultural production. Gatheringcereals has fallen to the level in 1921 Cattlehalved, pigs - 2,2 times (herd could not recoverover the next 30 years). Porushyvsya balance in Ruralagriculture and industry, leading to chronic lag Agriculturalsector. It was physically destroyed most of the qualifiedagricultural workers. 1Holodomor 1932-1933 in cerealsareas only in Ukraine, some experts estimate has claimed the lives of more than7 million people in Kazakhstan - 2 million
Hungry Peasant Family
Conducting collectivization ensured association in collective farmsin 1940 97% of individual peasant households.
3. Socio-political situation. Mass repression
Completion of civil war did not stop the terror that waspart of state policy (Constitution of 1918 and 1924 declared"Dictatorship of the proletariat").
Late 20 - the first half of the 30'srepression were directed mainly against the "class enemy" groupsSociety: „bourgeoisSpecialists”, „nepmans”, „kulaks”. The most noisy processesthat period were "right Shakhtyns'ka (1928), the process"Labour Peasant Party" (1929), "Prompartiyi"(1930), trials of anti-groups.
Announcementsentence for "Schachtinskiy case
Along with the improved system of total repressioncontrol over society. Younger generation through the Komsomol andpioneering spirit in the organization fostered hatred towards "enemiespeople "need relentless struggle with the" spies ""Vermin" in manufacturing, "kulaks", encouragedeven denunciations of parents. Force children and young people aimed at activeparticipate in the industrialization and collectivization of agriculture,strengthening the discipline and quality education.
Incities in 1924 wasintroduced Passport System. She has provided administrative reductionsnumber of citizens who supplied food centrally.
It wasaccepted by the law under which the worker in the least blame fired from workleaving the consumer without the card, followed by eviction from his family home.
From1930 expanded network of labor camps, united inGulag system ("The Department of lager). Number of prisoners inthese camps for 10 years has grown to 4 million Вidnovleno slavery and the death penalty.
Work in the Gulag
Ofmid 30's repression acquired epidemic proportions, and culminated in1937-1938 biennium
The reasonto increased repression in the party and country are the events in 1934, when the seventeenthCongress of the CPSU (b) the group of delegates attempted to replace Stalin asSecretary General of the other leaders. Him could be the SecretaryLeningrad regional committee of the CPSU (b) SM Kirov. At the congress of Stalin and his entourage(Mainly Kaganovich) falsified the results of secret ballot. End1934 it was a political murder of S. Kirov, the circumstances which have not beenthe end found out, though, undoubtedly, it was initiated by Stalin.Murder is stimulated to mass repression, strengthen dictatorial regime.Only in the 1937-1938 biennium repressed to 10 million people, of which 2-3 millionphysically destroyed.
Stalin and other Soviet leadersFuneral to S. Kirov
Forsimplification of sentencing created extrajudicial bodies -"Three". The proceedings were quite formalAndvypravdovuvalnyh making almost no.
Massrepression of 30's znekrovyly intellectual force in Soviet societypolitics, military, science. This - one of the greatest crimes of Stalintotalitarian regime against its own people.
Resistanceregime existed, but had a mass character. It was a rare performance of thosewho are not accepted. All these performances severely prydushuvalysya. Adoption of new"Stalin" constitution of December 5, 1936 did not change the essencetotalitarian system in the USSR, although it was formally proclaimed democratic rightsand freedom.
AlexStakhanov - with one change complied 14.5 rules mining
Sovietmethods to encourage better work
Mass repressions were not life thunderbirdsociety. The people overcoming everyday challenges, striving for happiness. Eacharranged it as he could. Manyоm were unknown that horrible crimes modes. Some of those who knew orguess thought and need. The people affected by spells "of lightFuture performed labor feats (Alexander Stakhanov, M. Izotov, P. and Angelinaetc.)., Rejoiced witheach country's success: whether the construction of another new complex, either with successSoviet pilots (Chkalov and others), or north of the successes, researchers (Papanin andetc.). etc..Rejoicing, he believed, saying their leader (Stalin) that "life is better, life isfun.
G. Baydukov, V. A. Belyakov Chkalov - after flightby North Pole
Documents and materials
With resolution XIV Congress of the CPSU (b).December 23, 1925
? Carry on economic construction this angle to the USSRfrom a country that imports machinery and equipment into a country that producesmachinery and equipment to the USSR so in a capitalist environmentcould become an economic appendage of the capitalist worldeconomy, was an independent economic organization?
? Put the problem of complete victory of the socialistbusiness forms over private capital, strengthen the monopoly of foreigntrade, growth and attraction of socialist derzhpromyslovosti under itsleadership and cooperation by increasing the mass of peasantfarms in the mainstream of socialist construction?
Inquiries to document
1. Bytext of the document find out the purpose of industrialization in the USSR.
2. What elsegoal of industrialization can you name?
3. Orachieved the objectives of industrialization? A reason.
About eviction "kulaks"
In 1930, 115 231 were evicted families, and1931 - 265 795 families. For two years, respectively, were evictednorth to Siberia and Kazakhstan, 381 thousand families. Some of"Kulak" families (200-250 thousand) samorozkurkulylasya ", iecleared the property and left mainly to the cities and industrial construction.Approximately 400-500 thousand families "kulaks" were distributed to remotesettlement within the lands and areas of prior residence. In 1932-1938 hewide campaign of "dispossession" not done. Totalliquidated in the years "kulak" farms not to exceed 100thousand
Questions to document
1. Basedon the numbers listed in the document, find the magnitude and consequences"Dispossession".
2. Considerany number of people directly touched the process of "dispossession".
On Open LetterStalin authorized representative of the USSR in Bulgaria FF Rozkolnykova
Stalin, you hold me "outlaws." Thisyou leveled up act in rights - more specifically, in wrongfully - of allSoviet citizens, that under yourdominion live outside the law.
For his part, responsible full reciprocity: you turnentrance ticket you built in "the kingdom of socialism" and breaks withyour profile.
Your "socialism" for domination which itbuilders only find a place behind bars, is as far from truesocialism, as your personal self-dictatorship has nothing to do with the dictatorship of the proletariat?
Nobody in the Soviet Union did not feel safe. Right,guilty, and the enemy hero October Revolution, the old Bolshevik and non-party,collective farmer and povpred, National Commissioner and the worker, the intellectual and MarshallSoviet Union - all equally subjected to shock your whip, allwrapped in bloody diabolical carousel?
You started the massacres of former Trotskyists,zynov'yevtsyamy Bukharinites and then moved to the destruction of old Bolsheviks,subsequently destroyed the party and non-party personnel, who grew up during the civil war who carried on their shoulders Construction of the first Five-Year Plans andorganized slaughter of Komsomol? With sadistic cruelty you consume useful stuffand the country needs: they seem dangerous to you from the perspective of yourpersonal dictatorship.
Before the war you consumeRed Army, love and pride of the country a bulwark of its power?
In a rotten atmosphere you created suspicion, mutualconfidence, general search and omnipotence Commissar of Internal Affairs, which you gave to the Red Army and the massacreentire country, any "caught" the document believe - orfaking it believe, as conclusive evidence?
After Hitler you resurrected medieval burningbooks. I have seen firsthand the great lists of books, are sent to Soviet librarythem immediately and unconditionally be destroyed.
Have you completely destroyed the entire apparatus of the People's CommissariatForeign Affairs.
Everywhere destroying the gold reserve of the country, its youthpictures, you destroyed in the prime years of promising and talented diplomats.
Inquiries to document
1. From whichposition F. Rozkolnykov denounced Stalin's dictatorship?
2. Whatexposing Stalin's crimes in his letter F. Rozkolnykov?
Questions and Tasks
1. Reasonconducted to industrialization in the USSR?
2.Identify positive and negative results of industrialization in the USSR. What are some methodsit held?
3.Determine the purpose of collectivization in the USSR. What are some methods performedcollectivization?
4.Describe the main consequences of collectivization.
5. Thathelped establish an exclusive regime of power in the USSR?
6. What is the purposemassive repression? What the consequences resulting mass repressions in the USSR?
7.Consider what appeared contradictions of social and political developmentSoviet society in the 20-30's?
Note the dates:
1925- Decision XIV CongressCPSU (b) of industrialization.
1927- Decision XV CongressCPSU (b) of collectivization.
1929- Start of totalcollectivization. "Year of a large fracture.
In 1932-1933- Famine in the country.
December 5, 1936- Answering a secondConstitution of the USSR ("Stalin Constitution")..