§ 17. Installation of the Bolshevik dictatorship. National Liberation Movement andRussian Civil War
1. Installation of the Bolshevik dictatorship
Intheir party program involved the Bolsheviks came to power afterestablish the dictatorship of the proletariat. So the first day they started simultaneouslyprocess of breaking the old state apparatus and create a new one. By the summer1918 old organs ceased activity, and their functions transferred councils.
DIVINElegislative authority of a Congress of Soviets of Workers, Soldiersmembers, and between congresses - All-Russian Central Executive Committee(VTSVK). He appointed Sovnarcom (main executive body, to whichMarch 1918 a coalition) and some of People's Commissars, was entitledcancel or change the decrees issued Sovnarcom. Member of the first VTSVKBolsheviks were 62, 29 and 6 of the Left Socialist Revolutionaries, Mensheviks internationalists. Newpower system does not require division into legislative and executive.
Scheme:"The Soviet authorities"
Russian with`Departure boards
Startedand the formation of a new security regime. 28 October 1917 wasestablished worker-peasant militia? 22 November - All-Russianextraordinary Commission (Cheka), people's courts and revolutionary tribunals. January 151918 proclaimed the decree about the creation of the Red Army, which until June1918 komplektuvalasya on a voluntary basis. In army units was introducedpolitkomisara position. In November, 1918 established theworker-peasant defense, led by Lenin.
ToOctober revolution the Bolsheviks criticized the Interim Government for the delay inconvocation of the Constituent Assembly. In November, 1917 elections finallyoccurred. Of the 715 deputies 412 were Social Revolutionaries, 17 - the Mensheviks, 16 -Cadets, 183 - Bolsheviks, 87 - others.
Lenin in the Kremlin office(1918)
Onopening day of the Constituent Assembly prepared the Bolshevik Declaration of Humantoiling and exploited people that the meeting of the Constituent AssemblyChairman declared VTSVK J. Swerdlow.
InThis document belonged to a Constituent Assembly to recognize the first requirementSovnarkoma decrees, and that the main task of the meeting should beestablish foundations for a socialist transformation of society for example.Delegates voted against the Declaration. Then the Bolshevik faction stated thatmajority of the Constituent Assembly - Representatives of the counterrevolution, and withLeft Socialist Revolutionaries left the courtroom.
Nextday Red Guards prevented delegates to the conference room of the Constituent Assembly,which was dissolved by decree VTSVK.
Simultaneouslyin Petrograd were 3 rd Congress of Workers' and SoldiersDeputies and the 3 rd Congress of the peasant Deputies. There were merging the two conventions, and elections ofVTSVK council workers, soldiers and peasants deputies. This way the onlysystem boards in Soviet Russia. 3 rd Congress of Soviets adopted a resolution according to whichRussian СotsialistychnaФederatyvna Рadyanska Рespublika (RSFRR,later - RSFSR) was formed on the basis of voluntary union of peoples of Russiaas a federation of Soviet republics of those nations. What happens next showsthat execution of the federation was not the same as appeared indeclarations and resolutions.
2. National Liberation Movementpeoples and the formation of independent states
Bolshevik coup leaders did not perceivenational liberation movements of oppressed peoples of Russia. This gave rise tostruggle for national and state independence. Universal III CentralCouncil proclaimed the Ukrainian National Republic and Universal IV (January1918) - Ukraine's independence. In Transcaucasia was formedTranscaucasian Federation. Statehood won Poland, Finland, the Baltic nations.Declared their independence even parts of the former empire.
Once the threat of total collapse of the former RussianBolsheviks took decisive action to suppress national liberation movementsalthough the words they spoke falsely on the right of every nation to self-determination.
In the fight against national liberation movementsused various means: from outright aggression to underminenational liberation movements from within.
One of the first victims of aggression by Ukraine. After failinginternal coup attempt, the Bolsheviks resorted to outright aggression andmanaged to master most of the territory of Ukraine.
3. Brest-Litovsk Treaty
The primary task of the new regime wasRussia promises withdrawal from the war. Of all the participants Пershoyi World War II onlyQuarter Union countries agreed to negotiate peace.
In the first phase of negotiations (3-22 December 1917) Languagewas the fate of nations and territories occupied by Germany and its allies.Finally, the German delegation made it clear that it believes in areas whereGerman troops are (Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia, Poland, PartUkrainian and Belarusian lands) People expressed their will to Germany and itsallies. This position caused a break in negotiations.
January 9, 1918 took part in negotiations the representatives ofCentral Council, the Government of the Ukrainian People's Republic. Trotsky, L. (chairmanSoviet delegation at the talks) was forced to admit the representatives ofCentral Council lawful representatives and advocates the interestsUkraine.
House whereconducted peace negotiations between the Soviet Union and QuarterRussia
January 18 Trotsky went to Petrograd to participate in a debatethat unfolded in the party leadership of the Bolsheviks, the fate of the negotiations andpeace treaty with Germany.
The fight unfolded around three main theses:
· first - the Left Party Communists ledwith N. Bukharin advocated the idea of the revolutionary war, which would provide conditions fordeployment of world revolution;
· the second (whose author was Trotsky) -Go ubachavsya the unilateral cancellation of Soviet Russia to wage war, and ifThe imperialists try to seize the Soviet country and overthrow the Soviet regime,is an internal opposition in their countries stop these intentions. Generalizedexpression of this position, served as the formula: neither war nor peace;
· third - a group headed by V. Leninadvocated the signing of peace at any, even the most difficult? conditions. January 111918 RSDLP (b) decided that obliged the Sovietdelegation to continue talks in Brest, while Germany will not beultimatum to require the signing of peace.
Won the last supporters of the thesis.
February 9, 1918 such ultimatum was made.Then Trotsky, who led the Soviet delegation in violation of the CC decisionBolsheviks, declared that Soviet Russia will not wage war, demobilizuyeArmy but extortionate not sign a peace treaty,and left Brest. Germany used the following Trotsky as an excuse toresumption of hostilities. February 18, German troops began the offensive.
After February 18 at the request of the Central Committee of the Bolshevik Leninagreed to accept peace terms offered by Germany, negotiations resumed.Moved away to Brest delegation headed by Sokolnykovym. March 31918 peace treaty was signed.
Under the treaty Soviet Russia:
· recognized by Germany, Baltic States, Poland,of Belarus;
· obliged to give up claims to theFinland, convey Turkey Kars, Batum, Ardahan, make peace with the UkrainianCentral Council and recognize the independence of the UPR, To demobilize itsArmy, Navy disarm, restore old, profitable for the German tradeagreement;
· obliged to pay reparations Germanyof $ 6 billion marks.
So, in terms of the treaty Soviet Russia lost territoryof 800 thousand km2That once belonged to the Russian empire,which lived 26% of the population, produced 32% and 23% of agriculturalindustrial products, vydobuvalosya 75% coal and iron ore.
To address the question of approving the contract wasVII Congress convened RSDLP (b) that, despite the resistance of the left communistsendorsed the decision to sign the Brest peace. March 14 contract terms wereAll-Russian Extraordinary Congress ratified councils. Against ratificationat the Congress by the leftist Socialist Revolutionaries, who because of disagreement with this policy came fromSovnarkoma composition. Subsequently, the left social revolutionaries tried to organize a revolt againstBolsheviks, committed several terrorist acts, but failed and wereoutlawed. Thus ended their cooperation with the Bolsheviks.
Brest-Lithuanian agreement in force until November 1918After the November revolution in Germany and overturned his VTSVK announced suchnull and void.
4. Reasons for the periods and the beginningCivil War
Unlike conventional wars, civil war hasclear boundaries - neither time nor space. It is difficult to set specific dateits beginning, clearly hold the front line.
Civil War in Soviet Russia was more complexthan a form of armed conflict between workers and capitalists, farmers and landownersAs herattempting to present propaganda.
The term "civil war" in Russia coversown civil war between groups that defended the different classesinterests? national liberation struggle and military intervention 14 states,peasant war against the Bolshevik policy of "war communism" andWhite Guard also against the policies of governments.
Civil War - the greatest tragedy in historypeoples of the former Russian Empire. She brought along mutual violence,terror, intransigent evil. Objections last world often transformed intotal negation of the past, in vylyvayuchys tragedy of those who defendedhis ideals.
In the first half of 1918 armed struggle wasrelatively limited. Since the second half of 1918 by 1920War was the main content of the country. Opponents of Bolsheviks persecutedvariety of purposes - from "single and indivisible" monarchicalRussia to Soviet Russia, but without the Communists. In the course of the Civil War viewsmany people have been repeatedly modified.
Onperiods of civil war in РHosea is no single point of view. Below is givenmost common.
The main stages of the civilWar
October 1917 - May 1918
Main struggle - against national liberation movements and individual groups anti-Bolshevik forces (speech in Petrograd Krasnov, Kaledina on Don, Dutova the Urals).
May - November 1918
Struggle for power between the socialist parties. The final one-party system and the Bolshevik dictatorship. Rise of Czechoslovak Corps (May 1918). Start the Entente intervention (in the landing operation Murmansk, Arkhangelsk and Vladivostok, in southern Ukraine, Transcaucasia, Central Asia and other cities). Consolidation of the anti-Bolshevik forces.
November 1918 Spring 1919
Strengthening military confrontation between red and white. Offensive White armies of Kolchak (November 1918), Denikin (August 1918), Krasnov (July 1918), Miller (August 1918) and others. The deployment of the intervention of the Entente and the USA.
1919 was - Spring 1920
Offensive the main forces of the white movement and its defeat Kolchak (March 1919-January 1920), Denikin (traven1919 was - March 1920), Yudenich (May-October 1919). Evacuation of the main forces foreign troops.
War with Poland. Defeat Wrangel. Another attempt to ignite the fire of world revolution, it prynishshy bayonets Red Army in Europe.
Intervention in Central Asia, Transcaucasia. Victory in the Far East. Peremozhne the war by the Bolsheviks in the outskirts of the former Russian Empire. Suppression national liberation movements and peasant uprisings.
Firstoutbreak of civil war was caused by the desire of certain forces to restorepower of the Provisional Government or hinder the spread of Bolshevik rule. This resistancewore the local character and was quickly suppressed. He is not serious stanovvthreat of Bolshevik rule. In April 1918, even Lenin said: "CivilWar is mainly completed. However, hopes of the Bolsheviks were premature.In the spring of 1918 civil war flares up with a bang. Especially encouraged:
· Done Bolshevik Brest peace, which causedresentment of Patriotic Forces and especially officers;
· BillPanel armed intervention of the Entente (Britain, France,U.S., Japan, etc..) That have supported anti-Bolshevik forces;
· Performance against the Bolsheviks Czechoslovak Corps.
Mostdangerous дlaperformance of the Bolsheviks was Czechoslovak Corps. It was formed in summer1917 war with the Czechs and Slovaks in the Austro-Hungarian Army and wassitovu first join war on the Entente brtsi. After the conclusion ofBrest Peace Corps, In agreement with the Entente countries was through Вladyvostok to crossFrance to continue the war against Germany. In the spring of 1918housing (65 ths.), which moved to the East, roztyahnulysya railway from the Volgato Vladivostok. Trying to localBolshevik leaders rozbroyity parts have caused a generalBolshevist uprising. As a result, wherever there were body partsSoviet regime was overthrown (slowlyZhao, Urals, Siberia, Far East). Tochehid joined SRS peasant groups and other anti-Bolshevik forces. Onliberated from the Bolsheviks began forming territory governmentsclaimed to be all-Russian. Thus, speeded up the Constituent Assembly delegatesformed a government in Samara (KOMUCH). In July, the government set a Siberian. Subsequently, these twogovernments together with Kazakh, Tatar-Turks, and others formed BashkirskymRussian Provisional Government - Directory in Omsk. This governmentincluded representatives from socialist (Mensheviks and Socialist Revolutionaries) and liberalnyk(Cadets) parties.
Meanwhile, Finland, the Baltics, Belarus, Ukraine, Transcaucasia, and someWestern region of Russia came under the control of Germany and its allies.
Northernports (Murmansk, Arkhangelsk) were under the control of landing troops of the Entente.
On Don,Kuban Cossacks rozhortavsya Anti movement. Formed VolunteerArmy, which objectsunited Russian officers.
As a result, by the end of summer 1918 the situation was Bolshevikscritical. They controlled the only one fourth of Russia (mainly centralDistricts).
6. Politics of warCommunism
The term "War Communism" first used by Leninas a setIn his statement, internally social and economic activities during the civilWar. But to reallydiysnennya such a policy driven by an attempt of the Bolsheviks immediatelybegin construction of communism ("frontal attack on capitalism" - in the wordsLenin), and loss of basic grains and industrial areas.
In May 1918 VTSVK adopted a number of decrees whichestablish the dictatorship of food in the village. Was introduced state monopolysale of food and its provision. It included meat ban privateTrade Commissariat permission Food forcibly remove peasant breadfarms.
To ensure the compulsory withdrawal of bread createdspecific food groups. They licked the right to use weapons forremoval of surplus grain. In practice, all the food that they foundthe peasants .
In January 1919 entered prodrozkladku thatincluded removal of the entire stock of bread, and then allagricultural products.
Along with these measures, in June 1918 createdCommittees of the poor - kombidy that consisted mainly of rurallumpen-proletariat, the proletariatWhich became conductor of the policy of "military communism" invillage.
Simultaneouslythe village began the process of building communism. "Communizing" villagecarried coercive methods. On the basis of the landlords of farmscreated broad agricultural communes and the Soviet economy.Yes, 1918 created on the territory of the RSFSR 3100, and in 1920 -4400 state farms. In fact this waswaiver policy, proclaimed by the Bolsheviks in the decree on the ground.
Thispolicy caused a massive performances peasantry against the Soviets, the uglymassacre of the peasantry with its representatives and activists. Soviet responsegovernment was suppressing discontent by troops. Only in the newthreats on the fronts of the civil war the Bolsheviks changed tactics and moved tocooperation with the middle peasant.
Ofpolicy of "war communism" in the industry began in June1918, when it was adopted the decree on the nationalization of not only large butand all - medium and small industries. The nationalization of subjectenterprise even with the number of 5 workers in the presence of mechanical powerand the number of 10 employees with no engine. In 1920 was nationalized37.2 thousand enterprises.
Politics"War communism" meant the establishment of full statecontrol over the management industry, a central verticalsystem of government headed by chiefs and the High Council of NationalAgriculture (VRNH).
Characteristicfeature of the policy of "war communism" was the introduction bezhroshovyhcalculations, the abolition of trade, the introduction of direct produktoobminu, equalizingdistribution of products among the working population, the introduction of the card system.
One of the extreme manifestations of this policy was to"Militarization of labor. General labor service was introduced,created labor army. Trotsky belonged to the idea of labor camps.Were held to mobilize certain groups at work, especially "bourgeoiselements. Besides mobilization, these groups were imposed contribution in10 billion rubles.
The revolutionary enthusiasm of the population that sought to betterlife led to the emergence of "Communist Saturdays" (freework on weekends). Ultimately, such a voluntary form of labor began to assumebinding.
In the political sphere "war communism" occurs inuncompromising struggle against the opposition.
After the decree of September 3, 1918 main methodstruggle against the opposition and became the terror organization of concentration campsInsulation class enemies of the Soviet republic.
Gradually, different means from the political arena has been resolvedCadets (November 1918), Left Socialist Revolutionaries (1918-1921), rightSRS (1918-1922 biennium), the Mensheviks (1919-1921 biennium), anarchists(Due to a number of operations Cheka in Petrograd, Moscow, in Ukraine).
Because ofpolicy of "war communism" was a catastrophic fallproduction, prices increased rapidly flourished, "black market" andspeculation. Governmentalization economy turned unprecedented bureaucracystate apparatus and the dominance of the administrative-command methods of management.Economic instruments of regulation and control economy completely ignored.
Butgreatest influence policy "war communism" had on public consciousness.Communist society was identified with the "war communism".
Setpolitical dictatorship - one more consequence of the most significant period"War communism", which meant the destruction or subordinationBolshevik government agencies and bodies that emerged during the Revolution (councils,trade unions, factory committees) and the elimination nebilshovytskyh parties. This waslaid the foundations of the totalitarian communist system design.
6. Terror in the years of civil war
Terror -a policy of intimidation and violence, massacre of political opponents.The main goal of terrorism - to break the will to resist the enemy. Violencewas the universal method of opposing sides in the war. NoBolshevist forces, not the Bolshevik Party did not object to violence andterror - nothing like violence. Appeals to the Civil War were heard fromboth sides.
InJuly 1918 Ekaterinburg Bolsheviks shot Nicholas II andmembers of the royal family, including children. Shot and Grand DuchessElizabeth Feodorovna, who devoted her life to philanthropy.
Summer1918 Revolutionaries and Socialists people killed Volodarskogo V., M. Accountableattacked M. Podvois'kogo. August 30 was committed by an attempt on Lenin. Those events wereleads to the fact that September 5, 1918 Sovnarcom adopted Resolution of the Red Terror. InSeptember 500 hostages were shot. Burial Uritskogo poured indemonstration under the slogan: "They kill a person, we may killclasses, "" For each of our leader - thousands of your heads! "Zynov'yeveven offered to give workers the right to lynching.
HeadCheka Eastern Front L
The opponents of the Bolsheviks, too, not tseremonylysya, physically destroyinganyone suspected of loyalty to Bolshevism. In redthey said white terror. By the end of 1918 civil war broke out withextraordinary power.
7. White movement
All opponents of the Bolsheviks ("red") adopted onConnectivity isgeneralizing the concept of "white". Although the movement was actually a white one of the ingredientswide Anti-Bolshevik movement.
Under the slogan that battled red and white? On the one handBarricades - "Long live the world revolution," "Death to the worldcapital, "" Peace to the cottage! War of the palace! "On the other -"Bring back our country!", "Motherland or Death!""Better to die than the death of Russia!"
WhiteCamp celebrated diversity. There were monarchists and liberals, Republicanspronimetskoyi proanhliyskoyi supporters and targeting supporters of the Constituentmeetings and open military dictatorship, some people without political views,people who sought to prevent the split of Russia. У rows of white movement appeared significantpart of the intelligentsia.
Most white generals preferred constitutionalmonarchy.
Because of the difference in political views were not whiteacknowledged leader. Leading political figures in Russia or emigrated, or notfind common language with officers, or mired in relationship with the Germansor immediately passed from the political arena. With all its heterogeneity white movementsupporters united hatred of Communists, who would in their view,destroy Russia, its statehood and culture.
The program was composed of white movement in the headquarters of the VoluntaryArmy of Denikin. It contained the following provisions:
· destruction of the Bolshevik anarchy and guidance incountry's legal order;
· establish a powerful and indivisible Russia;
· convening of the People's Assembly by generalsuffrage;
· decentralization of power throughestablishment of regional autonomy and the general local government;
· guarantee civil liberties and freedomreligion;
· implementation of land reform;
· entering the labor legislation, protectionworkers from exploitation and the state capital.
Much of the movement were white men, not personallylinked with the interests of owners. But thTheir interests coincide with objectiveinterests of the ruling class, attempts to restore the old Russia with habitual forThey march of life. In the fight against his people they had to retreat fromChristian commandments. One of the authors of the program white movement V. Shulgin wroteof white movement that started "almost holy", it is in the hands"Almost thugs."
8. Operations onfron the Civil War
Firstserious blow to the Bolsheviks were organized from the East Оmskym government. But he quicklywas stopped. Red Army inflicted a result of retaliation and a broad offensivedominated the sermon, Symbirs'kyi, Samara. Bolshevist forces were rejectedby Ural. Meanwhile, the Directory, which is not enjoyed popularity as a resultAdmiral Kolchak coup was removed.
Kolchak managed to reorganize the army, created 130,000tharmy and the summer of 1919 went on the offensive. Leaders of the White movement and the countryEntente recognized its supreme ruler of Russia. But the fall of Kolchak troopsfailed, while in the rear turned his massive guerrilla movement. InOctober Red Army attack moved rapidly eastward. In January 1920she reached Irkutsk. Kolchak was arrested and shot.
Meanwhile in the East these events unfolded in the southRussia formed a new Anti front. Spring 1918 from KubanVolunteer army offensive began, led by General Denikin. She captured allNorthern Caucasus. In the summer of that year against the Bolsheviks revolted DonCossacks (Ataman Krasnov), who began the attack on Tsaritsyn (nowVolgograd), but failed.
Spring 1919 fighting in the southern front of the inflamednew force. Denikin, who managed to unite under his rule NorthCaucasus, the Kuban, Don, started a powerful attack on the Ukraine and Moscow (bothKolchak the attack took place in the east). In early autumn 1919 Voluntaryarmy captured a large part of Ukraine. In September, captured Kursk, Orel,came to Tula. In October, 1919 Red Army attacked anddefeated Volunteer Army. In early 1920 it remainsretreated to Crimea, where they were headed Baron Wrangell.
When RedArmy waged heavy fighting against Denikin (May 1919), with EstoniaPetrograd began an armed white British army general Yudenich.Fierce fighting on the outskirts of the city there were up to October 1919 ArmyYudenich was broken, and her remains were interned in Estonia.
The defeat of Germany and Austria-Hungary, contributed to the establishmentSoviet authorities in the Baltic States, Belarus and Ukraine.
In January 1919, after the expulsion of German troops,Soviet power was established almost all over Latvia where sheexisted until early in 1920 Latvia gained its independence and to 1940 she developed asindependent state.
November 29, 1918 proclaimed the SovietEstonia called Estlyandska labor commune. Soviet authoritiesthere existed no more than two months. Estonia has become an independent state.
January 1, 1919 was declared Belorussian Sovietsocialist republic. February 27, 1919 two independentrepublics - Belarus and Lithuania form a single socialist SovietRepublic of Lithuania and Belarus. This formation lasted long. ThereLithuanian government established the national government, but remained in BelarusSoviet.
Ukraine's independence was proclaimed the Universal IVCentral Council January 9, 1918 Bolshevik Russia recognized SovnarcomOnly Ukraine and the Soviet government did everything to eliminate self-Ukrainian state. These concepts correspond to the proclamation of UkrainianSoviet Socialist Republic? government is finally established itself in 1920
June 1, 1919 VTSVK adopted a decree "Onunion of Soviet republics of Russia, Ukraine, Latvia, Lithuania, Belarus forfight global imperialism. "uniting of their armedforces, resources, transportation, finance, economic management organs.
The fact that the decision of states adoptedVTSVK and embodied in its decree, not the people of those countries showsimperial policies of the Bolsheviks and the Soviet puppet governments naturerepublics.
Call torecord in the Red Army. 1920
After defeating the main forces of the Whites against the Bolshevikswas Poland. The conflict between Soviet Russia was inevitable: Poland wantedto restore the borders of the Commonwealth in 1772, Soviet Russia was looking atPoland as a springboard for world revolution.
In April 1920 Warsaw after signing the agreement betweenUkrainian People's Republic and Poland began the offensive in Poland andUkrainian troops in the RSFSR and the USSR. Pi
The Soviet government immediately set up the Polish front. Inperekydalysya his disposal the best part, was held to mobilizeFront of Communists and Komsomol members. Up to 14 thousand former officers of the RussianArmy responded to General O. Brusylov to defend Russia.
In May 1920 Soviet troops SouthwestFront under the command Yegorova took the offensive. They rejected the Polisharmy from Ukraine. Operations were complicated by the Red Army to the southbegan fighting against Wrangel.
The attack was carried out by two separate fronts:South West of Lviv and West, under the command of M. Tukhachevskyi onWarsaw. Red Army swiftly passed 500 km, broke away from reserves and rear, and was unable to achievevictory in the decisive battles in Vrshavoyu.
Unexpected happened - Polish workers and peasantsnot only did not support the Red Army, and they did it the hard resistance. On thiscounted and Pilsudski, who believed that the "... bid for flash PolishRevolution could seriously be considered only in the offices of political andis quite distant from the front ... We are very close neighbors of Russia tocould easily decide to follow.
"Miracle on the Vistula" saved Europe from the world revolution.Red Army was defeated and was forced to retreat with great lossesterritory not only Poland but also in Western Ukraine and Western Belorussia.The Polish government has agreed to sign a peace treaty, under which to Polandbetrayed territory with a population of 15 million souls, the western border of the SovietRussia prolih 30 km from Minsk. Poland consolidated its Western andUkraine.
Fights with Poland coincided with the intensificationWrangel army, which in June 1920 he tore from the Crimea on the Black Sea. AgainstHe was immediately formed the Southern Front (Commander M. Frunze). All attempts to Wrangeldevelop the success and reach the Don, Kuban, Right-bank Ukraine were unsuccessful.The attack he was stopped, and the Red Army passed in counterattack. November 111920, the Red Army to overcome strong fortifications Perekop isthmus andbroke in the Crimea. The remains of Army Wrangell (145 thousand troops) andBlack Sea Fleet evacuated to Turkey. 15 thousand officerscaptured, were shot by the Bolsheviks.
Budennogo S., M. Frunze, K. Voroshilov onSouthern Front
Afterthe defeat of Wrangel main Bolshevist forces were defeated.
9. Completion of civil war.The aggression of Soviet Russia in the Far East, Caucasus and Central Asia
By spring 1920 with an interventionist troopsFar East there were only Japanese. In order to delay the war with Japan wasdecided to establish the Far Eastern Republic (JEM).
Timtime Japanese troops in the rear burned guerrilla war. She led the communistSergey Lazo, but he was seized and executed Japanese. In May, 1921 in Primoryewith the support of Japanese troops to power dostupyvsya new government. In returnCommunists have established a Military Council of JEM. Chief of the army wasBlyukhera appointed. Fierce fighting started. At the end of 1921White Guards and the Japanese occupied Khabarovsk. Then together with the JEM RSFSR beganstruggle against Japanese invaders and Whites. Decisive battlesopened in February 1922 under Volochayevkoyu. Red Army capturedKhabarovsk and later came to Vladivostok. Japan was forced to withdrawits troops from the JEM. White Guards retreated into Manchuria. In October1922 JEM united with the RSFSR. The civil war ended.
Afterdefeating the main forces Whites Soviet Russia began to implementunrealizable plans in a world revolution.
Leadingstruggle against the Japanese and remnants of White Guards, Red Army inExternal Mongolia, occupied the supremacy of China, but enjoyedautonomous rights of the Russian-Chinese agreement in 1912 Here, onForeign territory of Mongolia, was proclaimed the Mongolian People's Republicwith pro-Soviet government.
The victims of this policy and are newly created stateTranscaucasia.
At the beginning of civil war in the Caucasus government passedinto the hands of the Azerbaijani nationalist party "Musavat"("Equality"), the Armenian Revolutionary Revolutionary Federation andGeorgian Social Democratic Party, the Mensheviks.
Party "Musavat" trying to turnAzerbaijan to the large Muslim independent state or join withTurkey.
Party Armenian Revolutionary Federation was building itspolicy on the national motto. Armenian state had to maintain a hardagainst Turkey.
Mensheviks Georgia dostupyvshys to power, found themselves indifficult situation. In the internal affairs of this country constantly interferedTurkey, Germany and the Entente States. Conditions proposed by them"Help" the Georgian government, were extremely severe. Georgiabecame a member of Little Entente. In this regard, one of the Georgian Menshevikssaid: "As you can see how Georgia and Russia diverged. Our way leads toEurope, the path of Russia - in Asia ... "
InApril 1920 Bolsheviks revolted workers and seamen in Baku.This is followed by the country vderlasya Red Army. It was declared of AzerbaijanSoviet Socialist Republic. In November 1920 local Bolshevikssupported by the Red Army overthrew the government and declared the Armenian dashnakivSoviet Socialist Republic. In February, 1921 Bolsheviks Tbilisidropping the active participation of the Red Army Menshevik leadership announcedGeorgian Soviet Socialist Republic. Later, all three republicsTranscaucasia concluded a military-political union with Russia. A key role inthe Soviet regime played the Red Army, which underhelp drive carried out aggression against independent states.
Underyou defeat the main forces of Kolchak Red Army began to establishSoviet power in Kazakhstan and Central Asia. There were White Guards and variousgroup at national and religious slogans.
Inmid 1920 in Kyrgyzstan was established Soviet regime and establishedKyrghyz Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic within RSFSR.
Inwhole region Turkestan (modern Central Asia) was a long cutof Central Russia. This peculiar situation arose. Along with the independentBukhara Khanate Hivoyu existing governments and Bolsheviks (Tashkent)Whites.
Situationcomplicated by the fact that in Turkestan had a stronger invaders (the British wantedextend their colonial possessions through Central Asia) and localopponents of Soviet power (Basmachi). In mid-1919 Eastern Front wasdivided into two parts: East and Turkestan. CommanderTurkestan front approved Frunze.
TroopsFrunze broken parts Cossack atamans Dutova and Anenkova. In February1920 Soviet troops captured Krasnovods'kyi - reference pointWhites in Central Asia. After that White was forced offCentral Asia. 9 th Congress of Soviets adopted the constitution of Turkestan, which proclaimedformation Turkestans'ko Soviet Socialist Republic.
Culminationfight the rebellion in Turkestan was in Bukhara, supported by the Red Army.Mode of Bukhara emir, who relied on the help of Englishmen collapsedsummer 1920 That same year, Khan was cast hivynskoho. Sovietrecognized leadership and Horezmsku Bukhara (khanate Hivynske former) nationalRepublic. The peoples of Central Asia remain in Russia's sphere of influence, however,already owls.
Causes of the Bolshevik victory in the Civil War:
· political opponents for their mistakespeasants, split the opposition forces of terror against the population;
· failures of the opposition on the national question,refusal to support national movements;
· lack of coordination between the opposition forces, ambitiontheir leaders attempt to rely on force interventionists, narrow social baseopposition;
· intervention 14 states allowed the Bolsheviksuse patriotic exaltation of the population;
· strategically placing partsRed Army in central Russia, which gave the opportunity to use alleconomic and strategic benefits of military action, involvingRed Army service in the imperial army officers with combat experience (oftenthreatened their families became hostages);
· emergency use by the Bolsheviksmeasures (policy of "War Communism"), which enabled to mobilize allcountry's resources;
· Bolshevik propaganda among intensivepopulation program of radical transformations in society (construction of socialism(Communism));
· fatigue population of anarchy, itsindifference to events in the country, striving for peace and order.
Documents and materials
With the application of Staff of the White Army
For youfighting and weapons that we raised
You're fighting with komisaroderzhaviye by false authority Apfelbaumiv(Zynov'yev) Bronstein (Trotsky) Rosenfeld (Kamenev) Nahamkesiv (Steklov) Kalinin, Peterson, which is not our wayFatherland and only need one of shame.
We struggle for the Constituent Assembly for the national freechoice?
You're fighting for the International, and for that the Russiannatural resources could not dispose of the Russians, and all sorts of adventurers?
We are restoring national unity and nationalIndustry?
You spread the commune which enable ledatsyuham and enjoy the benefits loaferworkers.
We defend the right property?
You are ruining the church and destroying the Orthodox religion?
We are restoring devastated religion and destroyed churches?
You defend blatant lawlessness and brutal violence of the Bolsheviks,Commissioners and their mercenaries - the Chinese, Latvian, Communists ...
You are drawn into endless war with the world?
We have a Russian peace on earth?
Joined bread with us peace and the owner of the Russian land -Constituent Assembly.
Inquiries to document
1. AsWhite Movement leaders argued the need to fight against Bolshevism?Expand the target participants struggle.
2.Try to find out the attitude of various strata of society to this appeal.
With the order from General MaykovskayaSeptember 30, 1919 about the massacre of villages rose against Kolchak
1. Each village area thoroughly rebellion accommodationbeat; captured in arms, as enemies; shoot atplace.
2. Arrest? all agitators, members sovdepiv, who helped the uprising, deserters,collaborators and traitors concealer, and transmit military field courts.
3. Unreliable? put out, passing the police.
4. Local authorities did not do a proper resistance to the bandits?transfer military field courts to increase sentences to deathinclusive.
5. The insurgents again to eliminate the double village of severity, eventhe destruction of entire villages.
Inquiries to document
1.Describe the policy regarding the movement of white farmers.
2. Whatwas caused by the insurgency against the regime of Admiral Kolchak?
From the materials the commission of inquiry into atrocities of the Bolsheviksat the Armed Forces of South Russia
For information about crimeBolsheviks
Yekaterynodari in and around
The city joined the Bolsheviks Yekaterynodar March 11918 The same day a group of people were arrested civiliansmainly intellectuals, and all detained 83 people were killed, were alsoexecuted without any trial. The corpses were buried in three pits here in town. The group of witnesses and physicians are then examined those killed, confirmed cases Dumps nedobytyh,nedorubanyh victims ... Over the victims abused, cut off their fingers and toes,genitalia, distorted face ...
Presentation of data based on the testimony of witnesses andforensic examinations.
Questions to document
Express your attitude to the above facts.
Questions and Tasks
1. Whatexecutive and legislature were created after the Octobercoup? What contributed to the establishment of the Bolshevik dictatorship?
2. Givecharacteristic of bodies that set the protection and defense of Soviet power.
3. When andwhy was dissolved the Constituent Assembly?
4. Whystarted negotiations with Germany?
5. WhichBolsheviks followed opinions on the possibility and conditions of the signing of the peaceGermany?
6. Onconditions Soviet Russia signed the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk?
7. Whatpolitical and economic consequences of the Brest Treaty was signed?
8. Thatis the policy of "war communism"?
9. Whatmeasures of the Bolsheviks meant policy of "military communism"in the industry?
10.Describe the policy of "war communism." For what purpose it wasimplemented?
11.Compare programs and actions of white and red movements in Russia.
12.What are the causes of civil war in Russia.
13.Describe the basic operations on the fronts of the civil war?
14. Whatreasons for the victory of the Bolsheviks in the civil war?
15.Consider whether civil war was inevitable.
Note the dates:
March 3, 1918- Signing inBrest-Litovsk peace treaty.
May 1918- Armed Antiperformance of the CzechoslovakCorps.
March1919 January 1920Fight against Denikin.
April-October 1920 Soviet-Polishwar.
November 1920- Defeat of the ArmyWrangel in the Crimea. The civil war in the European part.
March 1921was - Ukradennya Riga peace between Poland and Soviet republics.