Totalitarian and dictatorial regimes
§ 15. Totalitarianism
Totalitarianism- A phenomenon of the twentieth century. Totalitarianism (from Late totalis - Whole, whole, complete) -a form of political regime, characterized by a complete (total)state control over all aspects of society and the individual:political, economic, social and even personal. The essencetotalitarian state expressed B. Mussolini: "Everything for the state, nothing againststate, nothing outside the state. " Totalitarianism in the most complete formexisted in Italy, Germany, the USSR and countries of the socialist camp.Totalitarianism in different countries at different times had its own characteristics inaccording to the specific circumstances of each country.
Concepttotalitarianism first used in 1923 liberal politician Дzhovanni Amendolla,Characterizing Italian fascism. Later the term was applied onStalinist regime in the USSR and Nazi Germany.
1. The emergence of totalitarianism
Фenomentotalitarianism rooted reaches hlybeny centuries, finds its similarity todyspotiyamy and the tyranny of ancient times, with absolyutyskymy and authoritariansystem of government. But only in the twentieth century. in the crisis of classical liberal ideasthe transition to mature industrial society and of social democracywith `is a type of rigid dictatorship that relies on mass movements andpenetrated by a unitary (single) ideology.
You can define the following fiveeredumovy of totalitarian regimes:
1.The promotion of industrial society. The emergence of technologies of mass production.The emergence of mechanisms of state regulation of economy. Standardization of all partieslife. "Popular culture".
2.Involvement of the late nineteenth - early twentieth century. to the political life of the massespopulation after the introduction of universal suffrage and universaldemocratization of political life in the leading countries.
3. Enteringpolitical arena largely illiterate masses with low politicalculture, embittered social injustice leads to newcharismatic leaders who skillfully manipulated masses, aspire to an exclusivepower.
4. Mass political parties and social movementsunions mass ideologies.
2. Features signs of totalitarian regimes
Anymode has its own features that distinguish it from others. Today, researcherscalled the following traits of totalitarianism:
1. Liquidation and multiparty democratic institutionspower. Installationone-party system and the cult leader (Mussolini, Stalin, Гitler etc.)..
2. Merging of the party and state apparatus. Ie itparty structures are starting to carry authority. Replacingstate institutions.
3. Creating a system of mass political organizations,covering all age strata of society (Schoolchildren, pioneers, Komsomolunions, the Communist Party - in the USSR). This ensured the ruling regimefull control over all levels of society, their ideological treatment.
4. Governmentalization economy. Installing the full controlproduction and distribution of goods, public goods.
5. Militarizatsiya economy. У USSR and Germany amounted to 80%.
6. Aggressive nature of foreign policy. Ideologicalforeign policy. In the USSR - realization of a world revolution in Germany -installation in the world "new order" and so on.
7. Create images of an enemy (real or mythical).Deployment of mass agitation and propaganda to mobilize the population foraggressive implementation plans and the elimination of political rivals in mid-country.
8. Using gratuitous forced labor. Especially thissystem was developed in the USSR.
9. Mass repression as a means of combating opponents and as a systemintimidation.
10. Brainwashingpopulation. Full control over the education system, education, mediaetc..
11. Ignoring human rights.Man - is a "screw" the great state mechanism.
12. The quest for unification:culture, consciousness, fashion and more.
13. Self-reliance(Avtarhiya) and others.
Atall external shozhesti totalitarian regimes in different countries had differentsocio-economic structures, social and psychological settings, principallyincompatible ideologies, their formation took place in different ways, dependingof national characteristics and peculiarities of the situation in the country differently and todifferent times was their collapse.
3. The historical mission of totalitarianism
Totalitarianism despite some negative moments performed an important historicalmission. Like any historical phenomenon which requires detailed study of totalitarianism forwarning future generations.
StavShih means for some countries у implementationі "Dohanyayuchoho" development. Viafull governmentalization economy, mobilizuyuchy all resources to achieve a grandgoal (build a communist society to achieve world domination, to achievelevel of the leading countries in economic development, etc.), Totalitarianismcreates ilyutsiyu rapid development. Although created with a powerful short termindustrial base, he finds himself unable to make outstripping developmentensure future development. And with the tremendous results achieved (in the USSRshift to industrial society was made for several decades)have to pay too high a price - millions of lives, and in the endresult of complete failure of economic models.
Also with totalitarianismTAB bloody example of the effect of ignoringHuman таinterests of the individual.
Over the years, totalitarnyy mode proved that this modernizing and mobilizing regimewhich more or less effective valid only in extreme situations and can notlay the foundations of long-term positive prospects. The collapse of totalitarian regimesaccompanied by a rollback of countries in their development.
Documents and materials
American political scientist Karl FriedrichZ. Brzezinski a "general model of totalitarianism"
- domination "unique mass party, typically led bythe only "dictator";
- the presence of "developed ideology? chiliasm contentbased on a radical rejection of existing social system in combinationwith the idea of conquering the world for a new social order ";
- "The terrorist system based on physical and mentalViolence;
- "Technology driven, almost absolute monopoly controlover all means of mass communications ";
- "Technology driven, almost absolute monopolyuse of weapons ";
- "Centralized control and management of the economy bybureaucratic coordination to yurodychno independent corporations.
Questions to document
What characteristics distinguish American totalitarian regimespolitical scientists? What would you add to this list?
Questions and Tasks
1. What is totalitarianism?
2. Why Totalitarianism є phenomenonом Twentieth century.?
3. For countries where the notion of totalitarianism?
1. What characteristics distinguish modern totalitarian regimes researchers?
2. What are the main differences between totalitarian regimes?
3. What is the historical mission of totalitarianism?
Note the dates:
1926- Installationtotalitarian regime in Italy.
1929 final establishment of Stalintotalitarian regime in the USSR.
1933-1934, the- Installationtotalitarian regime in Germany.