§ 14. France
1. Implications Пershoyi World War
November 11, 1918 a volley of artillery solyutu in Parisnoted the triumphant conclusion of the war. Streets were filled with people whowere filled with joy. Victory over Germany turned to Franceleading powers of Europe. Its troops had no equal on the continent. But victoryDallas France dearly. 10-north-east butdeportamentiv country was devastated, killed 1.3 million French2.8 million were injured, of which 600 thousand were crippled. Several millionFrench victim of the epidemic of influenza ("Spanish flu") that hit Europe in1918-1919, the Уresult, even after the accession of Alsace and Lorraine population was1 million less than before the war. France lost a quarter of national wealth.
Warcaused extensive damage the economy, osoblyavo finances. Were destroyedabout 10 thousand enterprises, half sunk merchant marine. Militaryexpenses amounted to 200 billion francs. France owes 60 billion francs (of which40 billion dollars). Significant loss foreign investment, especially inEastern Europe and Russia. Total losses from the war of 134 billion francs.
Bloweconomy caused by the war, placed the economy from war to peace derailedcaused the crisis, which in 1921 naynyschoyi reached the point: industrialproduction amounted to 55% of the level of 1913, and agricultural - 77%.Curtailment of military production has led to job cuts, wagefees, which could not cause mass deployment of the labor movement. Considerablerole played in this process and the overall revolutionary movement in Europe afterWar. The main demands of the workers were wage increases,shorter working day, the elimination of wartime restrictions.
In1919-1920 biennium strike movement reached its maximum dimensions:striking nearly 1 million people a year Entrepreneurs concessions:wages were increased by 20-25%. The feature of this strike movementperiod was a combination of economic and political demands. Striking nominatedslogans of solidarity with Soviet Russia.
Parisians are rejoicing over thesvitovoiy victory in the First War.
Government that its from 1917 Georges Clemenceau was headed, took two important lawssome extent emptied tension. The country was established 8-hour day, andunions were right to conclude a collective agreement.
Strikeconfigured against the workers movement peasantry, whose situation has improved inresult of significant price increases for agricultural products, and small owners who were fearfulBolshevism. This enabled the government to quench strikes minor concessions.
Buta crucial role in the weakening of social performances played a wave of patriotism,which swept France after Komp'yenskoho truce.
14July 1919 Military parade was held, and 1920 Armistice Daywas declared a holiday. That day at the Arc de Triomphe on the Champsfields were lit Eternal fire over the grave of Unknown Soldier. Governmentannounced that takes care of soldiers.
Usingpatriotic enthusiasm, the government managed to bring people into a state of discontenttheir expectations and hopes of better times, when all the problems will be solvedaccount "boshiv", ie Germany. Disabled was assigned to large pension, which had to payGermany, provided significant krydyty for reconstruction, for futureBilling Germany.
The mainforeign policy objectives was to consolidate Clemenceau win and crushBolshevism in Russia. France took an active part in the intervention againstSoviet Russia, but in the spring of 1919 was forced to withdraw throughrevolt in the army and navy, who did not want to fight. Moving away fromintervention, the government КLEMANS stated that he intends to surround Bolshevism "ring of barbedwire, to prevent him plunge to a civilized Europe. " This policy wassignificant impact on the decision of the Paris Peace Conference, especially on the distributionborders in Eastern Europe.
2. "National Bloc". Create FrantsuzkoyiCommunist Party (PCF)
In 1919, the first postwar elections.For the first time they performed on a majority basis. Victory received"National Bloc" (right-wing parties), who based his electoralprogram set point on a rigid attitude to Germany and Soviet Russia.
In domestic policy, "National Bloc" tookrate to suppress the labor movement ("social unrest") and reductionstate intervention in economic life (elimination of direct governmentregulation, which was used during the war).
Bolshevik with a knife in the teeth.Campaign posters of the National Bloc
While in the labor movement made a real difference. Yesin his reformist Socialist Party of lead beganplay left wing. This led to what the congress in 1920 In the roundmajority of delegates voted to join the Communist SFIOInternational and its transformation in the French Communist Party (PCF).The minority of the delegates, headed by Leon Blum is not surrendered to the decision of the Congress andannounced the preservation of the socialist party. Dissension accelerated declinelabor movement.
3. Economic development in1924-1930 biennium
In 1924 France entered a period of economicexaltation. Industrial production has exceeded pre-war, and its annual growthto 1930 was on average 5%. Faster growthcontributed: the return of Alsace and Lorraine to their metallurgical and textileenterprises; occupation Saar, broke into a huge construction areas;reparations from Germany.
Developed, new industry - automotive,Aviation, electrical engineering, radio engineering, chemical. France became aindustrial-agricultural country. But the main income of the country remainedusury. Yes, 1929 the entire industry has 10.5 billion profitfrancs, and securities - three times more.
Changes occurred in the social sphere. Urban Populationexceeded the rural population. 60% of wage earners working for largeenterprises.
4. "Cartel of the left"
The failure of the Ruhr campaign (occupation in 1923 RuruFranco-Belgian troops) led to the collapse of the Nationalbloc. "Radicals entered into an agreement with the Socialists to form a new unit -"Cartel of the Left." In its election program they promised amnestypolitical prisoners, restoration work on the participants retired to strike, asocial insurance system, introduction of progressive income taxthe law of the 8-hour day in foreign policy -recognition of the Soviet Union, international cooperation and disarmament, died `alleviate positionof Germany.
In 1924 parliamentary elections "Cartelleft "won. emerging government headed by Eduard Errio. The firstGovernment actions have political amnesty in `prisoners and the establishment of diplomaticrelations with the USSR
Implementation of the election program, especially the introduction of progressivetax caused the resistance of Industrialists andgreat financiers, who began to transfer their capital abroad. Because ofThis growing economic difficulties. The government found itself without taxes.
In April, the Senate expressed confidence the government Errio and he gaveresign. Home colonial wars in Morocco and Syria led to the finalbreakdown of "Cartel of the left.
5. Government of nationalUnity
After the collapse of "Cartel left" to power againback right. The government of national unity led by Poincare. Heimmediately set about the financial recovery. It increased taxes on smallowners reduced the number of civil servants, etc. It gaveto overcome inflation and stabilize the franc. Financial stabilizationfacilitated the return of capital.
Along with stabilizing the franc ceased rising prices,stopped growing cost of living. The government held a number of social reforms. In 1926he was first introduced on the town. In 1928 - introduced pensionsfor low-wage workers, as well as assistance with disability and illnessby entrepreneurs. The Program for the construction of cheap housing.
In order to strengthen their position right are promotingadoption of a new majority of the electoral law (1928), followed by Francedivided into 612 constituencies. In the first round was considered a favoritecandidate gaining more than 50% of the vote. But traditional in Francemulti's happened rarely, and then was appointed the second round ofwhich was enough to score a simple majority. Such a system would give an opportunitysmall parties (mostly right) and put one blockedcandidate.
Electoral Act 1928 made possible the victory of rightparties that formed a government without radicals.
6. France in the years of economiccrisis
The economic crisis in France began later than in otherCountries - 1930 However, she quickly developed and wasdeep. Yes, 1932 industrial production was lower? than1913 Most vague affected light industry and agricultureeconomy. Grew inflation and public deficits. Increased unemployment. Phasedepression lasted until 1937, after which began not raise, and newcrisis, which did not pass to the Дruhoyi World WarIn which France in 1940Failed.Thus, the economic crisis 30's developed into a national disaster.
Dynamics of aezrobittya in France duringeconomic crisis (in thous.)
1929 1932 1935 1938
Economic problems and sharpened the political struggle. ByBetween 1931 by 1932 changed seven governments. In 1931 wasMP killed President Dumera.
In May, 1932 parliamentary elections were held onwhich received the winning centrist and leftist parties (Radicals and Socialists).The Government formed Errio who stayed in power until the end of the year, butsignificant reforms have not proceeded.
Government Errio refused reparations from Germany and found herright to arms. У November 1932 between France and the USSR was signed pactnonaggression.
7. French fascism
Aggravationeconomic problems, the inability of traditional political parties leading the country outcrisis led to rising popularity of fascist organizations that emerged inFrance in the 20-ies
Social support for fascism were small owners, lumpen-proletariat,clerical, part of the great financiers and industrialists, possessed of strong ideaspower and a strong France.
The fascist movement in France had major differences: it is notthe only, nor advocated the total elimination of democratic institutions, onlylimitation for "enemies of the nation" - communists and socialists.Such features tayilysya in nature of French society, characterized bydemocracy and multiparty system.
Fascistorganizations are not classic parties, and paramilitary organizations -leagues. The most fascist league, "Flame crosses, which unitedformer soldiers, led by Colonel de ЛI Rock. League accused the government of betraying nationalinterests of France, in a soft attitude to Germany. The organization united350 million people. It suited the torchlight marches, rallies, demanding"Strong leadership". Another organization Aksyon Fran
ComingNazis to power in Germany prompted the French fascists into action.The reason for their appearance was right Stavys'ka. This crook took on bailjewels in the Spanish aristocrat who fled to France after the revolution1931 in Spain. Later he replaced the diamonds in jewelry on counterfeitand sold them, and when it vykrylosya, caused a death. In the processinvestigation has revealed that fraud is committed Stavys'ka forlong time under the guise of senior government officials.
Fighting betweenpolice and fascists (6 February 1934)
This scandal for the Nazis decided to use criticismdemocratic system and the waves of popular discontent seize power. 6February 1934 Nazi troops went to storm parliament. Way theysmashed shops, destroyed vehicles and so on. The police opened fire. Killing17 people, two thousand were wounded. Government Daladye immediately resigned.
Fascist coup attempt gave rise to convergenceSocialists and Communists in the struggle against fascism. Began massanti-fascist demonstration. February 12, 1934 Socialists call forwas a political strike demands to ban Nazi League. To participate in theIt called for the Communists and their supporters. This was the first joint actionthe two Parties and launched their convergence.
Summer 1934 between the SFIO and PCF signed a unity pactaction. In 1935, joined them part of radicals. July 14, 1935cosponsored by the Antifascist demonstration. She led Leon Blum(Socialist), Maurice Torez (Communist), Edward Daladye (radical).
Leaders of the Popular Front for the meeting (14July 1935)
In 1936 these parties have developed a joint program and330 received in the election of 612 seats in the House of Deputies, receivedright to form a government. Led by his Socialist Leon Blum. The Communists decided not toenter the government, but promised his support in parliament.
Shortly before France began massive performancesworkers required to raise wages, paid leave to enter,recognize the unions. Often, workers took the company. So, the firstchallenge the new government was settling in France's largest laborconflict.
Hobby striking workersPlant
In the residence of the Prime Minister heldNegotiations between Universal Confederation of Labour (ZKP) and overall confederationentrepreneurs. The outcome of the negotiations was the signing of the agreement, which strikesceased, increased wages, entrepreneurs concluded collectiveagreement with trade unions and are committed not to apply sanctions againststrikers. For his part, L. Blum promised to put before ParliamentBill to introduce 40-hour work week and paid vacations.
Summer 1936 French parliament adopted 133 lawswhich are mainly implemented the National Front. Yes, it is forbiddenFascist League, the laws that 40-hour work week ontwo weeks paid vacation, pension increase occurred, provided assistance withunemployment. To improve the situation of peasants government began buying farm productsat higher prices. Installed state control over the French banks andrailways.
Clergymanpaid, have enabled ordinary citizens can enjoyrest
After the program began thinking of the Popular Fronton further directions of France. Around this issue randispute.
Communists and Socialists demanded full of eliminationfascism, even with the limitation of constitutional legality. Radicals himself L. Blumconsidered it impossible to violate the constitution.
Communists sought to continue the reform in the direction of introductionsocialism, including a sharp increase in taxes on business, settingtight control over enterprises and finance. L. Blum is not ondisagreed. He first sought to consolidate previous achievements, and in February1937 announced a "break" in reforms.
L. Blum speaksat NA
Increased government spending led to a decline in production.To activate it and stimulate exports, the government resorted to devaluation of the franc.This made French goods cheaper in foreign markets, and hence morecompetitive. The Communists opposed the devaluation of the franc,arguing that it would lead to higher prices domestically.
In the above-mentioned differences between the Communists andSocialists joined by differences in foreign policy.
The economic situation of France meanwhile has begun to deteriorate.French businessmen are concerned about the possibility of introducing higher taxes,transferred their money abroad, immediately reflected on ratesincrease economic development. However, increased income citizens. For on-relativelystable production that caused a disparity between money and commodityweight, and then - rising prices, ie inflation.
Economic problems have caused frustration in the populationactions of the Popular Front.
The economy has not reached the pre-crisis level. This furthercomplicated relationship between the parties in the Popular Front. In June 1937L. Blum resigned: coalition crisis became apparent.
The Popular Front was primarily a means of combatingfascism. In France, a direct threat to the Nazis coming to power waseliminated, which can not be said of fascism itself.
Propaganda poster right. LeadersPopular Front for the agents of Moscow
However, the Popular Front was an attempt to find a way out of crisis anddepression. The result of these actions was the adoption of a package of socio-economicmeasures that laid the foundation of further state"Prosperity." Largely, these steps were similar to the "newCourse Roosevelt on Government action Hansona in Sweden. The difference wasbecause of these measures involved the Communists. For them, the People'sfront and was forced form of transition to implement their social ideascan not be imagined without the "dictatorship of the proletariat." It also grantedfront of amorphous and unstable character. The participation of Communists in the Popular Frontcreated the danger of its transformation from a remedy democracy from fascism inmeans elimination of democracy for the "dictatorship of the proletariat."
9. France on the eve of national disaster.E. Daladye
InApril 1938 took over as prime minister the leader of the radical Daladye. His governmentimmediately canceled a series of social programs. In foreign policy, he fullyFairway followed in England. Signing of the Munich Agreement led tofinal collapse of the Popular Front. In October 1938 from it officiallywent radical.
AfterNational Front split Daladye domestic policy continued to moveRight: the working week was increased to 48 hours, increased taxes on allstrata of society, began the attack on trade unions, through their actions, according togovernment, undermine the country's defensive capacity.
E. Deladye members of the government
Suchgovernment action set in opposition to it, and socialists. This will further worsencritical state of the country.
Beforethreat of war that imminent, in July 1939 government delayedparliamentary elections and began urgent measures to strengthendefense capability. The occupation of Czechoslovakia by Germany showed allharmful policy of appeasement, "France has lost a faithful allyin the East. Began feverish search for new allies: it was finalizedUnion with England, signed a secret Franco-Polish military protocol in Moscowbegan the Anglo-Franco-Soviet negotiations military missions. Threatnational security worsening internal situation of the country. FailureAnglo-Franco-Soviet negotiations and conclusion of the Soviet-German Pactcaused the deployment of anti-Soviet and persecution of PCF, whichendorsed the pact. The communist newspaper was closed and members have brought with PCFof parliamentary committees.
The resultpolicy of the second half of 30's were accumulated in society fatiguestanding socio-political turmoil and despair in the democratic ideals.
Documents and materials
Program of the Popular Front
I. Political requirements
1. Protection of freedom.
§ 1. The general amnesty.
§ 2. Fascist leagues:
a) effective disarmament and dissolution of the paramilitaryformations according to law;
b) use of legal measures provided for in the caseprovocation, murder or attempted security.
§ 5. Trade union freedoms:
a) the application and observance of human societies;
b) respect the rights of women to work.
2. Protection of peace.
§ 1. The call for cooperation of all the people and especially workersmasses in maintaining peace and organization.
§ 2. International cooperation within the League of Nations toensuring collective security by defining the aggressor and automatic andsolidarity sanctions in case of aggression.
§ 4. Nationalization of industry and the abolition of militaryprivate arms trade.
§ 1. Restoring the purchasing power that has been destroyed orweakened by the crisis.
§ 2. Against unemployment and industrial crisis:
a) a shorter working week without pay cuts;
b) involvement in the labor process as a result of a youngof transition aged workers to retire at a sufficient livelihood forsize.
Questions to document
Find out the main provisions of the Popular Front program. WhichThey had done and what not, and why?
F. Roosevelt, From the speech at a closedpress conference September 25, 1936
"In`yavit a moment that the brother would President Hoover remained inApril 1936, continuing its policy of the previous four years, did nothave any steps in BC welfare or assistance to farmers orelimination of child labor and a shorter working day and enter pensionsage. Had it happened in April of the current (1936), the situation inour country would have resembled the one that pledges Blum came to power. Frenchfor 25 or 30 years is nothingmade in social legislation. Blume has initiated it,for a general strike was already in the first week in office. He(General strike) has demanded 40-hour work week? [Blum] had a law that reduce the workingday. They (striking) demanded a day off a week that is paid, then they demanded the immediate establishment ofCommission to prepare a plan for plan for retirement. Blumdid all of this, but whether it was too late? "
Questions to document
1. What assessment reforms gave F. Roosevelt NF?
2. What sees the failures of reform NF F. Roosevelt?
3. Compare NF reform and a "New Deal" F. Roosevelt.
Questions and Tasks
1. DefineMr. MainaslidkyПershoyi World WarFrance.
2. Whatreasons for the rise of industry in France 20's he?
3.Find features political development of France in the 20-iesPut in chronological order of the Board of governments: "Cartel of the left"Of national unity, "the National Bloc, NationalFront.
4. Aseconomic crisis in France affected the economic and political development?
5.Find out the reasons for establishing the Popular Front. Which party formed the People'sfront?
6.Describe the reforms undertaken by the Government of the People's Front. What is common inClemenceau government reforms and the Popular Front?
7.Describe French fascism.
8. Whatcauses the collapse of the Popular Front? Estimate of Communists in governmentPopular Front.
9. Whatwas due to withdrawal of government from E. Daladye reforms of the Popular Front?
10. InWhat do you see democracy French society?
Note the dates:
1920 - createdFrench Communist Party.
1934 - attemptfascist coup.
1936-1938 biennium- The Popular Front in France.
 For comparison. 5 billion francs that France paid Germany afterFranco-Prussian War helped to create the latest powerful industrial base.