§ 13. United Kingdom (textbook)

§ 13. United Kingdom

1. Implications Пershoyi World War

Undertime ПershoyiWorld War II, Britain has suffered significant losses. The human losses were743 thousand dead and 1.7 million wounded. Industrial production decreased20%, the country became a creditor of the debtor. External debt wasabout 1 billion pounds. Huge military expenditures covered byreducing investment in the colonies, internal and externalloans and increasing taxes. During the war years taxes increased by 6 times.Living standards dropped sharply.

Neblahopryyatniconsequences of the war contributed to the split in English society. One partwanted to return to old times, believing that a departure from traditionalBritish values begat problems of the country. The rest of the population consideredthat after the Great War in England should assert itself more equitable principlessocial order. Manifestations of mood first of the population were conservativessecond - Labour. Liberals, who in previous years have been leading force in theparty-political system, were split and subsequently with vidtisnenymypolitical arena.

In1918 Labour Party adopted its first charter. The purpose of the partyproclaimed establishment of public ownership of the means of production, andThe immediate challenge - the expansion of social legislation and furtherdemocratization of the political system. Party was built on the basis of howindividual and collective membership when party members automaticallywere trade union members. In the elections of 1918 Labour Party didfirst step towards transformation into the largest opposition party. Itwon 60 seats in the House of Commons.

2. The rise of the democratic movement.Reforms Lloyd George

Newsentiments in society led coalition government of liberals and conservatives, whoheaded D.Lloyd George, leader of the liberal reformist wing of the party toextensive reforms.

GovernmentLloyd George has set a goal to quickly eliminate the laws of time and warsresume "normal" situation in the country. Yes, it eliminated the system of stateRegulation Kоntrolyu. Collapsed military production. 4 million demobilized army. Butsuch measures have generated the problem of employment and assisted thewide strike movement. In 1919, striking more than 2,5 million people. UnderBastia pressure the government conducted a series of measures: increased wages and reducedworking week to 40 hours.

Also in1918 a regular reform the electoral law. Likvidovuvavsyaproperty qualification. The right to vote were women over the age of 30 years.

 

Prem`Prime MinisterUK D.Lloyd George

 

Afteraccept the election program of unemployment and construction of cheap housingfor the poor. In 1918 eight-year education was introduced, and1921 - nine-year compulsory free education.

GovernmentLloyd George went for the plunge, giving in 1921 Dominion statusits oldest colony of Ireland. Six counties in Northern Irelandpredominantly Protestant population remained within the UK. AfterThis was the official name of the UK "United KingdomGreat Britain and Northern Ireland.

During the uprising in Dublin.1921

 

Workingmovement went slowly on the decline, miners and metallurgists strike in 1921  defeated. The country returned to peacelife.

In1922 Conservatives have formed a one-party government headed by E.Bonar-Lo.But the new government failed to halt falling production and, therefore, vitalliving. This caused a new wave of strikes struggle.

3. First Labour Government

Onearly parliamentary elections in 1923 none of the three parties did not meetsufficient majority to form a one-party government: the Conservatives were258 seats in parliament, Labour - 191 Liberal - 158. Arrangea coalition government failed. Then the old elite takes Englishcreative solutions: in January 1924 was formed first in the historythe country's Labour Government. He headed the DA-R.Makdonald. For the first time in historycountry's Social Reform Party was included in the political machinery of the state.

Prem`Prime Minister of Great Britain DA-R.Makdonald.

 

MacDonald Government increased the amount of unemployment benefits and pensions fromage and state subsidies for housing, reduced the duty onsome commodities, the improved system of unemployment insurance. But Labour have not fulfilledcampaign promises to nationalize the mines and railroads, to introduce taxon capital. During labor disputes, they sought to stop strikes.Labour cabinet strengthened armed forces. In the colonies and dependent countrieshe continued a course aimed at suppressing the national liberation movement.This government recognized the Soviet Union and established diplomatic relations with him.But Labour cabinet impeded the normalization of bilateralrelations. Labour's policy has caused mixed reactions in a widepopulations. One part of the population believed the government hesitant to questionnationalization, the other believed that Labour's policy would lead to revolution. ToMoreover, conservatives criticized the foreign policy of the government. Fearingfurther weakening of its influence, the government in October 1924 dissolvedparliament and called fresh elections. To achieve the victory of the Conservativesintimidate voters "red" danger. On the eve of the election waspublished "Comintern letter, which contained a" directive "Moscow British Communists to prepare the country's armed insurrection.Having a majority of seats, the Conservatives formed a government. NewprimeThe Prime Minister was S. Baldwin.

S. Baldwin and Winston Churchill

 

4. GovernmentConservatives. Generalstrike in 1926

Dostupyvshysto power, the Conservative cabinet headed for a financial return to Englandcenter of the world. Been given much attention to the strengthening pound. In 1925was restored gold standard pound at its prewar parity withdollar. Such government actions have often double consequences: on the one hand was strengthenedbanking system, the pound basically turned its position on financial market, but withother hand, the English industry faced the problem ofCompetitiveness її goods. In addressing this issue, British industrialistsfollowed by the most direct way: perekladuvannya all production costsworkers. That would achieve the reduction of product cost is replacementobsolete equipment, and reduced wages of workers.

Summer1925 owners of mines categorical demands put miners, threateninglock-outs, if they agree to reduce wages and increase workingday. Federation of Miners responded with denial. It supported the union of railwaymenTransport and Engineering. Before the workers united frontvuhlepromyslovtsyam had to retreat. The government pledged to pay the ownersmines subsidy for 9 months for the previous wageminers. Victory Day workers who disrupted lockout, was named"Red Friday".

Afterafter 9-month term mine owners announced a lockout (closingenterprise and the release of all employees), as miners rejected againtheir requirements. The government has imposed a state of emergency in the country. The determination of lead workersfighting has forced the General Council (the governing body of trade unions) to announcegeneral strike, which began on May 4, 1926 Number of participants(Including families) reached about 18 million, ie 40% of total populationcountry. Workers showed high enthusiasm, persistence and dedication.Everywhere created strike committees and council action.

Militaryof moving to suppress a strike in 1926

 

The fight sparked a wave of British workersproletarian solidarity throughout the world. In some countries began gatheringfunds in favor of the strikers. However, the General Council refused to passstrikers money raised in the USSR. Only later they were used by the Federationminers to support striking miners.

Army, police and state apparatus, propaganda machinefink - all the forces and means used to suppressstrike. May 12 leadership of the General Council announced the suspensiongeneral strike. But not all workers agree with this decision. Minerscontinued to strike for seven months. Onslaught vuhlepromyslovtsiv andgovernment as well as hunger and poverty have forced miners to retreat. In December1926 they returned to work. Salary miners declined, and workingday increased. To avoid such conflicts in future, Parliamentadopted the law on conflicts in the industry and the trade union, whichbanned general strikes and picketing.

Strike 1926 was the only major socialconflict in the West during the period of stabilization.

In May, 1927 British government unilaterallyAgenda broke diplomatic relations with the USSR.

5. Changes in economic development andeveryday life

Although the economy did not know English "prosperity" in the 20'syears as the U.S., it was the radical modernization, which changedBritish life and allowed England to stand the test Дruhoyi World War.

Introductiongold standard, although worsened export opportunities for traditional industrieseconomy (steel, ship-building, mining, etc..) positively influencedto prayвand speciesindustry based on new technologies (automotive, aviation,elektrotehichna, chemical). Due to considerable scientific potential in Englandand designed and zaprovadzhuvalosya large mass of new technologies. Changes in the structureeconomy led to changes in geography and industrial centers of the country. Thus, ifstill the main industrial centers are located in the north, they are nowzmischatysya begin on agricultural south. The development of new industriesTrain for a production increase of electricity consumption. Numberconsumers from 1920 to 1939 increased from 730 thousand to 9 million developmentPower assisted recovery in adjacent areas. Quickly naroschuvalosyaproduction of artificial fabrics and rubber.

Beginsbecome familiar household items such as electric kettles, electric heaters,electroirons, styralni machine, absorb, radio etc.. Cars toono longer a luxury. In 1935, price was a third carannual salary of the teacher.  Consumersthese products are significant sections of British society, particularlyvysokooplachuyemi workers for new industries, workers areelite.

Growthincome and hence consumption led to improving the lives of those who had workpereodychni despite economic crisis. As one worker wrote:"Eating has become more diverse. Fresh fruit can be bought all year round.Milk exported regularly ... number fiveDRUNKARD decreased? In 1880 - iesoften met barefoot women and children. Today, they have not seen. Platky disappearedshlyapky replaced? Girls who formerly chypurylysya only on holidays, now alwaysoditi coquettishly, worrying about hair and nails ... But the cost of beer, cigarettes andothers trivia increase? ".

Growthproduction using the technologies of mass production led to objectsunion firms andformation of large trusts. Thus, while in 1914 there were 200 large companies, to1939 only 20 (Imperial chemicals, Industrial, Austin, Morris, Vauxhall,Ford, Vickers, etc...)

6. Economic crisis."National" government

The dissatisfaction of population policy conservatives has led totheir defeat in parliamentary elections in 1929 Labour took a significantvictory, though he did not have absolute majority in the House of Commons. The Government formedMcDonald. During the campaign, they promised to implement widesocial programs and restore diplomatic relations with the USSR.

Labour got the power in bad time. Early1930 Britain embraced the economic crisis. Compared to the U.S.Germany and France, industrial production declined slightly in the country,because the British economy has not experienced "prosperity" in20-ies Hardest-hit were the traditional industries. Exportdecreased by half. Economic decline led to a reduction in living standardspopulation. In the midst of crisis, every fourth worker was not working.

As the backbone of Labour were trade unions, governmentwas obligatedpegged to address the problem of employment and unemployment. It was created evennew ministry to fight unemployment. It dealt with the immigrationworkers in rural areas, dominions, orhnizatsiyeyu public works.We extended unemployment insurance system. But over time as the countryvtyahuvalasya the vortex of crisis zvuzhuvalysya allow the government to implement socialreforms.

So Labour have failed to fulfill their promises interms of domestic policy. A further anti-crisis measures (reduction in salaryfees, reducing benefits has not been restored 7-hourday in the mines, kept antyprofspilkovi laws etc..) furtherundermined the trust of voters. The country began a new wave of strikesdemonstrations, hunger marches "unemployed.

In the absence of a single glance at the exit from the crisis in governmentsplit, which ended in the resignation of the cabinet.

Poster"National" government

 

У 1931 McDonald was formedcoalition "national" government with Labour, Conservatives andliberals, who generally held conservative policy (However, for this wasexpelled from the Labour Party). There was a further curtailment of social programs.

To raise the credibility of reforms, the government began to savingsoff: McDonald lowered its earnings premiere by 20%. Royal Familyreduced by 10% funds, allocated by the state for its maintenance.Politics tighter belts "favored but not all. Action occurredprotest. But elections in 1931 showed that the majority of the population supportscoalition, which won 497 seats against 46 in Labour. The governmentstepped up anti-crisis measures.

In 1931 gold standard was eliminated poundsterling area and established that united the country, who usedEnglish currency for settling. A 1932 United Kingdomabandoned vehicles introduced free trade and protectionist laws. These measurescontributed to raising the competitiveness of British goods, avoidance of significantdrop in production. It stopped the financial crisis that is approaching.

In order to bring down the tension and social arrange addresssystem of assistance to victims of the crisis was passed аCT of the Insuranceunemployment and the law of the areas that have suffered disaster.

British fascists

 

Aggravationsocial problems led to the growing influence of extremist forces: the Communists andfascists. But they did not have enough to England's social base. BesidesBritish society, brought up in parliamentary traditions, did not perceivetheir methods of struggle. To permanently cool the radical elements1934 adopted the law on incitement to rebellion and1937 - Act of public order.

Afterregular parliamentary elections in 1935  McDonald lost the seat in favor of the prime minister the leader of the ConservativesS. Baldwin.

King Edward VIII

 

The new government had to decide, but economic problems, and moredynastic crisis that erupted in 1936 That year he died, King George VThat managed byhis government to strengthen the role of dynasty in the life of England. Became heir to the throneEdward VIII, who criticized the monarchy a challenge. The reason fordynastic crisis was the wish of Edward VIII to marry an AmericanWallis Simpson, which had already been married twice and could not boasthighborn. According to tradition, have historically been the English monarch isboth the head of the Anglican church. Marriage with this woman would causeserious blow prestige of the monarchy, tradition of state and society. Inresponse to the desire of the king and royal family government firmly declared: "Eitherthrone, or Simpson. "chose Edward... Wallis Simpson. He abdicatedin favor of his younger brother Albert, who became King under the nameGeorge VI. At the end of the dynastic crisis S. Baldwin decided to leavechair premiereConsidering that his mission in politics, he performed -saved the British monarchy.

Prem`Prime MinisterN. Chamberlain, UK

 

In1937 Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain was. He had the ordinaryskills and this position was due to high blood and familyties. Conservatives held internal policies? aimed at preservingexisting orders, and foreign - policy of "appeasement."

6. Creation of the BritishCommonwealth

After Пershoyi World War British dominions (Canada, Australia,Union of South Africa, Ireland and New Zealand) wanted to get rid ofBritish tutelage. The determining factor in this process was that the dominionscould no longer guarantee your own safety (for the war Britainguarantee the safety of dominion over the Empire Defense Committee).

In1917 on the imperial conference was announced that the dominions will"Empire of the Commonwealth of independent States." It was suggesteda vast federation to their constitution. The project was rejected onnext conference in 1918 But ignore the desire dominions UKcould not. In addition, they made a significant contribution to the fight against Germany.

Dominionsbecome parties to the Paris Peace Conference, though he had not been allowed tomeetings of the four great powers, signed the Versailles peace, but not inalphabetical order, after Britain joined the League of Nations.

Goingin world politics as an independent power, dominion quickly began to hold their ownforeign policy: diplomatic representatives appointed to other state andeven blocked some diplomatic steps metropolitan doing it pressure. Yesthey refused to take part in the aggression against Turkey at the beginning1920's, forced Britain to abandon an alliance with Japan andetc.

Newdominions status was enshrined in the imperial conference in 1926 Inresolution prepared by Lord Balfour and Canadian Prime Minister liberalMackenzie King recognized the independence of dominions, and the word "empire"zaminyuvalosya to "community". "The members of the conference isgrouping of independent states that have equal status, notsubordinate to each other under no kind of internal or external affairs,share a common fidelity British Crown and freely as members of cohesiveCommonwealth. "The resolution envisaged a transition period duringwhich in foreign policy and defense largest share of responsibilityaccounted for the British government.

OnConference 1930 it was agreed that disputes between membersCommonwealth resolved as before, "judicial committeepersonal royal council "led by the Lord Chancellor. In addition,request of the Union of South Africa and Ireland, unanimously recognizing the rightdominions of separation.

Suchdevelopments were codified in 1931 adoption of EnglishParliament Westminster statute. Charter utochnyuvav functions of parliamentsdominions and abolished the law of 1865, by which the judgmentscolonial parliaments, should not have been contrary to laws passed inLondon. Dominions the right to revoke laws have? adopted in London. Statutesadopted by all members of the Commonwealth (PAS and Ireland - with somereservations).

Exceptpolitical relations to the imperial conferences of 1930 and 1932 wasand regulate economic relations between the dominions and the mother country.

Economicquestion was acutely during the economic crisis of 30's, whenBritain introduced protectionist laws and banned free exchange. Thiswas urivnyano dominions with foreign goods, which hurt its effect ondominions economy, dependent on market metropolis.

OnOttawa conference this issue was repaired by signing bilateralagreements between Britain, on the one hand, and each dominion - on the other,establishing mode of imperial preferences ". However, UKhas a commitment to provide products of dominionsfavorable conditions.

 

Documents and materials

Agreement between Great Britain andIreland. December 6, 1921

(Excerpt)

1. Ireland would have the same constitutional status incommunity of nations,  calledBritish Empire  and that the dominionCanada, Australia, Dominion of New Zealand and South AfricaUnion, with parliament having the right to make laws to preserve peace,order and good governance in Ireland, and with the executive authority responsiblebefore this parliament, and it will be called and the Irish FreeState ...

6. Until such a treaty between the British and IrishGovernments  за  which the Irish Free State will assumeits own coast guard, defense, the UK and Ireland from the seawill assume the imperial forces of His Majesty ...

9. Ports UK and Irish Free Statewill be fully open to ships of other countries with payment of the prescribedport and other charges.

 

Inquiries to document

1. Whatwas stimulated by the agreement between Great Britain and Ireland?

2. Thataimed at the UK signing the agreement?

 

 

The law on labor disputes andtrade unions. 1927

(Excerpt)

1. Hereby declared -

a) that any strike is illegal   if (i) it does not seek to promotesettlement of labor disputes? (ii) if it is conceived and designed forthat directly or by creating difficulties for public useconstraint on the government;

b) that any lockout is illegal?

(2) If any person who encourages, incites, encourages otherpeople take part in a strike or lock-outs,   which this Act is declared illegal, then such a person is exposeddisciplinary court fines? or imprisonment?

4 - (I) lawlessly require any member unionsto contribute to union political fund?

 

Inquiries to document

1. Afterwhich events and what the purpose was passed this law?

2. Whatrestrictions imposed on trade unions in this law?

 

Law on import duties.1932

(Excerpt)

Part I

Total ad valorem duties and additional duties

1. - (1). As of 1 March 1932, takingto the provisions of this Act, all goods imported into the UnitedKingdom, except goods exempted from tax  as hereinafter provided in this positionArticle Dutiable than the 10% unit cost of goods.

 

Inquiries to document

1. Whatdriven by the adoption of this law?

2. Whatconsequences of the law for England? What is it evidenced?

 

Questions and Tasks

1.Describe the change in the socio-economic developmentGreat Britain after Пershoyi World War.

2. Whatreform was carried out by the government of Lloyd George?

3.Explain why the Labour party managed to oust the liberal party withBritish political life.

4. Whatcauses and consequences of a strike in 1926? What do you think of the strikers, the governmentand businessmen during the 1926 strike?

5. Whichinfluence the labor movement had on social policy of governments?

6. Whatthe specific features of the economic crisis 30's in the UK? Rateeffectiveness of government in overcoming the crisis.

7.Representatives of the parties which formed the "national" government?

8. Whatwas caused by the dynastic crisis? How it was solved?

9. Whatchanges occurred in the relationship between mother country and dominions? When it was establishedBritish Commonwealth and for what purpose?

10. Can BritishCommunity 20-30's be considered democratic? Answer atгruntuyte.

 

Note the dates:

1924- FirstLabour Government.

1926- A general strike inUK.

1931- Westminsterstatute. Executed the British Commonwealth.

1936 - Dynasticcrisis