§ 12. United States
1. Change of status in the world after the U.S. Пershoyi World War
HomeWorld War affected the American continent and the country has not faced themass destruction and casualtiesAsі Blvdи in Europe. The U.S. army took part in combat operations only in summer-Autumn 1918 Human lossU.S., compared to other countries were much lower: about 120 thousandkilled and died from the disease and about 230 thousand wounded.
Warhelped enrich the country. Total net profit for monopoly1914-1919 biennium amounted to 33.6 billion dollars. It is possible to implementsignificant investment in American industry, create jobsplace to reduce unemployment.
Industrialgrowth that began on this base and increased share in world industrial U.S.production. Before 1920 U.S. share was about halfworld coal production, 3 / 5 of iron and steel, 2 / 3produced worldwide oil, 85% of automobile production.
Thus,USA consolidated its status economically most powerful country in the world.
UnitedStates have significantly increased capital exports. Whose main form of war wereloans. Their total amount in the early 20-ies reached 11 billiondollars. In addition, the war has increased more than twice the amountU.S. private investment abroad. In this way, the U.S.turned from a debtor of the largest World creditor.
GrowthU.S. share in international economic relations created conditions foractively invading the United States in the sphere of world politics. GovernmentDemocratic Party led by President Woodrow Wilson took in 1917course to gain "global leadership".
Programstrong intensification of U.S. foreign policy was outlined in these Wilsonabove 14 points. It contained a number of fundamentally new provisions. Itsdecision would mean a revolution in international relations.
Speakingagainst secret agreements have been common practice in international relationsEurope rulingUnited States hoped to conclude a range of other, more profitable for them. They triedthe slogan "equal opportunity" to create conditions forattack on the position of European colonial powers in Asia, Africa andLatin America. To weaken their rivals to enter the U.S. offeredprinciple of "open doors" in all lands of Germany and TurkeyEmpire, which were subject to division, as well as in China.
Onimplementation of the program focused on the activity of RepresentativesParis Peace Conference in 1919 United States sought to prevent excessivestrengthening of England and France. For this purpose they were made for the preservationsufficiently strong German influence in the United States. Assumingstrengthening of a dominant position and American dollars out of plansLeague of Nations.
U.S. President W. Wilson(1913-1921 biennium)
The decision of the Paris peace conference were not so, as hopedadministration of President W. Wilson. The main objects of the postwar division of the worldwere put under control of England, France and Japan. The United States has not received any ofmandatory areas. In the League of Nations took the leading position not the United States,and England and France.
FailureU.S. plans at the Paris Peace Conference poyasnyuvavsya thatU.S. foreign policy positions have remained relatively weak. Moreover, in mostThere was serious opposition to U.S. foreign policy of President B. Wilson.
Speakingthe flag of isolationism, Republicans were against the ratification of the Versaillescontract called for the U.S. to withdraw from the League Nations. They considered joiningUnited States in alliance with European countries that allow onlyprovided that from the beginning will ensure U.S. superiority. The Republicans have nominatedslogan "free hand" to the U.S., hoping to gradually providemilitary and political superiority over the United States and European countriesmake this important step towards a world championship. Sharp clashes betweenRepublicans (isolationists) and the Democrats (Ekchpansionisty) led by Wilson werereflection of different political groups fighting on the methodsgain global hegemony.
InMarch 1920 The Senate has not ratified the Treaty of Versailles, which containedposition of the League of Nations. This meant that foreign policy is takenWilson government in the years Пershoyi World War, was defeated.
Had nosuccess and all attempts by the Wilson succeed in the fight against Bolshevikregime Russia.
DefeatWilson, who represented the reformist wing of the ruling circles, whileDemocrats in the elections 1920 had wide repercussions in domestic politics. U.S.long been blocked by a social reformAnd foreignpolicy of isolationism prevailed.
2. The political course of the Republican administration
Summer1920 in the United States exploded a deep economic crisis that has touched all sectorsindustry. Resulted in its reduction of military production and conversion.The number of unemployed in 1921 reached 5,7 million Real wagefee reduced by an average of 20-25%.
CrisisIndustry pereplelasya of agrarian crisis. By spring 1921 pricesagricultural commodities in the U.S. declined by 3-4 times. This led not onlyreduce farmers' profits, but to ruin many of them.
DiscontentWorkers and farmers turned their grave situation during electionCampaign 1920 Since that benefited Republicans. In the elections1920 they won. Their candidate for U.S. president WarrenHarding has collected more than 16 million votes, while Democratic candidate JamesCox - only 9 million After an eight-year break Republican Partydostupylasya to power. Harding took the course to return to pre-order("Normality" as he said). Conservative trends were doubleimpact on domestic life. On one side is an unprecedented developmenteconomy on the other - is the accumulation and the emergence of a number of problems that hadfar-reaching consequences.
U.S. President William Harding (1921-1923 biennium)
Another1919 Republicans blocked the reforms in the labor relations ofworkers the right to strike. Harding Administration opposedpolicy of state regulation. However, it was all conditions to increaseprofits big industrialists, bankers and entrepreneurs. U1921 was canceledintroduced during the war profits tax on corporations. Subsequently were increased duties on imports to the U.S. criticalindustrial goods. This led to an increase in domestic prices. Gainsmonopolies immediately jumped.
Forincrease profits by representatives of big capital did not stop directly in frontviolation of law. Kuruptsiya state apparatus has become ubiquitous. InIn 1921-1922 large oil industry hired interior ministerand illegally obtained in the lease state oil region in California andWyoming. On the path forged deals with monopolies became Minister of Justice,chairman of the Federal Bureau of assistance to war veterans and other high officialsRepublican administration. The actions of many members of the RepublicanAdministration, famous for its proximity to Harding had so scandalouscharacter that it was compromising the president. Only the unexpecteddeath in August 1923 saved him from Court and shame of exposure.
The onlyserious reforms implemented Republicans, was the provision of voting rightswomen (1920).
The most strikingmanifestation of conservative tendencies in the domestic life became an amendment toConstitution to come into force in January 1920, at which were entered"Dry law" that prohibited manufacture and sale of alcoholic beveragesthroughout the U.S.. As a result of the country `appeared organized gangcriminals (hanstery), which took control of all illegal business horilchanyhbeverages, drugs, prostitution. Spread corruption among law enforcementbodies. In many such thing as a racket. Wars between rival gangs hansteriv thatfought for control of illegal business, the shake citiesUSA. One of the known of those "kings" of the criminal report, a alCapone.
Police party interceptedhorilchanyh beverage that delivered illegally to U.S.
Againa flourish Ku Klus Klan, who controlled the whole southern U.S. regions.Prevalent racial segregation. In some southern states for the Prohibitionhorrible teaching the knowledge that disagree with the Bible. Yes, school teacherSkops John was tried and convicted for teaching Darwin's theory.
InRepublican foreign policy leaders have put forward the following principles as a refusalof military-political alliances with European countries and promoting economicexpansion of the United States.
AdministrationHarding sought new ways to reach an old goal - the establishmentAmerican global hegemony.
InAugust 1921 signed a separate agreement between the U.S. and Germany, forhow the USA zakriplyalysya all rights granted by Treaty of Versailles.
Sharplystrengthened U.S. economic expansion in the Far East, especially China. All thatcreated a serious threat to the international position of England, which led totension between the two countries. Sharp exacerbated conflicts between the U.S.and Japan. U.S., which saw themselves as "deprived" in Versailles, soughttake revenge. Already two years after the Paris conference in 1919American diplomacy at the Washington conference was able to save yourasset first major victory. At the Washington Conference in 1921-1922U.S. delegation, backed by the economic might of America, usingsuch an important tool to influence other countries as war debts, has made significantconcessions on the part of European states. Were accepted doctrine of "opendoor to China, Treaty on the Limitation of Armaments and marineimmunity island possessions of the States Parties in the Pacific, testifiedto increase the political weight of the U.S. system of international relations. ConcerningSoviet Russian government Harding headed the continuation of economic policiesembargo and diplomatic isolation. March 25, 1921 Secretary of StateU.S. Hughes said that the implementation of a radical change insocio-economic structure of Russia about resumption of trade, especiallydiplomatic relations between the U.S. and the Soviet state, let alone. However,diysnennya in Soviet policyNEP opened the way to US-Soviet trade relations.
3. The working-class and democratic movements
Economiccrisis of 1920-1921 biennium gave a strong impetus to invigorate the labor movement.A significant impetus to its deployment was the liquidation of the minimum socialprograms implemented Democrats in previous years ("justcourse ").
Largestforces strike movement reached in the summer of 1922, when he almost simultaneouslyunderway in the textile centers of New England, the coal industry and torailways. In general strike movement early 20-ies was lesssuccessful than in the early postwar years. The defeat resulted in major strikesa final loss of gains first post-war years, resulting in the U.S.in 20-ies were the most backward country with welfare legislation amongWestern countries. Only rapid growth of the economy: employment growth andvhamuvalo wage workers struggle for their rights.
Economiccrisis of 1920-1921 biennium gave new impetus to development and democratic movement.One of its most important areas of a Negro movement. DifficultNegro population situation, brutal racism, terrorkukluksklanivtsiv - it caused resistance Blacks, led by the largestNegro Organization - National Association to promote the progresscolored population, created more In 1909 One of itsNegro leaders was outstanding scholar, writer, public andpolitician William Dubois.
In wealthy black school
Simultaneouslyturned Negro movement under the slogan "Back to Africa" that itsMarcus Garvey was headed. In the early 20-ies Garvey movement has attracted millions ofNegroes. But Harvey soon abandoned its radical platform. Together withthe idea of returning it to cold and the broad masses of Negro population, whichrealized that the solution Negro question is not attemptedslogan "Back to Africa" and in the struggle to improve the situation of blacks inthe United States.
4. Peculiarities of the United States. "Prosperity"
UnitedStates before other developed countries have entered a period of stabilization. In1922-1929 biennium there was rapid development of industrial production.At the end of this period, the U.S. produced 44% of industrial productscapitalist world, more than Britain, France, Germany,Italy and Japan combined.
Importantincentive to increase production has become a method of mass distribution conveyorproduction.
First timethe most efficient methods are used in automotive plantsHenry Ford in Detroit. Introduction of new technologies has led to the alleged 'production. Another entrepreneurs were not able to create largeenterprises. Consequently, more started to play the role of joint stock companies andCorporation - a form of collective business. Mass emergence of sharespromote capital market development.
G. Ford Plants
The most intensively developed automotive, engineering,electrical, chemical, aviation and some other areas. In each of them dominated 4.3largest companies. Before 1929 almost half of the united corporationmills and factories of the country. Number of banks in the U.S. declined by1920-1929 biennium from 30 to 24 thousand, while their assets increased by 21 billiondollars.
U.S.significantly increased exports of goods and actively stepping on their positionsrivals. Export surplus in the 1921-1929 biennium reached7.7 billion dollars. High tariffs protect American industryfrom foreign competition. Important means of financial exploitation of other countrieswas the export of capital. American investments abroad from 1920by 1931 amounted to 11.6 billion dollars, with 40% of this amount accounted forin Europe and 22% - in Latin America. Getting huge interest fromloans and payment of war debts, the U.S. turned into state-Ranta.
Economicrise of 20-ies small number of features. Shipbuilding, manufacturingrailway equipment, textiles and coal mining industry fell into decay. Productionin power engineering and metallurgy were not fully loaded.Agriculture experienced a prolonged crisis. There were 2-3 millionunemployed. Every year, increased sales on credit by futureincome, testified to the narrowing of the internal market and worseningproblems of distribution. Although it was then the common slogan: "Advertising plus credit -prosperity forever. "
Itattributed to uneven distribution of national wealth. Wagebarely increased, while income grew three times as large businesses.The rich have become richer. They bought expensive cars, houses, yachts, but they werelittle and they could not replace the mass market in a rapid developmentmass production.
Mutablebeen and financial system. In 20-ies on the New York StockExchange - the largest in the world - there was a real boom causedan unprecedented increase in stocks. It is involved in major securities marketsfinancial resources. All sought to buy shares only to their thensell. When this speculative boom has reached the maximum point, started the landslideshares fall, and eventually a crisis.
Occurredshifts in political life. In the elections of 1924 the fightentered a new force. Apart Дemokratychnoyi and Рespublikanskoyi parties participated in elections Пrohresyvnyy block thatsupported the Republican senator from Wisconsin R. Lafolleta. Heran as an independent candidate for president. He supported the AmericanFederation of Labor - AFT, the Socialist Party and several publicorganizations. The movement in support Lafolleta was the biggest in U.S. history massnational political action that went beyond the two-party system. Lafolletgathered in the election 4.8 million votes. Soon bloc that supported him,disintegrated. In 1924 first time took part in the elections the Communist Party, which nominatedtheir presidential candidate Mr. Foster.
U.S. President Coolidge K.(1923-1929 biennium)
PresidentU.S. Coolidge was elected. The new government proclaimed its motto: "RightAmerica - a business. "He strongly promoted the growth of profits of monopoliesdecreasing from year to year taxes on corporations and large companies offeringstate subsidies. However, Coolidge twice rejected a bill to helpfarmers. Considerable funds were spent on marine weapons. Economic andpolitical life was under the control of families of financialoligarchy - Morgan, Rockefeller, DuPont, Mellon, and Chicago,Boston and Cleveland financial groups. The most important posts in cabinetCoolidge occupied by representatives of finance capital. Mini-stroma of Finance was"Aluminium king" Andrew Mellon, the Minister of Commerce - HerbertHoover, close to the Morgan-getter who got a reputation as onethe pillars of "prosperity" ("prosperity").
U.S. President H. Hoover (1929-1933years)
AnotherRepublicans win the election in 1928 Hoover led the White House.Significant role played by this promise to destroy poverty and ensure everyAmerican, prosperous life. Hoover was a popular book on "hard individualism".
Oninternational arena the U.S. pursued a policy of expansion, covering its"Isolationist" flag. United States were the mainarbiter in solving the problem reparations. Their proposed 1924 planDauesa created conditions for the reproduction of the German military and industrial potential.In 1929 he had instead developed the plan Jung, who contributed to the penetrationAmerican capital in Europe.
Takingpart in the struggle for supremacy in China, USA, together with other countriessuppressed national liberation movement of the Chinese people.Financial and economic pressure on countries in Latin America coupled witharmed intervention, especially in Central America and Caribbean BasinSea. U.S. aggression against Nicaragua in the 1913-1933 biennium (1925-1927 biennium, U.S.appear in the host country) and killing the head of the national liberation movementSandino has caused deep resentment in Central and South America.
Duringstabilize the sharp struggle between the U.S. and Britain for control ofmarkets and raw materials. American monopoly increasingly tangiblepressed on British competitors. Sea and intensified competition.
U.S.were the only major countries that refused to recognize the Soviet Union. ButRepublican administration is not hindered business circles of the U.S.economic and trade relations with the Soviet Union. Notwithstandinglack of legal basis for Soviet-American trade, itvolume in the second half of the 20-ies steadily growing. In 1930, U.S.came in first place among importers of goods to the Soviet Union (mainlyIndustrial machinery and equipment). Finally, in 1933 U.S. and USSR installeddiplomatic relations. It happened at a time when the Stalinist regimeshowed its true face predatory (millions of people в Ukraine, NorthCaucasus, Kazakhstan Deaths from Гolodomorу).
5. The Great Depression
The collapse ofNew York Stock Exchange October 29, 1929 ("Black Tuesday") announced onTop of unprecedented depth and destructive economic crisis. For one daytotal decline in the price of shares was 10 billion dollars. By the summer of 1932U.S. industrial production fell almost doubled against 1929 Thousandsbanks, industrial and trading companies went bankrupt. But large corporations,which absorbed many small and medium sized firms, with the help of abstentionsgovernment.
Panic on the New York StockExchange (Wall Street) October 29, 1929
Crisisled to unprecedented unemployment. On the outskirts of cities have grown"Huvervili" - settlements of shacks in which they live with their unemployedfamilies deprived of shelter. Near the charity points for a bowl of soup vyshykovuvalysyalong lines of hungry people. Hundreds of thousands roamed the country in search of badworks, among them were many farmers broke.
Turnedmass movement of unemployed, who organized two "hungry marches onWashington. They demanded of the work, the introduction of socialInsurance and delivery assistance to the unemployed, the suspension of the exemptions, savingearnings of workers, recognition of the right to organize unions. To suppress statementsGovernment used troops and police, but the movements all the time.
Unemploymentfirst time in history has reached astronomical figures - 17 million people. No wondercrisis remained in the historical memory of Americans, a symbol of nationaltragedy. Home and rapid growth of Americans plagued by the fact thatbelieving in the infinite "prosperity" 20's, they weremorally unprepared for disaster. The crisis sparked initially not activelyresistance and confusion. Usepronyknyy character, the long, unprecedenteddepth generated paralyzing fear. The situation deteriorated throughno country in the welfare system, which was a result ofdomination individualistic morality. Therefore, economic crisis and the crisis becameAmerican individualism. The views of Americans turned to the state,intervention which seemed the only means of survival.
Characteristically,that the largest mass movements that emerged during the crisis, called for publicregulation. Unemployed demanded a state system of unemployment insurance,Veterans ПershoyiWorld War II - government support, farmers urged Washington to putedge of lower prices on their products. The crisis fell almost entirely on the timeRepublican Hoover presidency. He took office March 4, 1929six months prior to the crisis and left the White House exactly 4 years later, when the crisishas gone his peak. Ironically, Hoover was one of the most consistentsupporters of individualism. In his view, most of what could gostate - is to become the coordinator of private initiative and independentarbiter in the struggle of competing social and political groups. Hoover alsothat believed that the causes of the crisis lie in the disorder of the world economy afterWar, the American economy is quite healthy and does not require drasticdrugs.
Implications of the "Great Depression".A former millionaire selling apples on the streets of New York
Basedfrom this, the president and his policies were formed during the crisis. For example, heconvened a conference of business representatives and trade unions to ensuresort of social truce, called to expand private philanthropyto help those in need. From the hectic world of Americadistance themselves high customs barriers. By him federal farmmanagement began to purchase surplus agricultural products. It wasadopted a federal program construction.
Implications of the "Great Depression"."Huvervili" on the outskirts of U.S. cities
Nextdeepening of the crisis showed that these measures are not enough, however, the Hooverwent to set off even its modest programs. When in the Federal Budgetgovernment deficit and the situation appeared hopeless was, Hoover agreed to issuegovernment loans to private corporations and states to help citizens.
Itselfcrisis and failure of policies to overcome its president, could not causeimpact of the fall of the Republican party, which after a long civil wartime dominated the political arena of the country. Their opponents - DemocraticParty - have a unique chance to come to power. In 1930, theytook the first step to this, having won a majority in the House of RepresentativesCongress.
6. "New Deal" Roosevelt
Attemptout of crisis, mitigate social tension in society, an attempt thatwas the start of serious reform of American society, was the policyPresident Franklin Roosevelt in the 1933-1941 biennium, which went into history ascalled "new course".
Roosevelt,being since 1928 Governor of New York at the time, mostpopulated and richest, performed a program of state aid to the poor, nothad analogues. Becoming Democratic candidate for the highest public office of the country, hestressed the need for assistance "forgotten man", implyingmillions of disadvantaged crisis, promised the American people a "newcourse that uses unconventional methods to combat the crisis.Roosevelt had completed the program and believed the main purpose of the electioncampaign to win over all dissatisfied. Many people believed that,came to the polls in November 1932, they votedby Roosevelt, but against Hoover. Roosevelt also promised to abolish"Prohibition". Anyhow Рespublikanska Party underwent drastic defeat.Roosevelt received 22.8 million votes, while Hoover - only15.8 million Democrats also won a majority in both housesCongress.
SelectedPresident Roosevelt took office only 4 March next year. Thistime, the "mizhtsaryuvannya, fell the most dramatic phase of the crisis.There was a wave of bankruptcies of American banks. Crowds of people literallytook them under siege, trying to rescue their savings, take them. In the night4 March, the Bank of New York and Chicago - financial centers in the U.S. stoppedoperations due to lack of cash. The state was under threat of completeparalysis. Banking crisis gave Roosevelt time to adapt to new rolesit encouraged him immediately identify outstanding quality policy: dynamism,commitment and innovative approach. To have time to prepare their proposals andcalm passions, Roosevelt closed all banks are state and then receiving aCongress the necessary authority, made an emergency rescue programbanking system, helping other banks and eliminating others. Thereafterconducted the first phase of banking reform, part of which wasinsurance for small and medium deposits of up to 5 thousand dollars.
Slightlylater, in 1934, was held dollar devaluation and a commission onTrade stocks, which supervised the activities of exchanges aimed fondovoystop speculation plexusщenoyu value.
The secondgroup activities were held during the first stage of a "new course" wasassociated with an attempt to get out of the agrarian crisis. The central place among them occupiedLaw on the Regulation of Agriculture in 1933 (AAA), which aimedfarmers to increase profits by increasing prices of products thatthey produced. In accordance with the law created a complex mechanism thatwas aimed at the reduction of main agriculturalproducts. As farmers have received compensation premium costs for individualfund created by the new special tax.
U.S. President F. Rkzvelt amongFarmers
Central100 days among the laws was the law of the restoration industry (NRA), which was adopted in summer1933, Its symbol was the blue eagle. He envisioned the creation of state regulation of conditionsindustrial production, management labor relations assistance to the unemployed.
Symbol "New Deal"
AsRoosevelt stressed: "The state's role is complicated by the inevitable, becausecomplicated by life itself. "
The firstmeasures the "new course" contributeяDo some stabylizatsiyi economy.
Butbeginning of economic recovery did not lead to the expected decline in socialtension. Instead, paralyzing fear of people was passing along with the crisis, andactivity of the masses began to grow. In the country there were mass movements, some - inunusual form that reflected the deep resentment of Americans position,what happened. The tenor of all the movements of the participants was to demand morebetter protecting citizens, guarantee that they experienced troublewill not be repeated. Basically all wishes came to decisiveintroduction of state regulation of social and economic life.
Electionto Congress in 1934 showed that most Americans support theserequirements.
Understandingdoomed attempt to restore the old order, given the mood of the masses and schedulepolitical forces? Roosevelt made a "shift left" in its policy,part of which was a series of important structural changes in Americansociety. "New Deal" government regulation of economy meant,government interference in private property work. Small banks were closed,prohibited the export of gold abroad. State regulating industrial development, which was divided into several groups. Between them shouldact was "honest competition code, which defined the scopeproduction, market sharing, the level of wages. In agricultureeconomy of the U.S. government stimulated exports of wheat and cotton, helped increaseagricultural prices.
Newcourse also provided for social reforms. Therestate system was implemented to help widows, orphans and disabledunemployed insurance and pensions. In 1935, adoptedNational Labor Relations Act on (Wagner Act). He finally assignedright of workers to organize trade unions, on strike, has also createdsystem of state regulation of labor relations. Along with the mainunion objectsunity AFP production arose Congress of Trade Unions. Were significantlyexpanded economic functions of the state. Set of state control overFederal Reserve and its transformation into a kind of central bankUSA finished the banking reform.
Forensuring equitable distribution of national income reformedtax system - has been raised taxes on excess profits,heritage and Endowment. Significantly enhance the system of public works. She took careAdministration of Public Works (WPA).
OffsetLeft in politics "new course" has made it increasingly tough politicalstruggle. Conservative forces have moved to an open confrontation with the government. Theirglorification of Roosevelt as savior of the nation changed attacks and accusationshim of treason. So the election campaign in 1936 found almostdiametrically opposite positions of the two major parties in the issue of reform andElections have become a kind of referendum on the fate of the "newcourse. "Roosevelt got on these overwhelming electoral majority, collecting27.8 million against 16.7 million votes cast for his main rivalAlfred Landon. The Republicans won only two of those states with 48. InCongress was the least of them from the beginning of the century. Election1936 had historical significance: they made reform of the "newcourse irreversible.
Havinga convincing mandate of trust, Roosevelt in 1937 concentrated effortsadministration to reform the Supreme Court. Its members, appointed for lifepresident, became the backbone of conservative forces. Using the rightSupreme Court interpreted the Constitution, they proclaimed 11 laws of "newcourse irrelevant to her. Fearing that the same fate awaits andlaws passed in 1935, Roosevelt proposed to update the composition of the Supreme Courtby the appointment of additional members after reaching 70-year judgesage. The proposal was rejected by Congress.
Manyits members decided that making the judiciary more dependent on the executive inparty president, it violates the basic principle of government dollars -separation of powers. They did not stop at this is that by voting against the president, theyacted against the leader of his party, because the absolute majority in both houses wasDemocrats. Roosevelt calmed himself, once said that losing battle, he wonWar - The Supreme Court in 1937 vsezh recognized constitutional law andon social security and the law of Wagner, but the authority of the president wascaused huge damage, and Democratic Party was split.
BasedWagner on the law and commitment to their president, trade unions began to assault twoantyprofspilkovyh main bastions of strength - automotive,steel industry. Violent struggle of the workers, episodes of which was"Sit-down" strike at the plant of General Motors in Michigan, andWorkers clash with police in Chicago, which led to casualties,were the focus of the public. Thus a collective agreement withunion had to sign a "General Motors, ChryslerMotors Corporation and the largest steel, "United Steyts table.Sometimes it seemed that the conflict threatens to make an unattainable social peace,reformers who have been desperate, and it has not contributed to the growth of authorityRoosevelt. Moreover, in autumn 1937 in addition to all the difficulties thatfell on the president, the country began a new economic crisis that has putinto question the economic policies of "new course".
Afterlong thought Roosevelt 1938 encouraged the new reform.Among them - the law on fair conditions that gave the Federal Governmentright to establish minimum hourly wage rate and the maximumlength of the workweek. The law finally banned child labor. Instead ofSupreme Court declared in 1936 unconstitutional lawregulation of agriculture was adopted by another. The purpose of the stateregulation of agriculture is now fighting for the preservationsoil fertility. This premiums were paid to farmers to reduceacreage or the introduction of crop rotations to keep the land. Simultaneouslymonitored by the level of production of farm products. On the riseUnemployment Administration said the expansion of public works. Although vli-ment1938wasthe crisis is over, all the twists and turns 1937-1938 biennium did not contribute to furtherincrease the authority of Roosevelt and the Democrats.
Construction of damshydroelectric plant in Tennessee
Newcourse been the failure of U.S. history in the twentieth century. startedPresident Roosevelt transformations were aimed at beginning of the crisis andgrowth. Completely this goal was not achieved. Economycountry? actually was in decline during the 30's Preservednedovantazhennya significant production capacity and mass unemployment.Roosevelt Administration was lucky not to master the art of market regulationeconomy. But the main levers of this regulation the state has received only in theyears. Much more significant were the social reforms. For the first time in U.S. history stateassumed the role of guarantor of social security of Americans. Was madedecisive step towards State "Prosperity." State functions extremelyextended.
From1939 Roosevelt refused to further reforms. How to join the U.S. Дruhu World War itadministration sought to consolidate the reforms already implemented the "newcourse. "With the Дruhoyi World War, the U.S. declared its neutrality (September 51939). After Japan's attack on the American naval basePearl Harbor December 7, 1941 United States entered the war on the side Аntyhitlerivskoyi coalition.
Documents and materials
Law on the advancement of agriculture (AAA). May 121933
Actimprove the severe situation of the national economy by increasingpurchasing power of agriculture, holding arrangementElimination of joint-stock land banks and other necessary measures.
Thiscertify that Congress will hold the following policies:
1).Establish and maintain the same ratio between production and consumptionagricultural products and such conditions of sale, which holdpurchasing power of agricultural products for itemsrequired farmers to the purchasing power of these products in baseperiod. In the near future ... considered pre-war period from August1909 in July 1924
Minister of Agriculturethis sector is authorized to enter into contracts with manufacturers optatsiynicotton sales to any of them as many cotton which should not exceed the differences that existbetween the amount of cotton that grew in the current and last year, all thosecases where the manufacturer will reduce the written consent of cotton productionin 1933 compared with the previous year not less than 30% ...
Eachsuch manufacturer has agreed to reduce production, Minister of AgricultureManagement will provide, without further transfer, optatsiynyy contractsale above the manufacturer of the number of cotton stocks, whichare available and under the supervision of the Ministry of Agricultureeconomy на that the manufacturer has agreed to reduce cottonits production ...
Questions to document
1. For what purpose is the Law on the Regulation of Agricultureeconomy?
2. What is the mechanism of regulation of agriculturalof proposed law? Whether it was effective?
National Recovery ActEconomy (NІRА). July 16, 1933
Law on rehabilitation of national industry,encouraging healthy competition, the organization of civil works and usefulachieving some other goals.
... President may approve codes of faircompetition for the profession or industry ... if it finds:
1) that these associations or groups will not do anyone unequalconstraints in making their members and that they really represent the indicatedin the request professions or industries, or organizations to whomincluded;
2) that the proposed codes of fair competition iscontribute to the development of monopolies or destruction or suppression of smallentrepreneurship.
Section 7. All codes of fair competition shouldinclude:
1) that all persons who are employed are eligible fororganization and to conclude agreements on the limitation of their joint actions duringelecting their representatives, or for the purpose of self-negotiations for a collective agreement or take other measures or mutualprotection;
2) that any person who is working or looking for work for hire,will not put a condition of her admission to one or anothergregarious or non-union agreements through representatives that it wasmost elected and that employers can not interfere or exert pressureotherwise prevent the introduction, organization, or assist workersUnion, which was chosen by her own discretion;
3) that employers agree to a maximum duration of working dayminimum level of remuneration and other conditions of employment that have been approved orproposed by the president ...
Questions to document
1. Name the causes and consequences of the Code of Faircompetition.
2. What position should contain codes?
Questions and Tasks
1. Assituation changed after the U.S. Пershoyi World War?
2. Whatfeatures of political and economic development dollars in 20-ies?
3. What were caused by the dominance of the Republican Party in the politicallife in the U.S. 20 years?
4. Givecharacteristic development of the labor movement and the movement for democratic rights in20-ies Why they lost?
5. Findcauses and consequences of economic crisis in the U.S. in 1929-1933,
6. WhatRoosevelt reforms were for the withdrawal of the U.S. economy from the crisis?
7. Whatconsequences of reforms "New Deal"?
8. Giveassessment activities Ф.Roosevelt.
Note the dates:
1922-1929 biennium - Period"Prosperity (prospereti) in the U.S.
October 29, 1929 - BlackTuesday, "the collapse of New York Stock Exchange, the beginning of the" great depression "in United States (1929-1933).
March 4, 1933- Introduction to F. RooseveltU.S. president. Getting "new course".
1933- Installationdiplomatic relations between the USSR and the USA.
1935- Wagner Act.
September 5, 1939- Statement on U.S. Governmentneutrality.