§ 11. Nationalist and democratic movements
1.National Liberation Movement
HomeWorld War, revolutions, reforms, Versailles-Washington system is eliminatedreasons that generated national liberation movements. The main reasonsnational liberation struggle of the peoples of Asia, Africa and Latin America werepreservation of the colonial system, the economic and financial dependence eventerms of political independence, non-compliance limits of state bordersresettlement of ethnic peoples, ignoring the rights of national minorities. These reasonsdetermined the nature, direction, ideology of national liberation movements.
Inlarge, national-liberation struggle of the peoples of Asia, Africa, LatinAmerica was directed against European domination. At the same time Dr.attainment of independence wasimpossible without the elimination of archaic social structures, withoutnational states, national industries, modern army.
Thus,national liberation movement was not a means of restoring dokolonialnyh ordersa form of affirming the values created by European civilization, stepthe formation of the integrity of the world.
Strugglefor its statehood inevitably made the dominant ideology of nationalism andparties that it professed, were mainly headsnational liberation movements. In many countries national movements and cleanedvarious forms - from armed revolt to a relatively peaceful protest.
The highestform of national liberation struggle is a national revolution. It cantake place as a peaceful means and methods of warfare. NationalRevolution - mostly radical action to obtain,recovery, merger, change of status or national advocacyindependence. Revolution could forge any forces that protectnational independence and supported by the majority population. From the forces thatstand at the head of the revolution, the national mentality and political culturepopulation depend on the political regime and form of government or in the newlyrestored state.
Featureall national revolutions is the presence of strong, charismatic nationalleader or leaders in the personal qualities which (are) significantlysuccess of the revolution.
Importantfactors of the national revolution is the international environment in which itoccurs. In the absence of interest in the existence of a new (renewed)independent country from the large (stakeholders, influential) in most statescases of national revolution is doomed to fail.
Innational liberation struggle can be singled out two areas: democratic andtotalitarian. In the circumstances was the dominant totalitarian direction,carriers which were the communist and nationalist parties. This isgeneral trend in the 30's authoritarianism, and an example Himechchynyinfluenced by the ideology of fascism on the idea of forming a strong national state.Western powers were both colonial empires, Stronglydyskrydytuvalo idea of democracy in the eyes of oppressed peoples. It should take into account policySoviet support for national liberation movements.
Nationalistmovement had regional peculiarities.
InLatin America it was expressed in policies of governments aimed at winningeconomic and financial independence. The main means of achieving it areelimination of feudal remnants, nationalization of foreign propertyindustrialization.
CountriesAsia divided into colonies and dependent state. For them the priority wastask of upgrading the existing political, economic, and social structuresinvolvement in the achievements of world civilization. This entailed civilizational shockand the dominance of conservative forces in the national liberation movement.
In20-30-ies just started to take shape new trends in the liberationmovement of the peoples of Africa. To the south it became an organized form, in the northfound the same trends as in Asia.
Maincause of national liberation movements in Europe were related to injusticeVersailles system. In most of Europe on national minoritiesheld imperial politics.
Find themselves in a difficult position Ukrainian. Their territorywas divided between the Soviet Union, CHSR, Romania and Poland. At the head of the Liberation Movementbecame the most radical nationalist forces. They have developed a theoryIntegrated nationalism, whereby the national state was highervalue.
Similar ideas have made the Slovaks and Croats, who in years Дruhoyi during World War IIprotectorate of Germany won a national statehood.
Along withnational-liberation democratic movement developed - anti-war,Youth, female. Under the influence of the victims in the terrible years of World Wargained unprecedented scale anti-war movement. Antiwar (pacifist) Confidencewere so strong that they have become crucial in solving internationaldisputes in the 20's. These years are called the "era of pacifism. Underinfluence of these sentiments League of Nations began in 1925, preparations for the conveningInternational Conference on rozbroyennya. But beyond the long preparatoryof this conference has failed.
Demonstration of Women for Peace (1920years)
Crisis30 years and the emergence of foci of a new world war led to changes in the antiwarmovement. Anti-war movement away from pacifist sentiments 20 years and is transformed into an effective politicalforce. Anti-war movement combined with the anti-fascist. Conducts mass actionprotest. In 1932 the initiative of a famous French writer andpublic figures Barbyusa A. and R. Roland was created International anti-warCongress. The Congress was created by the World Committee of the struggle for peace, whichcoordinated actions of national committees of the European countries, USA and some countriesEast. However, despite such a scale, anti-war movement did not become an obstacle totowards a new world war. This is because the forces are united in it, notable to develop a unified program of action and clearly define the purpose, and governments, fromwhich determined the fate of peace, not made adequate efforts to avert the threatWar.
Femalemovement was caused by changes in the social situation of women. The emergence of technologymass production has caused the demand for labor. The plants? factories? ininstitutions worked many women. The woman was economically autonomous.The economic crisis of 30's greatest impact on the fate of women. Theyfirst were victims of massive layoffs on their shoulders formed ofhousehold in difficult conditions. Almost all countries haveorganization that sought to protect the rights of women.
In20-30's activity showed a significant youth movement. Youth, which ismost active part of society, sought to understand their respectiveinterests. However, the youth movement, despite the significant number of organizationsnever became independent force.The traditional political forces and parties actively involved young people on their side. Soenergy of youth actively used by communist and fascistparties.
Thisway, the democratic movements of 20-30's but not able to solve problemsbefore them, but they made their decision on agendadeveloped organizational forms and have developed methods of struggle.
Documents and materials
From the Bureau and the appeals of the OUN Congress aims and objectivesnational movement. February 3, 1929
Congress is called to life and ranksingle
which should cover all existingnationalist groups, and adopted the main principles of Ukrainian nationalism.
Based on its objective of restoring,ordering and distribution of defense
UKRAINIAN NATIONAL STATE?
REMOVAL OF ALL OCCUPANTS WITHUKRAINIAN LAND
an opportunity for a widedevelopment of the Ukrainian nation within their own country.
Rejecting ORIENTATION INHistorical enemy
Ukrainian nation, but beingunion of nations, that hostile attitudeto the occupiers of Ukraine
vytvorytsya that in run
provide, in a hard time fightingstrength of the Ukrainian State.
Just after the restoration of national statehood dictatorship pass throughparticipation in the power of national elite, the creation of legislative bodies on the principle
OF all organized
Local government administrative structure will be the basisordered the Ukrainian State, onhead of which stand
HEAD OF STATE.
In itsforeign force Ukrainian State stremityme to attain the limits thatcover
ALL UKRAINIANEthnographic ter
and ensure its proper economicsamovystachalnist and strategic vidboronnist.
The basisinternal activities of lies and spiritual needsmaterial welfare and property by increasing national
DEVELOPMENT OF ALLSectors of the economy.
Recognizing in ambush
The state's concern foragricultural development by vyrobnosty
agricultural cooperatives and industries.
UpromyslovlennyaUkraine will be based on
relevance to defense and normal development.
Free tradeBESIDE state monopolies
articles on government and transportation of the main branch?System of tariffs and trade agreements will guard the national economy.
SINGLE, UNIFORMAnd gradually
ensure the public finances.
Cooperation of allindustrial segments of the Ukrainian Nation attains the state power
particularly between capital and labor, on the basis
WILL WORK, RIGHTCOALITIONS AND FREE CONDITIONS
employees and employers. Along with this will be approved
BRANCH CHURCHESFROM THE STATE?
Required Free; Public school
together with private educational institutions?
The only regular army and navy,
built on the basis of universal, compulsoryobligation, together with local Cossack parts?
Inquiries to document
1. Giveevaluation program of the Ukrainian national movement, based on historical realities of the 30's
2.Try to reconstruct the state model, proposed in the document.
Questions and Tasks
1. Whatcauses strengthening of national liberation movements in the interwar period?
2. Thatis that the national revolution and its features?
3. Whatideas were dominant in the national-liberation movement 20-30's and why?
4.Verify features of national liberation movements in Asia, Africa,Europe and Latin America.
5. Givecharacteristic of democratic movements.
6. Why anti-war movementdespite its scope, failed to prevent sliding and the second explosionWorld War II.