§ 9. The working-class and socialist movements.Communist movement
1. The working-class and socialist movements
Worldand the war had a significant impact onorganized labor movement. Before the war, working-class and socialist movements wereonly in national and international scale. In each country the West have beensocialist or social democratic party, which joined in the workers(2 nd) "national boarding schools. The war split the labor movement bynational and state basis. The Social Democrats most belligerent countriessupported by their governments and were on different sides of the fronts. This led totermination of the 2 nd International.
After the war, the Social Democrats have attemptedrevive 2 International. They gathered in Bern (Switzerland) Conferenceto unite their ranks and to reactivate the International. Already duringconference it was stated that the Entente countries fought a war for democracy, freedomnations and of international agreements. The Conference supported the plansrestructuring of the world under the Entente declared at the Paris Peaceconference. European Socialists condemned the requirement to establish a dictatorshipproletariat, which raised the Bolsheviks, and stated the possibility of transition tosocialism through reforms and parliamentary democracy.
The Social Democrats renewed their positions in the labor movement. In1919 at the international congress of trade unions in Amsterdam wasestablishment of the International Association of Trade Unions - Amsterdam International.He united 23 million members. The major role played in this organizationBritish trade union. Management tried to Amsterdam Internationalreforms to improve the situation of workers.
Social-democratic parties in many European countriespostwar period were the governments were represented in parliaments andthus influenced the drafting of laws on domestic production andforeign policy of their countries.
In 1920 at the congress was organized in Genevaexecuted Socialist International. He united 15 parties. Haybilshymthe influence it enjoyed in English and German LabourSocial Democratic Party. The Congress adopted a resolution onpolitical system of socialism. "fundamental contradiction in the existingsociety, the paper considered the contradiction between democracy and dictatorship. Inresolution put forward the requirement to protect members of the parliamentary Sotsinternudemocracy.
In1921 at an international conference in Vienna, representatives of 11 centristParties established an international association of socialist parties. Centrists heldintermediate position between the Comintern and Sotsinternom. Leading role in this organizationbegan to play an independent Social-Democratic Party, Social DemocraticParty of Austria and the Independent Labour Party of Great Britain. The conferencehave substantiated the need for revolution, but for the West recognizedpractical impossibility of making them for contemporary conditions. Managers Associationtrying to support parliamentary democracy and the Bolshevik Council, butgradually declined from this intention.
Nextwas decided to merge the two International. Officially ithappened in 1923 during the Hamburg Congress. It was established socialistInternational workers. In policy documents the idea was formulatedimprovement of existing orders through reform. It was drawn internationalassociation of social democratic parties. It acted as a follower of political2-Line International.
Ininternational labor movement 20-30's there were two significantOrganization: International Socialist and Communist workersInternational. Both wanted to come to socialism, but the first - throughreform and the other establishing the so-called dictatorship of the proletariat.
2. The communist movement. Comintern
EventsWorld War led to the division and liquidation of the 2 nd International,contributed to the deepening differences within the social democratic parties.
Because ofdelaying the war and increase the economic difficulties increased authorityradically-minded leaders of parties. They advocated the transformation of warimperialist war against the civilianеzdolenyh groups against the rich ofSocialist Revolution, remove the very source of war - of capitalism.Their opponents sought preservation of civil peace, of social anddemocratic reforms to achieve social justice. Thisdelimitation of public antagonism generated when the revolution began and there was aquestions about their orientation. The experience of the Bolsheviks in Russia vidlyakuvav one? andgenerated in other desire to imitate them. Almost all countries have startedformed Communist Party. The Bolsheviks led by Vladimir Lenin decidedcreate a new International - Communist.
In Petrogradwas convened meeting to discuss principles of selection of participants,founders of the Comintern. The major terms of reference were considered by the partyagainst his government for ending the war and the recognition of the Sovietin Russia.
In1919 Kremlin started an international communist conference. Itkonstytuyuvala 1-(constituent) 3 rd Congress, CommunistInternational. It was declared, was attended by 52 delegates from 21country. Note that all the delegates from other countries were foreignrepresentatives only by nationality, but in fact they belonged toRCP (b) and lived in Russia. Only one delegate came from abroad.Congress adopted the "Manifesto of the Comintern to the proletarians of the world" in whichindicated the purpose of the organization - of a world revolution, and createdComintern executive committee headed by H. Zinove 'yevym.
On2 nd Congress adopted the statute and 21 conditions for joining the Comintern.The primary terms of sustainability and recognition of Soviet Russianeed for world socialist revolution. Charter and the conditions for joiningComintern predicted that the Comintern? own? is the only worldwideCommunist Party and the national parties - its sections.
Conceptworld proletarian revolution has become the core of theoretical and practicalof the Comintern. Real attempt to hike its implementation became the RedArmy under the command of Tukhachevsky Warsaw. The next stop was to beBerlin. This perehukuvalos manifesto of the Comintern, which, inter alia,said:
The CommunistInternational - Party revolutionary uprising of the international proletariat?Soviet Germany, combined with Soviet Russia, would soon be strongerof all capitalist countries combined. The case of Soviet RussiaComintern announced their business ... German Russian hammer and sicklewin the whole world. "
Butthese plans were not destined to come true, and the world revolution had to be postponed. Butall years of the USSR, the Soviet leadership did not leave the idea of "worldRevolution, Repeatedly resorting to all sorts of adventures.
4. Relations with the Communist social democracy
G. Zinovievand Stalin said that "stabilization" of capitalism is a step towardshis death, which should strengthen the revolutionary struggle. Therefore,1923 in Germany, Poland, Bulgaria was organized armed uprising.This thesis had a negative impact on the communist movement, which in the early 20'senjoyed considerable popularity, leading to its isolation and the loss of formerposition. Dominating position in the labor movement took the Social Democrats.
On6 th Congress (1928) adopted the idea, supposedly the main enemyworking class in a social democracy, which is called a form of fascism.
Thistactics led to catastrophic consequences, completely rozkolovshy working classinto two hostile camps and vidvernuvshy his attention from the fight against the realfascism.
In30's changes occurred in the activities of the Comintern. The 7 th congress in1935 it was decided to establish a single national frontthe fight against fascism. Important role in developing and implementing this courseWestern European head office played Comintern G. Dimitrov.
Revolutionarycalls were replaced by communist tactics to win majority of the workingclass and the general public. Became the slogan of a workers' andworker-peasant government as an alternative to the bourgeois. For thisunity of action Communists and all democratic forces. But the participation of Communists inThe Popular Front in France and Spain did not give those results to which theyhoped.
In30's Comintern figures were Stalinist repression. Was arrested for-shot and Bela Kun, head of Polish and Yugoslav communistparties, many other figures of the communist and workers' movement, who had livedin the USSR.
Negativeconsequences for the communist movement was the signing of the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact (August 1939City)Thatput the communist parties of European countries in a controversial situation:Being advocates of anti-fascism, they had to maintainSoviet-German treaty and thus contribute to progress of the same fascism.
End30's Stalinist leadership did not even mention the existenceComintern, which actually turned into a branch of Soviet intelligence. May 221943 was officially announced the dissolution of the Comintern.
ExceptCommunist International, there was a 4-International, founded by Trotskyafter expulsion from the USSR. He supported the Communist Party of Spain, USA,Latin American countries. Between supporters of the 3 rd and 4 of the Second Internationalthere was fierce fighting.
Documents and materials
Evolution of the number of members of communist parties inWorld
Questions to diohramy:
Explain the dynamics of change indicatednumber of communists in the world.
Terms of admission to the Communist International. June 301920
... Any organization that wishes to belong toCommunist International, must systematically and regularly removed fromany responsible positions in the labor movement ... reformists and supporters"Center" and ask instead trusted the Communists, despitethat sometimes have to ... replace experienced workers on memberworkers.
Each party that wishes to belong to the Third International,obliged to disclose not only the explicit social-patriotism, but also false, andhypocrisy social pacifism; systematically notified workers that withoutrevolutionary overthrow of capitalism or international courts of arbitration, noagreements on arms reduction, no 'democratic' reorganizationLeague of Nations will not save humanity from new imperialist wars.
Parties who wish to belong to the CommunistInternational, must recognize the need for full and absolute gapof reformism and policy center and promote the gap inthe widest circles of party members. Without it not possible Communist consistent policy.
Communist International and of course the ultimate demandsof the gap in the shortest time.
Questions to document
What are the conditionsput forward by communist parties who wished to join the Comintern? What wascalled?
From the speech of VM Molotov on 10 th plenary session of the Executive Committee of the Comintern
"The situation now is that all majorcapitalist countries of Europe unfolding events that mean growth of the revolutionarygrowth?
With that said follows that important duty is Communist?preparation for the new revolutionary battles on a grand scale? From the many Communistdepends to transform today's economic battles in the revolutionarypower struggle, the victory of the dictatorship of the proletariat?
Now more than ever, tactics consent of reformerstactics of revolutionary coalitions between organizations and institutions are reformistsunacceptable and harmful.
In the present context special importance onstrengthening the fight against Social-Democracy. Combating social democracyand primarily with its "left" wing, which most skillfully executes treacherous roleon the working class, can not stand in the spotlight Communist. In thisperiod of struggle against social democracy? acquires exceptional importance becauseSocial Democrats increasingly pererodzhuyetsya in Social-Fascism. "
Inquiries to document
1. Whatcan explain this attitude Comintern and the Soviet leadership toSocial-Democracy?
2. Whatconsequences had irreconcilable struggle of communists Social Democrats?
3. Whatthe main differences between communist and social democratic doctrine?
Questions and Tasks
1. Whysplit 2-International?
2. AsThe Socialist International was formed working?
3.Compare the activities of the Communist and Socialist International.
4. Whatmain differences between the communist and socialist movements?
5. As yourate the Comintern?
6. OnPrepare the basis of additional sources of stories about the activities in the Comintern30's
Note the dates:
1919- CreationInternational Association of Trade Unions (Amsterdam International).
1919-1943 biennium- ActivitiesCommunist International.
1923- CreationSocialist Labour International.
1935- 7 th CongressComintern.