§ 8. Conservatism and liberalism
Among the various ideological and politicalcurrents, which had considerable influence on the choice of directions of social development, forms andmethods of solving social and economic problems in the beginning XX Art. markedlynotable conservatism, liberalism and social democracy. After the FirstWorld War they joined other currents. From the socialist movementvidkololosya radical left wing - Communist party. Radical right utilyuvalyfascists. Extreme movements and parties opposed its totalitarian ideologyits regime of liberal democratic ideas and parliamentarism. Failure of dictatorialforms of power, revolutions and radical reforms that could lead to changessociety, and representatives showed liberal and conservativeforces.
Conservatism (from Lat. Conservo - protects, stores) inEurope has emerged as a reaction to the feudal elite French Revolution end XVIII. The first term has takenwriter F. Shatobrian to determine the ideology of French aristocracy.Supporters of the old order, conservatives, spoke opposed the formationnew capitalist relations. In late XIX - early XX century. indue to the rise of social democratic movement and spread of Marxism, whichoriyentuvav proletarian groups to overthrow the existing order and claimed thesole determination of the working class ideology and the ideas of conservatismnayperekonanishi entered the defenders of capitalism. Conservative forces, on the onehand, sought to preserve and strengthen the existing order, but on the other -They were not given rest nostalgia for a lost past.
The propensity to fundamentality and reliability in alldue diligence and thorough research led to new borrowingconservative ideological elements of other political currents. In their worldviewis transformed into belief in the need to preserve the traditions of the economy,in litytsi, culture. Thus, the originality of conservatism defined specificityera and also evolved. This sprychynyuvalo alternate domination of one orother ideologies and practices of capitalist society. Butvarious forms of conservatism kept its essential features: that of theappropriateness of established institutions of government that should take care of social stabilitygeneral recognition of human imperfection and the eternal inequality naturallyway determine the hierarchy of social, economic and ethicalrelations in the country. Representatives of the conservative movement rejectedintervention in the historical process, justifying their positioninability to solve social problems through concerted practices.
Totalworld crisis of 1929-1933, not only sharpened the economic contradictions, andand ideological and political struggle around questions about the role and functions of the state.Conservatives defended the freedom of market relations. They opposed nebezuspishnoLiberals, insisting on regulating the country's economy, which in their opinion,had to assume a number of social functions.
Beginningsliberalism (from Lat. liberalis - free) have their roots inSeventeenth and eighteenth centuries. When freedom loving spirit gripped Europe and was the ideologicalhalo of the struggle for social and national liberation. In Westerncountries, the term became popular in the nineteenth century. with the formation of liberalparties.
Liberalismas the current public opinion and as a theoretical base of some influentialpolitical groups incorporated the concept of economic and political development andwas a serious competition of ideas of social democracy.
By the beginning of XX century. proponents of economic liberalismprofessed freedom of private enterprise and trade, independenceeconomy from government intervention. One of the major functions of the stateLiberals consider creating appropriate conditions for private initiative, supportdevelopment of free market and the protection of private property. Since the beginning of the twentieth century.,when the state began to play a larger role in the economic life of society,liberal views on social and economic essence of the state have changed. In30's Twentieth century. neo-liberalism has become an alternative to the totalitarianregimes. No social democratic or communist movements, no more so is fascismwere historic choice people. Loosely snuyuchy between conservatives andsocial democracy, liberalism gained national forms and managed to saveeconomy without resorting to the extremes of political rule.
Become the dominant flow in Society liberalism faileddue to the activity under the banner of reformism and parliamentarism. Parliamentarymeant that the priority of the legislative body - the parliament of the other bodiesauthorities and local governments, municipalities - in the solutionon local level. Reformism testified to the desire of liberals to consider thenew trends in society, adapt to them, really needs to evaluateeconomy and the correlation of political forces. If the communist movement was aimed atRevolutionary, immediate radical changes in all spheres of public life,liberalism provided incremental steps to improve the existing system.The liberal trend had a strong position among the resolutely oriented partbourgeoisie and reformist wings of the labor movement. West European social democracypermitted the existence of reformism in their ranks, the Russian Social-Democratsled by Vladimir Lenin, fought desperately against opportunism (supportersreformism) in their ranks and in the international social democratic movement.Leaders of the Communist International in general only recognize one's case andvidmezhovuvalysya of liberalism.
In the 20-30's both Conservatives and Liberals stood forfreedom of market relations. But liberals, unlike conservatives,thought was that the mechanism of market regulation can not function freely andrequires continuous government intervention in order to create optimal conditions forcompetition. As parliamentary elections conservatives and liberals, withcommon social base, zastupaly each other at the helm of state, without changingnature of the existing order. The political pendulum has provided stabilitysociety which, using the high potential of self-regulation andreform, enlarged economic strength.
Documents and materials
French political scientist, economist Guy Sorman of conservatismand liberalism
? Conservatism - a vital position,liberalism - a way of action.
Be conservative - then recognize the historical, socialand moral inheritance of his society, agree that in the past waswise enough, and the existing order of things sufficiently justified.Conservatism implies recognition of all the diversity of cultural, religiousand national traditions, the realization that no single model can becivilization, a common interpretation of history. Conservative believes also in the sublimemoral order that is not necessarily based on religion. Conservative is nottrust reform, and especially does not believe that any reform is good in itselfitself. At worst, he prefers to have been tested to evil than tonot yet known. The order, justice and freedom, he believes morethe result of long historical experience than the result of any decree orpolitical turmoil.
But conservatism is not enough to create seriousalternative etatyzmu (full governmentalization) and satisfy the insatiable need forideology?
? Liberalism is the principle and everywhere, under any circumstancesprefers the human person, not the state? "
Inquiries to document
1.Formulate and document-based material of a textbook concept"Conservatism."
2.Try to learn the basic differences between liberalism and conservatism. Asthese two doctrines are put to the reforms?
3. Orconservatism may be an alternative to fascism and communism, and why?
4.Describe your attitude towards conservatism and its arguments.
Evaluation of the liberal doctrine researcher V. Leontovich
"The belief system a person is on liberalismfirst place, and the value of social groups or institutions measured exclusivelyto the extent to which they protect the rights andindividual interests and promote the goals of individual subjects. "
Inquiries to document
1.Describe the concept of "liberalism".
2. Bya political regime can implement the liberal doctrine and why?
3.Give examples of liberal reformism of previously learned material.
4. Whatappeal is liberalism?
Questions and Tasks
1. Whenborn, and which evolved social basis of ideological-political trendsliberalism and conservatism?
2. Since `yasuyte ideologicalbases of conservatism.
3. Compare the economic and political priorities of liberals and conservatives.
4. Whyliberal democratic ideas opposed totalitarian party?
5. Whatchanges in the liberal doctrine occurred in 30 years? What isneo-liberalism? What are the main differences?