§ 7. Attempts to review post-war contracts
1. Genoese Conference 1922 Treaty of Rapallo
Signaturepeace treaties regardless of their defects and resolve underlying conflicts betweenby the conquerors helped stabilize international relations. In20-ies was a series of measures to remedy the shortcomingsVersailles-Washington system.
One of theweaknesses of this system was the exclusion of her Russia. Trying to isolate Russiathrough the commitment of its leaders to the idea of world revolution and dictatorshipthe proletariat had no success, but has made a destructive element ininternational relations. In the early 20-ies it became clear that the Bolsheviksfirmly established in power, and plans for world revolution - impracticable. In1922 Russia invited the delegation to the Genoa conference on searchof "economic recovery of Central and Eastern Europe, where, exceptother issues, an attempt was made to develop common terms for normalizationrelations with Soviet Russia and other Soviet republics. Butcontradiction, problemsbenefit of the parties could not overcome. Entente countries put in account$ 18 billion rubles. In response, Soviet Russia has demanded payment of her39 billion rubles. for losses from intervention of the Entente. Dat the same felehatsiya Soviet Russia categoricallyrefused to pay the debts of the Provisional Government.
Members of the Soviet delegation attime Genoa Conference
Onceat a conference in critical condition, April 16, 1922 padyanska Russia and Germany intown of Rapallo signed an agreement to restore diplomatic relations in fullvolume and to refuse any claim. This contract started and continuedfruitful cooperation between Russia and Germany in economic, political andmilitary spheres. Under this agreement Russia Germany forgave herDebt -10,000,000,000 rubles. Contract became a breakthrough on the diplomatic front, which broughtRussia and Germanyof international isolation. Treaty of Rapallo in a fundamentally new situation created inEurope. Two "insulted" the state made a contract antyversalskyyactually jeopardizing elaborated winners postwar security system.The only thing that saved the Versailles system is that Germany was weakenedpeace, while Russia and the revolution a civil war.
З 1924 by rollingwave diplomatic recognitions from other Western countries who were concernedpossibility of a strong German-Soviet bloc antyversalskoho. Exceptions were only the United States.But relations between the West and the USSR were unequal. Soviet Uniontried removing the solution for European Affairs, to isolate it, createcountries had a common border with it, "sanitary zone". This gave risedistrust of the Soviet leadership to the West and promoted more close rapprochement with RussiaGermany and Turkey.
Soviet caricature of a wavediplomatic recognition of the USSR
Thenwas accelerated solution of problems connectedconnected to the conditionsTreaty of Versailles and restore Germany as the world communityfull member.
Mostsharp left on reparations. Established 1921 amount(123 billion marks) was not capable of Germany. France is demanding fullpayment and to make the Germany before, occupied with Belgium in1923 Ruhr area, where heavy industry was concentratedGermany.
French troops positioned atOccupied Ruri
Aninternational crisis. To solve the difficult situation in 1924 was convened inLondon international conference that adopted the plan of the CommissionExperts led by the American Banker Dauesa. According to the plananticipated withdrawal of the Franco-Belgian troops from the Ruhr and Germany commityazuvalasya innearest future 4 years to pay 1-1,75 billion marks a year and in subsequent years - 2billion For 6years of this plan, Germany has paid 7.5 billion marks. Plan includesof Germany, British and American loans amounting to 2 billiondollars. As a guarantee of plan installed allied controlover railways and the State Bank of Germany. Implementation of the plan helped Dauesarestore the German economy, but put it in dependence on the U.S..
In1929 adopted a new plan of American entrepreneur and bankerJung, followed by reparations volume decreased to 113.9 billion marks, andannual payments were established in the amount of 2.5 billion marks. Payments werespread for 55 years. According to the plan all kinds of controlGermany and its economy and finances were canceled. Forreparations and their distribution was established Bank for International Settlements. This bankplayed a key role in financing the leading sectors of German economy andhelped to further property `binding of Germany to the economy in the U.S..
2. Establishment of a new European security system
SetbackFrance in the Ruhr conflict shifted the emphasis in its foreign policy. Onfore came the idea of historical reconciliation with Germany in a new contextconsolidation in Europe more equal and peaceful relations. The mainadvocates of this idea were the foreign ministers of France and GermanyA.Bri-en and G. Shtrezeman.
InOctober 1925 was the Locarno Conference, which established a newEuropean security.
Francehad to abandon the traditional system of military alliances, particularly from the SmallEntente, established her in the 1920-1921 biennium in Eastern Europe.
Basisnew European security pact became Rhine warranty, according tothat France, Germany and Belgium have the obligation to respect existingboundaries and not to attack each other. It was the first recognition in Germany asequal partner. Controversial issues expected to decide in accordanceto an arbitration agreement between Germany, France and Belgium.
During one of the meetingsLocarno Conference
France also signed an agreement with Poland and Czechoslovakia, whichcontained a commitment that France would help them in case of aggressionGermany. Butof France treated in reliance on the decision of the League of Nations. Moreover, nonedocument does not guarantee that the eastern borders of Germany will remain unchanged. FromPoland and Czechoslovakia ukladalasya purely arbitration agreement.
In1926 Germany was admitted to the League of Nations, becoming a permanent memberCouncil, it received the status of great power, as Britain became the mainarbitrator.
In20-ies was a significant development in international law. First timewidely and internationally discussed the problem of disarmament. However,she was doomed to failure because Versailles-Washington system installedInequality in arms, and virtually all negotiations were carried out to consolidatethis situation.
YetBut in 1925 signed the Geneva Convention banning the use ofchemical weapons that caused years Пershoyi World War sufferedlo 1 million. persons. There have been signedConvention on the Prohibition of the use of barbaric weapons systems (balls"Dum-dum" (Tensile), With a displaced center of gravity, etc..) And the rightPOWs. The only European country that has not signed this Convention,was the Soviet Union.
Along with the establishment of relative stability in Europe worsened relationswith the Soviet Union. Soviet Union was accused of interfering in China's internal affairsin 1925-1927 and heUK (Letter Comintern and Soviet supportBritish miners union strike). In 1927 United Kingdomsevered diplomatic relations and rescinded trade agreement with the USSR. Butconflagration was diverted. France, too - not Germanysupported by Britain.
Frominitiative of the French Foreign Minister Briana and Secretary of StateKellogg in Paris on August 27, 1928 15 States signed the pactBriana-Kellogg:
1.The High Contracting Parties on behalf of their peoples declare solemnly that theycondemn the use of war to resolve international disputes and refuseof it as a tool of public policy in their relations.
2.The Parties recognize that settlement of all disputes orconflicts that may arise between them, regardless of their nature orreasons, they seek only to resort to peaceful means.
Subsequentlyto the present Covenant joined almost all European countries, including the USSR.
In September1929 Бriandelivered to the League Нtions with the new political breakthrough. He proposed to create a singleEurope ("pan-Europe"), ie objectscombine leading European countries,setting between "something like federetavnyh Communications`NMU. Next year, Brianaproposed a specific plan for a "European federal union"according to which European countries (except Turkey and the USSR) had graduallyeliminate customs borders to create a "common market" and to consolidateguarantee peace, adopted Locarno. The "father of Europe" (this nickname laterBriana got) was critically greeted England, Italy, USA and otherstates. Even Germany, which counted on the support of Briana, demandedPrevious political settlement in Europe is full liuvidatsiyiVersailles system in Europe. Thus the idea of a united Europe is not found at thatDuring its support.
3. Activities League Нtions in the 20's
OnLeague Нtionsrelied great hopes in the establishment of a new system of internationalrelations after the First World War.
StatutesLF came into force January 10, 1920 on 16 January in Paris, the firstmeeting of the LF, and 15 November in Geneva (which became permanent placevisit the headquarters of the organization) held its first session of the Assembly.
Meeting of the League of Nations
From the first days of work LF was losing its authority, but,respectively, and their influence on the course of international relations.
The firstserious conflict that took care of LF became the Polish-Lithuanian territorialdispute over Vilna region (m.Vilnyus). Council listened kindly LFzaviryannya in the peacefulness of the then President of Poland's famous composerI. Poderevskoho, and a few days has been put before the fact Polishoccupation of land. LF responded seemed adequate: call for outputPolish land forces and a plebiscite under international supervisionpolice contingent. But the resolution adopted by the remaining empty sound.Poland annexed the land grabs. A LF condemned? Lithuania intransigence.
Also, LFNothing could cause when Italy invaded in 1923 o.Korfu in Greece.
Butwere successes. It was, for example, Polish-German conflict overSilesia, in the Swedish-Finnish conflict of Aland islands. In 1925President LF stopped "telegram" war between Bulgaria and Greece. These wereconflicts in which the warring parties were inclined to compromise and were readyLF accept arbitration. Thus the role of peacemaker appeared LFineffective.
Importantactivity of LF has been the rozbroyennya. And activities in this areawas more like a farce. The activity in this area began with LFestablishment of a military inspection costs of San Marino!!! And to an internationalConference on rozbroyennya LF took until 1910Thatends in utter failure.
However, inLF activity was light and pages. Since its economic mission helped Austriacope with severe economic problems after Пershoyi World War. LFconducted a large-scale campaign for the repatriation of prisoners of war with Russia. At the same timerefused to help рadanskiy Russia during the famine of 1921-1923 he was general of the Soviet Union had LFpredvzyaty ratio as in the past for her.
In the 20'syears in the LF was suspended membership of Argentina and Spain, and Brazil in 1926first left the organization.
The project of building the Palace of the League of NationsGeneva 1926-1927 biennium
Under the auspices of the LF created a number of specialized organizationsinternational cooperation - the means of communication and transit. For Health`Ifood for the Prevention of Drug and more. Was createdCommittee of Intellectual Cooperation. Even managed to organize a dialoguebetween German and French historians with the history of the two controversial issuesnations to eliminate stereotypes from textbooks chauvinist.
But the most positive aspects in the activities of LF were substantiallyachieved not because of its authorities, and with outstandingfigures that cooperated with them: polar explorer from Norway F. Nansen,A. Bergson philosopher, physicist I. Curie, science fiction writer H. Wales and others.
4. Sources of instability in the world
Despite relative stability in Internationalrelations stored tensions. In Central and South EastEurope each country has territorial claims to the neighbor. Here a significant role inprevention of armed conflicts has played League of Nations.
The Soviet Union and leaders of communist parties did not leave hopesKindle the fire of world revolution. In the 20's were made repeatedspraby realize this idea in Europe and in Asia.
Roslitensions in the colonial possessions and napivkolonialnyh where rozhoryalasyanational liberation struggle.
Creationmandatory system for former German colonies and possessions of the Ottoman Empireconceived as a means of weakening colonial oppression. However, the refusalU.S. to join the League of Nations Council remain those countries that have a mandate tomanagement and also had the largest colonies (France, England,Belgium, Japan), through which cared for by the League of Nations was a formality.Life is not mandated territory differed from the colonies. This is furtherpeoples of the colonies showed a tendency to preserve the great powersColonialism, which has caused rising anti-colonial movement before Дruhoyi World War.
Table: The main issues of international relations 20'stwentieth century.
LF Preparation World Conference on rozbroyennya. Briana Pact Kellogg-Settlement conflicts peacefully way.
The issue of complete and total rozbroyennya remained unresolved.
Signing of the Rhine Pact guaranteeing the preservation existing boundaries. Recognition of the West of the USSR. Conclusion of agreements borders between the USSR and Eastern Europe and the Baltic States.
Settle the dispute, but left open the question eastern borders of Germany.
Questions and reparations бorhiv
Trying to solve the problem of the king's debts and debts Provisional Government of Russia at a conference in Genoa.
Reduction of reparations payments by Germany (Dauesa plan).
Reduce the total amount of reparations from Germany (plan Jung).
Cancellation fees reparatory Germany.
Issue debt to Russia was not resolved.
Question reparatory platyzhiv Germany were finally solutionconnected.
Documents and materials
Plan Dauesa. Reports of expert committees reparatoryCommission August 30, 1924
... II. Economic unity of Germany.
To stabilize its currency for the sake of bringing to equilibriumGermany its budget the necessary resources in the entire German territory bordersinstalled under Treaty of Versailles, and the freedom of economicactivity in the specified territory ...
XII. Means of payment. All payments on accountreparations ... will be made of gold marks or equivalent in Germancurrency to a new bank credit agent reparatory payments ...
XIV. Borrowings, the terms and purpose. Foreign borrowing in800 million gold marks is:
a) To provide new bank gold reserve;
b) make in 1924-1925 biennium major internalbenefits arising from the contract ...
The project aims to:
1) Install this organization through which it would be possible to getGermany's maximum benefit ...
Questions to document
1. For what purpose was adopted plan Dauesa?
2. What he predicted?
3. Whether he achieved his goal?
EU Project Aristide Briana
The unification of Europe is responsible urgent vitalneeds, to conduct real work constructively to this union cameperfect appearance and to further nobody could oppose it. Thiswork should be conducted in absolute trust and friendship, even - inmany cases - involving the cooperation of other states, also really want peace in the world andrealize the entire value of a united Europe.
Inquiries to document
1. ReasonBriana A. advanced to a draft European Union?
2. Why,In your opinion, this project did not find support? Answer atгruntuyte.
3. What youknown about the implementation of the idea of a united Europe today?
Questions and Tasks
1. For what purpose was convened by the Genoa conference? What are itsoutcome?
2. What are the implications of agreements between Rapallo рadyanskoyu Рosiyeyu and Germany?
3. How consisted relations between the USSR and Western countries in20-ies?
4. How reparatory problems solved with Germany?
5. On what basis was formed in the European security system20's?
6. Describe warranty Rhine pact. Identify itstrengths and weaknesses.
7. What changes were made to the Versailles-Washington systemin the 20 st century?
8. Why talks on disarmament Within 20 yearsmanifestationsлися hopeless?
9. What are the main ideas BrianaKelloha Covenant?
10. Expand the role of the League of Nationssystem of international relations. Why the League of Nations was ineffectivetool in international relations.
Note the dates:
April 16 1922 - treaty between Soviet Russia and Germany in Rapallo.
1923 - Ruhr crisis.
1924- Plan Dauesa.
1928- Briana-Kellogg Pact.
1929- Plan Jung.
Social and Political Movements