§ 3. Events 1917-1918 biennium (textbook)

§ 3. Events 1917-1918 biennium

1. February revolution in Russia and its impact on the war

The negative impact of the war most strongly evident in Russia. Toeconomic and social problems added to the political crisis caused bydefeats on the fronts, to distrust the government, its inability to completewar. Shaky position of power the Bolsheviks struggled rozhoyduvaly usingfamine and chaos in the country for their own purposes. In February, 1917anti-war and social performances in Russia took an unprecedented scale and transformedin revolution. To save the monarchy is fortunate. In early March, governmentbelonged to the Provisional Government. Russia became a republic (Announced in JanuarySeptember 1917).The new government has not renounced the obligations of Tsar Nicholas II to the Allies andurged to continue to fight to the finish. But the country inexorablygrew ever more decisive wave of protests against the war.

During the February RevolutionRussia

 

On1917 each of the belligerent countries cherished secret plans. GermanCommand chose defensive tactics, the Entente forces - offensive. Even inDecember 1916 Germany presented a proposal to start negotiations onpeace. She and her allies want to make peace, having conquered them allterritory. Entente countries rejected this proposal. There was agreementgeneral staff of the Allied armies of simultaneous attack in 1917 at allEuropean fronts.

The FebruaryRevolution prevented the attack Russian troops. Under the influence of revolutionary eventsmass strikes in Russia swept in England, France and Italy. Strikers andDemonstrators demanded the cessation of war and making peace. From Russia revolutionaryconfidence and spread to Germany. In April and May on the Eastern Frontobserved mass fraternization German Army soldiers and Russians - Theyrefused to shoot each other. Prospects for Russia's withdrawal from the war a very troubledallies, but added expectations of winning Germany.

2. U.S. Enters the War

UnitedStates of America as a country that has not wanted to defeat the Entente. For a long time theyit unprofitable to engage in war - because the U.S. supplied the Entente countriesweapons, ammunition, food, and with states Austro-German bloctrade through neutral countries. In 1914 American debt countriesEurope, especially England, was about $ 6 billion. During the war theynot only paid off debts, but also turned from a debtor of European countriesto their lender (loans totaled more than 10 billion dollars). Possibledefeat the Entente could make difficult the return of these enormousfunds. U.S. policymakers also sought to play a more important countryrole in the world, not taking part in the war you could not claimparticipate in the distribution of "post-war pie.

U.S. President W. Wilson speaksin the Senate, a statement about the severance of diplomatic relations with Germany

 

3 rdFebruary 1917 United States severed diplomatic relations with Germany. When it becameknown as dangerous for the allies unfolding events in Russia, the U.S. Congressdeclared war on Germany. It happened on 6 April. Coming into the war the U.S. did notCallAllied yazuvaty yourself some bargains, hoping for warplay a leading role during the peace negotiations as chief arbiter. The formal pretext for warbecame a German dispatch ("Zimmermann Note"), intercepted by the Englishintelligence and handed over to Americans, which spoke of secret talks in GermanyMexico and an alliance against the U.S.. A year later on the Western Front was over2 million Americans under General Pershing. American industryreceived new orders. For the needs of the Army and Navy allocated considerable resources.Economic, military, financial strength, was directed against the U.S. and Germanyleft her chances of winning.

Preparation of American soldiers

 

3. Fighting in 1917

 

GeneralEntente offensive on all fronts simultaneously in spring 1917 wasunsuccessful. In April, the combined Anglo-French command attemptedattack the enemy in the region of Reims. Seven weeks of heavy fighting unsuccessfulbrought. French lost killed and wounded more than 500 thousand soldiers. Throughhuge losses, the operation of French troops by nameYam their commanderGen. Robert J. Nivelles called "Slaughterhouse Nivelles. In the French army brokerevolts against the continuation of senseless war. The new commander of the Frenchtroops Peten (Hero Defense of Verdun) and some harsh measuresmore comfortable staying at the front of soldiers managed to establish order in the Army.Meanwhile, in the next six months all tyazhist further fighting fell on the shouldersBritish. They managed to hold a series of successful operations, which was established blown spiritEntente troops. One such successful operations in the area of Cambrai (November-December1917) was a "triumph of tanks. Here, 378 British tanks in cooperation withinfantry and aircraft attacked and broke through the enemy defenses sylnoukriplenu.However, developing a successful British failed, but the tanks finally provenbattle value.

The attack tanks near Cambrai

 

OnEast of the Russian troops recovered, якand in July 1917 took the offensive on the Lviv area.  And it cost them a huge new losses andlosses. GermanAustrian au- troops moved incounteroffensive. They finally dislodged the Russians from Galicia and occupied Riga andshould control the Gulf of Riga.

Oneast as the west, fought reluctantly. Ness to all war and became themortally dangerous and thankless, unjustified work.

The defeat of Russian troopsGalicia (1917)

 

Meanwhile, the Italians suffered the setback, which suffered defeat in scorchingKaporetto in October 1917, although they had superior numbers. Italian soldiers have resorted to panicescape. 300 thousand of them captured, 130 thousand were killed.

Defeat at Kaporetto was a disaster for the ItalianArmy and science for all allies. Only urgent transfer tovehicles on the Italian front of French and English parts savedItaly and defeat.

DefeatItalian army under Kaporetto

 

Governments and representatives of staffEngland, France, Italy and the United States to coordinate action on the Westerntheater of war in November 1917 formed by higher military council. Supreme inMarch 1918 was appointed to the French General Foch.

German and Austrian delegationpeace negotiations in Brest

 

Meanwhile Russia, as a result of the Bolshevik coup in JulyNovember (25 October) in 1917, retains rapid rate. Seizing power, the BolsheviksDecember 15 concluded with the Austro-German command truce. It used to be madeRomania. February 9, 1918 the Ukrainian Republic signed a peace with theQuarter block. 3 rd March 1918 between Germany and Soviet Russia wassigned a separate peace of Brest. As a result of peace Germanygained control over a large territory (Ukraine, Belarus, Baltic countries,Finland, Transcaucasia) with significant resources. In government circles in Germanybegin to gestate plans to create a powerful empire, which would have united the countryCentral, Northern, Сmentation and Southeast Europe.

Perekydalysya German troops to the west, that as it seemedwin the final victory.

 

 

4. Military actions on the Western Front in 1918

German troops before the lastoffensive

 

German assault groupplayed a key role on the offensive in 1918

 

 

Germancommand, gathering strength, tried to break the British and French toarrival of American troops on the front. From late March to early JuneGermans hold on the west three offensive operations ("Battle of the Kaiser" or operation"Myshel (Michal)).They had some advantages, but lacked an adequate assessment of the enemy. Applyingnew tactics to break defensive lines by assault groups, armedgrenades, light machine guns, mortars, pozhertvuvavshy lives of hundreds of thousandstheir soldiers, they crossed useless and closer to Paris. Here the MarneDecide the fate of the second time the Western Front. The capital of France firedlong-range guns ("Big Bertha"), bombed by aircraft.And tе couldо change in the situationNone of Germany. Human reserves were exhausted. In front of Germany pursued evenadolescents. Around the ailing soldiers reluctantly obeyed the orders of commanders. 18July allies went on the offensive, the Germans rejected from the futile and no worseinitiative.

The attack of the Entente troops in Am`yenom

 

FinalGerman shock troops of the Allies launched near Amiens on 8 August, where Englishtanks broke through the German defense. In a single day was broken 16 German divisions.This day was called  "Black dayGerman army. "Commander German Army General Field Marshal vonHindenburg said the Emperor Wilhelm II on whether the conclusionpeace, while troops are in the enemy.

5. The collapse of Austria-Hungary

Not waitingGermany moves under pressure from the Entente troops surrendered Bulgaria September 29.A month of peace invited Austria-Hungary, which has already begun to collapse, andTurkey.

Austro-Hungarianempire torn by internal conflicts. Austro-Hungarian emperor, trying tosave the empire, announced its transformation into a federal state. Butwas too late. National liberationmovement grew into a national and democratic revolution. About theCzecho-Slovak republic declared Czech Republic and Slovakia. Joint independentState decided to create the Serbs, Croats and Slovenes. In Galicia wasproclaimed an independent West Ukrainian National Republic. EarlyNovember split from Austria Hungary. Austro-Hungarian monarchy collapsed.November 3 command of the Austro-Hungarian Army signed a truce withEntente.

6. The revolutionary events in Germany. Komp'yenske truce

The internal situation in Germany has long been uncertain.Rose mass protests against government policy. In April 1917 on militaryplants in Germany over 300 thousand striking workers. In August burstunrest among the navy sailors. After the war with RussiaGerman army morale is increased, and pidupav. Drive west and die,actually continuing a war no one wanted. In Germany nazrivalarevolution.

Estimatingzahrozlyvist situation, the German High Command an ultimatumput the request to stop the war the emperor and to prevent explosive revolution.The German government asked the U.S. president asking for a truceand making peace. Wilson agreed to begin negotiations if allotmentGerman forces from the territories and zaharblenyh abdication of Kaiser.

Rise in Kiel (November 31918)

 

While inBerlin meditated, in Kiel, November 3 sailors rebelled. Theywere outraged by an attempt to throw their command in the last battle. To protect itsinterests of the sailors in Germany created the first board. In Berlin, the fightworkers went up.

6U.S., President said that Marshal Foch authorized to acceptrepresentatives of the German command. The next day the German delegationled by the Minister under a white flag Ertsberherom crossed the front line. FurtherShe arrived at the train station in Retond Komp'yenskomu forest, where stoodStaff Marshal Foch car.

Proclamation of a Republic (9November 1918)

 

TimRevolutionary wave did not abate, and on 9 November declared Germany wasrepublic. Max Badin Chancellor announced the abdication of Kaiser, who fledto Holland. Authorities went to the Social Democrat Ebert. NegotiationsKomp'yenskomu forest were carried out on behalf of the new government. In the ultimate, humiliatingGerman delegates to form allies put a number of conditions. For twoweeks the Germans had to evacuate troops from Belgium, France, Luxembourg,Alsace and Lorraine. They had to abandon Brest-Litovsk Treatypass all armament winners, to set at home captives.However, allied commanders agreed to temporarily leave the German forces inUkraine and the Baltics, to avoid placing them under controlBolsheviks. The term truce was 36 days.

Commander of the troops after the Ententeconclusion Comp`yenskohotruce`I(11 November 1918).

 

OnDawn November 11, 1918 between Germany and its opponents wasKomp'yenske signed an armistice. At 11 am there was a signal"Cease fire". Occurred first volley of artillery salute.The First World War ended.

7. The scale of loss and destruction. The consequences of World War I

HomeWorld War led to serious political, economic and territorialchanges in many regions of the world, especially in Europe. Its completion would notturn the world into pre-war status.

Occurredchanges in power relations in the world. Changed the composition of the main actors inworld politics:

·   Revolution in Russia, about the true purpose fewguess, for some time it withdrew from the circle of great powers;

·   countryQuadruple block (Germany, Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, Turkey) weredefeat and also fell from the group of countries defined world politics;

·   positionsEngland and France weakened due to the growing influence of U.S. and Japan;

·   stoppedexist Empire: German, Russian (though subsequently the Russian Empirerevived in the form of the USSR), Austro-Hungarian, Ottoman;

·   inEurope formed the new state - Republic of Poland, Czecho-SlovakRepublic, the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (from 1929 -Yugoslavia), Austria, Finland, Hungary, Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia. This is fundamentallychanged the situation in Eastern Europe. Violation of the ethnic principle duringsetting new boundaries and ambitions of their leaders turned thisregion in a constant source of tension.

Muchchange the borders of European countries: 70% of modern borders in Europe have developedbecause of the First World War.

 
Formationnational states in Europe

June 1917 - Proclamation  Lithuania's independence

December 1917 - Formation  independent Finland

January 1918 - Proclamation  independence of the Ukrainian People's Republic

February 1918 - establishment of an independent  Estonia

October 1918 - Formation  Czechoslovakia

November 1918 - Proclamation  West Ukrainian National Republic

November 1918 - Formation  independent Polish state

November 1918 - Proclamation  Republic of Austria

November 1918 - Proclamation  Hungarian Republic

November 1918 - Formation  independent Latvia

December 1918 - a  Kingdom of SHS (Serbs, Croats, Slovenes)

June 1919 - the proclamation of the Weimar  Republic of Germany

Attackof the war led to the ruin of many economies, particularlyindustry, transport and agriculture. Yes, Russia has lost 60%that was before the war, Austria-Hungary - 41, Germany -33, France - 31; England - 15%.

OnlyJapan and the U.S. increased their wealth, because no active part inWar, and their territories were the scene of hostilities.

 

Militarycosts of key First World War (in million dollars).

Countries

Costs

England

24,143

U.S.

17,337

France

11,208

Russia

7,658

Germany

19,894

Austria-Hungary

5,438

 

Simultaneouslywar accelerated technological progress, facilitated the completion of industrialization andcreated a fundamentally new forms of organization and production management. Stateintervention in production and its regulation has increased.

Greatwere the loss - 10 million people, 20 million wounded and maimed,90% of them were military and 10% - the civilian population. At least six millionpersons weakened hardships of war, died as a result of the epidemic of fearinfluenza (Spanish flu) 1918-1919

 

Humancosts of key First World War (in millions).

Entente countries

Human loss

France

1,4  million

England

0,743  million

Russia

About  2 million

U.S.

0,2  million

Italy

0,7 million

Serbia

0.4 million

Romania

0.8 million

Japan

0.07 million

Quarter Union Countries

 

Germany

2 million

Austria-Hungary

1,8 million

Ottoman Empire

0,5 million

Bulgaria

0.155 million

 

One of the soldiers' cemeteryWar

 

Civilians who suffered from tremendous difficulties with which itmyrylos in the first years of war, from inhaling the fighting began to struggle notonly for their rights, but against the forces that unleashed this war. As a result, in someEuropean revolution broke out - in Russia, Germany, Hungary,Austria, Finland and Slovakia. In others (England, France, USA) madereform. In Italy the fascist dictatorship was established.

Warand the revolution led to the collapse of monarchies: from 41 ruling dynasty in Europebefore the war after its completion, only 17 remained.

Thusintensified migration processes: large masses of people moved from one country toanother. Acutely the problem of refugees. Only in Russia in 1918-19202 million people emigrated.

HomeWorld War intensified the national liberation movement in Asia and Africa:

·   Turkey became a nationalRevolution - the overthrow of the Sultanate and declared a republic headed byAtaturk, who performed a series of reforms aimed at modernizing the country;

·   in Iran topower dostupylysya nationalists, who also implemented reforms such as Turkish;

·   Afghanistandefended their national independence;

·   inside20-ies were united China under Chiang Kai-shek, leader of the partyHomindanu. But a new conflict has arisen between the nationalists and communists;

·   IndiaBritish colonialists had to go for expansion of the Indiansin government;

·   startednew stage of national liberation struggle of peoples who were incolonial dependency. Increased the politicization of the struggle.

HomeWorld War II and had a great impact on military art, the methods ofWar. For the first time in wars with `appeared continuous fronts in massused military equipment (tanks, planes, cars, etc.). Beganapplied and barbaric methods of warfare: the use of weapons of massdestruction - chemical. First war zachypyla all citizens warring states. A significant factor in warwas the economy, which defines the power of the army might.

Dogfight war

 

Thus, the First World War was the important milestones in human development. Itproved the unity and interdependence of the world and introduced radical changes ineconomy, internal political life, international relations, culture, andmainly - In the minds ofand behavior.

TerrifyingThe First World War was a crime to human society. Itvkarbuvalas in flesh and soul of the people, constantly reminding ourselves of losses andinjury and close relatives, but was the last warning.

 

Documents and materials

Since the armistice agreement between the Allies and Germany

Article 1. Cessation of hostilities on land and in airwithin 6 hours after signing the truce.

Article 2. Immediate evacuation of the occupied countries: Belgium,France, Luxembourg, and also Alsace-Lorraine - for so asthat it was made within 15 days ...

Article 4. Surrender of the German Army MilitaryProperty: 5000 guns, 25 000 guns, mortars 3000 and 1700airplanes.

Article 5. Evacuation of German armies from localities on the leftbank of the Rhine.

Terrain on the left bank of the Rhine managed by localauthorities, but under the control of occupation forces and allies of the United States ...

Article 12. All German troops that are now onTerritories   who made the warpart of Austria-Hungary, Romania and Turkey should immediately return toGermany.

All German troops that are now in areas withwhich consisted of war Russia  samemust return to Germany ... as soon as the allies recognize that thisthe moment, taking into account the internal situation of these areas ...

Article 29. Evacuation of Germany and the Black Sea porttransfer Allies and the United States all  Russian military vehicles seized by the Germans in the Black Sea ...

 

Questions to document

1.      What are the basic conditions COMP`yenskoho truce`я?

2.      Why Truce supposed abandonment of Germantroops in the territories that were a part of the former Russian Empire, toAllied arrival?

 

Questions and Tasks

1.      Why coordinated attack Entente troops in 1917 notplace?

2.      What peace initiative was launched in 1917?

3.      As the war changed course after coming to power of the Bolsheviksin Russia?

4.      What caused the U.S. entry into the war? What is the matter forFor flow-yovyh actions?

5.      As the fighting unfolded at sea? What is unlimitedsubmarine warfare?

6.      Describe the last year of the war.

7.      What changes have occurred in the warring states during the war?

8.      Consider the reasons for the defeat of Germany and its allies andvictory of the Entente.

9.      What are the consequences of World War I?

10. Determine the scale of losses anddestruction during the First World War.

11. Country,originating and defended its independence after the First World War.

12. How hasthe balance of power in the world after the First World War?

13. What has changed inAsia and Africa after World War I? What wascalled?

 

Note the dates:

February 1, 1917- Home Germanyunrestricted submarine war.

February 1917- The February RevolutionRussia.

April 1917- United States enters the war.

November 7, 1917Bolshevik revolution inRussia.

December 1917- Conclusion of the Armisticeon the Eastern Front.

September-October 1918- Capitulation Bulgariaand Turkey. The collapse of Austria-Hungary.

November 11, 1918- Komp'yensketruce. End of the First World War.

 

 

Text for reading

 

Trench warfare

On the eve of World War plans were developed by the warring staffsof the predicted active hostilities. But the realities of war were veryothers.

After the defeat of German troops in battle at the Marne in 1914, they wentand took most defensible terrain areas: the coast and riverschannels, elevation and more. Here they prepared for the necessary strengthening of defense:trenches minefield, barbed wire fences with others. Allies that theirwere also pursued to construct a trench to protect from the harmfulGerman heavy artillery fire. Thus both armies were in pitchland and built their defensive positions became insurmountable obstacle forthe attacking side. Towards the end of 1914 on the Western Front CoverWorld War I became the character position where neither side couldcrucial to overcome the enemy attack. Progress in fighting was reminded ofGiant siege, which increasingly seemed, threatened to collapse the old world.

French andBritish soldiers in the trenches

 

The more there were fighting, the construction of trenches becamedifficult. Already in 1915 they had a great impact, remindingmedieval castles, but not vvys and in depth. Typically their depth reached 2.5meters, they are a cover parapet and rows of barbed wire barriers have been (sometimes20 series).  In the trenches soldiersobladnuvaly a place to sleep, rest. built dugouts, bunkers. Onsome areas, depending on the skill of soldiers, built structures such thatcould protect them from everything except a direct hit by artilleryprojectile. But the direct hit were rare. Yes, a hundred shells produced byreach certain goals and that only two one-on manufacturing defects notvybuhav.

Construction of trenches

 

Zigzag trenches were built in order to reduce the impression of explosionsshells and reduce the influence of the flank fire during combat in the trenches. Oftentrenches on the front line consisted of two trenches at a distance of 200 meters, but connected`connectedspecial combinations of moves. To protect the trenches arranged machine gunseats that were located so that most effectively lead to firecoming to the enemy. So ten machine guns (gun company) could inhibitattack the entire enemy divisions (15 thousand people.). For front-line were moreline of defense facilities to the depth of a cover of artillery. Overallsystem of defense structures often reached 15 km in depth. The total lengthtrenches on the Western Front reached 8 thousand km. While the front line reachedonly about 600 km.

Trenches of World War became a problem which could not settle jazatyside of the attacker. Defenders of the trenches could rely on machine guns and cannonswhich killed all that`yavlyalosya outdoors. Also called defenders were adjusted`Us in the caseneed to obtain the necessary reserves.

Commanders of the First World War in different ways attempted to overcome thisstalemate in the war. Some tried to overcome the enemy fortifications"Human waves", focusing on small areas of large masses of the frontinfantry, marching in suicidal attacks. But this tactic led to the appallingvictims. In such attacks battles of World War became known as "carnage."Fame came the worst attack the French army, in April 1917, during whichfor five days had been lost 180 thousand people. Then these events are called the "SlaughterhouseNipple "by them.`Yam CommanderFrench army of General Robert nipples. Forbearance of French soldiers cameFinally, on all fronts swept soldiers mutiny. Only afterappointment of a new commander, General Petena that satisfied most ofrequirements of soldiers, riots have stopped.

Englishsoldiers rest  in betweenbattles

 

Others have tried using artillery to destroy all enemy defense,and then throw infantry into battle. As he wrote pessimistically French PresidentR. Poincare: "We are now attacking the advanced method. It has longprepared. First, intense artillery fire destroys the enemy trenches anddestroying fortifications. When the silent artillery, infantry attack comes in and takespositions in bayonet fighting. But then the complexity is  to keep the enemy under fire batteries, ourgun should fire their powerful retaliation. In these violentbattles in which miracles occur courage and the blood flows in rivers, we probablynot press for any real benefits, not only strategically, and eventactically. "  But her tactics did not produce thisno results. At the time of many artobstriliv comprised his opponenttroops from the forefront, and when the enemy was going to attack, then turning them. ToMoreover, the effectiveness of artillery fire was minimal and are closedpinpoint positions. He just did a lot of noise and impressed the imagination, makingbattlefield in lunar landscape. Thus, during the Battle of Somme, the Britishused 1.5 million shells, but did not achieve any noticeableresults.  Besides massivegunfire led to snaryadnoho starvation in 1915, whenIndustry warring countries not holden to supply a large numberammunition. The worst situation in the Russian army, which largelydue to lack of shells and ammunition had to endure defeat and retreatin 1915, and in 1916 during Brusilovsky offensive failed to bring it tological conclusion. So on the days the German offensive in 1915 ChiefGeneral Staff of Russia Yanushkevich wrote: "Yesterday on the site of one of the regimentsthree thousand Germans fired heavy shells. And we had released nearly one hundred. "

Attempts to overcome the trenches with "fiery shaft - when an artilleryfire goes before the offensive ranks, open to the impossibility to coordinateof artillery and advancing to the lack of communication. Triedadversaries and achieve decisive breakthrough by using poison gas. Butit has not given the desired results, and only complicated the life of soldiers in the trenches andled to nothing but unwarranted casualties. In the First World from chemical attackdied around 1 million people. A revolutionary way to overcome trench warfareasked the British, using new weapons - tanks. However, their technicalimperfection is not allowed to fully use this new advantage.Opponents tried to overcome defenses and using improvement actions infantry.Yes, the Russians during the offensive Brusilovsky 1916 caused several majorimpacts on different fronts, thus dezoriyentuvavshy enemy and notgiving him effectively use the reserves. In 1918, the last timeGerman offensive the Germans used a new tactic. What was called "tacticsHutira (on behalf of the German general von Oscar Hutira, which summarized andnew improved tactical). Thus, the German infantry attack was notwaves, short throws and special assault groups were armedautomatic rifle, grenades and mortars, flamethrowers. In addition to the newwas used artillery. Now, her goal was not destroying the enemyand not give him "head up, break control and prevent the approachreinforcements. This new tactic at first had a significant tactical success. However, thiswas already the end of the war, not its beginning.

But while the strategy developed new methods of war, create newDesigns equipment and weapons for many soldiers spent four years in the trenches. Those whohad the fortune to visit the trenches  firstWorld War caught the atmosphere of the world caveman that awful, boringand  ugly.  People lived for months in the open air or insmall huts, brought the heat and cold, endured thirst, hunger sometimes,pulled in the mud during heavy rainfall. "Dawn get up over the depleted menperemazanymy chalk that of white lytsyamy struggled on rotten straw rawshelter. Ah, the shelter! It was a hole that left in a trench, cut down in the samechalk instead of the roof boards in it, we covered a few shovels of land. Whenrain, from the ceiling all day lylo, and not without black humor someone vishavsign reading ... "In the souls of men ... If you would like to lie a fewman, the leg had to pull in the trench, creating an obstacle fortaking place - describes one of the trenches of the French soldiers.  Under these conditions, they had to work: diggingtrenches and build fortifications, pull a gun. Sometimes people do not even dieseeing the enemy in the face of artillery and machine-gun fire. In suchconditions were often mental illness, from which they did not know how to treat. At firstmental disorders were perceived as such and shake the soldiers were shot.

Horror trenchLife

 

"How much energy is required kozhnodnevne life forces, under halfground in the trenches, the rain and snow in the trenches. Ruined grenades and minesin hiding without clean air and light, in parallel rovah, alwaysunder the destructive influence of shells in the side passages, which may suddenlybe cut off enemy artillery, the forward of the posts, where each patrolminute can be struck nasuvayuchoyusya attack the enemy. How can we have in the rearKnow pass false peace, if there on the front. These same people as weis doomed to hell? "- so in desperation, said French President R. Poincare.

But most of all by machine-gun fire and artillery the enemy of people intrench bothered problems of sanitation and poor nutrition. Sometimes monthssoldiers have not seen hot food. The only consolation was their bank stew, and thenat first only in British soldiers. In general in the French Army was extremelypoorly adjusted food supply. The problem was, and drinking water.Use of any water sources led to the spread of intestinaldiseases.

Filled trenchwater

 

Lack of basic sanitary conditions led to what soldierssick and quickly vkryvalysya lice. As mentioned one of the participants in the war: "Liceespecially not vexed you in the cold when you stand on duty or going to watch. ButWhen you walk into toad, when you begin to get warm, they start hereget out of secret hiding places Lahmi our clothes ... They did not leave usour everyday life that never ... tortured to the edge both physically and morally, we could notstulyty eye because voshiv. I myself saw one man who was crying and why the worldstood svaryla voshiv and those who created them. "

During the protracted battle no man's land between the positions of opponentstransformed into a cemetery without graves and monuments`Yachnyk, where thousands of bodies lying arounddead and wounded who could not assist. How to write English sodat:"Our trenches were within 500 yards (457 meters) from their (German), and all therealm covered the human remains - some dead body lay there with 12September, then we prostoyali on our positions by 13 October. Can`manifest itselfstench. It became a place Plundered burial ground filled with rottingmerzostyu. Similar paintings paints and German sodat in his letter: "Now I knowWhat is war. We are sitting for eight days in the trenches, here very cold. For tendays we did not eat hot food. Only with biscuit paste for field kitchen can notto reach us. On the hill next to us is a lot of deaths. With more than 40 240 peoplelying. My only wish is speedy end to a war. "

Victimstrench warfare

 

Do not forget that killed vazhkoporaneni and were friends of those whocontinued to live in the trenches. But even worse is that survived had to look athow millions of rats that flooded field battles, were selected and no more tear the fleshthose who had so recently familiar. "His body almost rozklalosya. I almostvomited ... something in it vorushylosya, something very big. Good god! We couldbury it. Could bury ... But huge devils got out of his ratforearm, so huge, it prohryz it ...".

Even harder was injured, which because of protracted battles and shelling could notprovide skilled medical care. From contracting various diseases and diedmore than were killed.

Such horrible scenes have become in the memories of veterans of that war earthly manifestationHell. Like this in the annals of military history is hard to find.

Trench warfare was a central feature of the First World War. But war is notvyhrayetsya often sitting in the defense and and how it is conducted among the military, theyattempted attack. But when the attack that followed one after another is reachedresult, the war took on a terrible reputation. And if added horrors of trenchexistence, the word "terror" does not convey all that  that was the First World War.

 

Theme II

Construction of post-war world