§ 2. Campaigns 1915-1916 biennium (textbook)

§ 2. Campaigns 1915-1916 biennium

1. Fighting in 1915

In1915 Germany on the Western Front offensive of active hostilities does notconducted. The German army uniform reflect the French attacks in Artois andChampagne, France which cost great sacrifices. For the year France lost 1 million292 thousand soldiers, the British - 279 thousand, Germans - 612 thousand deterring attack,Germans swift counterattack nullify the French successes. During oneattacks on April 22 near the Belgian city of Ypres the Germans for the first time in world historymade a successful gas attack (the first use of chemical weapons took place inFebruary 1915 the Germans in Warsaw, but not successfully). With 15 thousand poisonedChlorine British soldiers died on third. This event demonstrated the fulldisregard of international law (Hague in 1907 International Conferenceadopted the Convention on the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons) and markedthe emergence of terrifying new weapons - chemical. In the Army was introducedshielding gas. During the war years of chemical weapons killed about 1 million soldiers.

Gas attack

 

French gunner in gas masks

 

Withtheir part, British and French tried to block the Strait of Bosporus andDardanelles. And вysadka troops in April 1915 failed. Turkish troops completelyblocked the Allied troops, who in December that year he was forced to leaveyour springboard.

Turkish coastal guns inDardanelskiy Strait

 

In thosethe April days of talks ended, the Entente and Italy. In Londonagreement, Italy joined the war against Germany. For this she had to go away afterWar, Trieste and other Austrian region of the Italian population duringprotectorate of Italy to reach Albania. A month later Italy entered the war,but it led sprokvola. Italian troops resisted only 10 Austrian divisions.

Redeployment of artillery inmountains on the Italian front

 

It wasthe only relief for Russia as the largest-scale fighting in 1915occurred in the east. On the proposal of the German commander of the Eastern FrontGeneral von Hindenburg was directed against Russia brunt of Germany.Until now, Russian forces conducted offensive operations is to achievestrategic benefits, and to alleviate the situation of the Allies in the west.Due to the permanent relocation of compounds and separate action combat powerRussian armies remained high. Techno-economic backwardness of Russialed to the plight of the front. They also lack the most necessary - Weaponsammunition, clothing, medicines. In Germany, well aware of the intentionsRussian Command, about the strengths and vulnerabilities of Russians. German andAustrian spies were in the Russian headquarters, even in the militaryministry and royal surroundings. Russia considered the weakest member of the Entente.Germany namiryalasya force Russia to withdraw from the war.

Russian positions on the slopesCarpathians (1915)

 

Painting defeat the Russian army(1915)

 

May 2, 1915 , aftercrazy artillery preparation, German and Austrian troops moved inattacked and broke through the Russian defense in the district of turtledove. Over the next fivemonths they seized Galicia, Bukovina, part of Volyn, Poland, Lithuania,part of Latvia and Belarus. The attack of the German and Austro-Hungarian troops stoppedbad weather and road conditions peddler. Losses Russians were awful: 850 thousand killed and wounded,900 thousand prisoners. Although Russia has not surrendered, the German command believedthat the Russian army is not capable of seriously offensive. The front stretchedfrom the Gulf of Riga to the borders of Romania. In the east also turned to trenchWar.

 

 

 

Monarchs of the Union Quarter(Germany, Bulgaria, Turkey, Austria-Hungary)

 

AfterGermany won the fall 1915 Bulgaria entered the war. FormedQuadruple Alliance of Germany, Austria-Hungary, Turkey and Bulgaria. ThroughBulgarian territory of Turkey is now able to freely communicate with yourallies. Against a small Serbian army in October 1915 went no-burg,Austro-Hungarian and Bulgarian troops. Russia could not provide assistance to Serbia andFrench and British troops arrived too late: the Serbian army was alreadyrouted. The remains of the Serbian army, together with the King made a difficult retreat through the mountainsAlbania to the Adriatic Sea, where the English fleet bulm evacuated toGreek island of Corfu. In front of the Balkan newly (1917) combat operations by mid 1918There were almost.

Serbian troops in the trenches

 

Reprise of the Austrian soldierSerbs

 

Thus,in 1915 decisive victory is won none of coalitions. However, timeworked on the Entente countries, which were more powerful industrial potential andmore human resources. They have established a large military production andenlarged its strategic advantage. The concentration of German troops on the Easternfront opening allies in the West an opportunity for respite andregrouping of forces for the decisive blow. On the eve of the campaign1916 England and France than in Germany were more numerous armyLayered defense deep, powerful artillery. Troops German allieswere scattered on various fronts and were eager to keep activeoffensive operations.

2. "Verdun chopper. Brusilovsky breakthrough.Battle of the River Somme

GermanCommanders believed that victory in the east and provided a tackleadversaries in the West. February 21, 1916 German troops in the areaFront length 40 km went on the offensive. He was preceded by devastating artillerytraining. Steel storm smashed everything. Unprecedented power to blow spryamovuvavsyafortress of Verdun. Well fortified, it was the French defense core.The German command believed that the fear of losing this key position will causeFrench cast here all their forces, the German Army grinding, as in softyasorubtsi. But every time, whether German co-infantry rose to the attack, she narazhalasya kyndzhalnyy on fire. A fewmonths of bloody fighting, the Germans were able to go deep in the French defenseonly 7 km. Run the front or even capture Verdun they failed.

The ruins of Verdun

 

French soldiers in the undergroundcasemate one of the forts of Verdun

 

French heavy  artillery at Verdun

 

Forcevysnazhuvalysya both sides every day. In the midst of the Battle of Verduncommand over the German troops was given to winners of RussiansGeneral-Field Marshal von Hindenburg and P. E. General Ludendorff. NewCommand recognized the hopeless future attack on Verdun: Verdun becameopen wound, which undermines our forces? ".

A. General Brusilov

 

Francewaiting for help from Russia and England. Indeed, June 4, Russian Armyunder the command of General Alexander Brusylov after a brief but strongartillery preparation broke through in four places at once Austro-Germanfront. Success was achieved on the offensive with new tactics, the Russians causednot blow in one place, as was done previously, and immediately a few that did not allowpossible to charge the enemy troops to repulse the offensive. Thanks to successfulattack the Russians reoccupied most of Galicia and Bukovina, reachedTranscarpathia. Total losses of Austro-German forces were 1.5 million soldiers, withwhich about 400 thousand prisoners. The Russians captured 500 guns and the number Vilik G.other weapons. Losses are Russians were three times less (of which 62 thousand were killed).The German command troops hastily filmed on the west and east perekydalo them.The success prompted the Russians to join the war on the side of the Entente August 16, 1916 Romania.However, the Romanian troops were defeated and country was occupiedhostile forces. The Russians had to deliver a new ally that they extendedfront is 500 km (near the east to West and Southwest have createdFront and Romanian).

Romanian troops are sent tofront

 

English infantry goes on the attackr.Somma

 

1July 1916 French and British troops launched an offensive on the River Somme.Squally gunfire that lasted seven days, destroyed Germanwire fences, trenches, moves traffic. In front of each meterAnglo-French artillery vyverhnula about one ton of metal. In addition to infantry, thebreakthrough was first thrown into tanks. September 15, 1916 1918 steel monsters thatreached the line of attack, arrowsючand slowly crawled on the German positions and nahanyaly horror. Successtank attack was impressive, the Anglo-French vyska deepened into defense5 km to the enemy with minimum losses. Previously, such a breakthrough was achieved priceloss of tens of thousands of soldiers. But German troops kept the pressure, and fallActive hostilities ceased on the river Somme. In December, to no availended and the Battle of Verdun.

 

The first tank attack

 

German soldiers examine the paddedBritish tank

 

Resultsmilitary campaigns in 1916 the West were stunning. At Verdunkilled up to 1 million German and French soldiers and officers. On the riverSomme both sides have lost more than 1300 thousand soldiers.

Positions in the Italian infantryTrentino (1916)

 

Suchterrible sacrifices have not determined the winner. The war continued. Constantlyimproved lethal weapons and technology. To destroy peopleused artillery, tanks, air force, chemical weapons. Bylevel of technical equipment of the Anglo-French troops ahead of Germany. Warvysnazhuvala opponents, requiring the mobilization of the last human, materialand food resources. The most disastrous situation after the battles of 1916happened in Germany, whose army was reduced to 1 million soldiers, missingWho replaced.

3. The war at sea. Underwater warfare

On the eveWar  Germany placed great emphasiscreating a huge surface fleet, which would be able to defeat the mainnaval power of England. But with the war the German navy could not resistnaval blockade of the Entente. Acts restricted only by the German NavyBaltic Sea, and the Austro-Hungarian - Adriatic. Only minor powersGerman Navy, which found themselves on the war in the vast world oceancaused some worries allies. Thus, in the Black Sea during the Turkish flagGerman cruiser "Heben" and "Breslau"  fired Odessa, Sevastopol, Novorossiyskand Theodosius. In the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans were German raider, who wanteddisrupt maritime traffic, the Entente. But at the end of 1914 afterdefeat of the German squadron in the South Atlantic near the Falkland IslandsTriple Alliance states were in the final naval blockade.

Sufferedof naval blockade, they sought effective means of resistance. Rescueubachavsya the wide application of relatively new weapons - submarinesand deployment of underwater war. Effective submarines have already shown inbeginning of the war. Thus, the German submarine boats "U-9"Beznakazanno per attacknear the coast of the Netherlands sent to the bottom with three British cruisers.

Germansubmarine retains commercial vessel

 

In February 1915 Germany was declared all waterare washed by the UK area of fighting here and directing their underwaterboats, whose actions were effective. Yes, May 7 attack was the subject of Englishpassenger liner "LUSITANIA with 1198 passengers on board, including 124were Americans. Death "LUSITANIA" was a majormarine accidents. USA made a strong protest, because, in addition to casualties,submarine warfare inflicted damage trade with the Entente. Germanyfear of conflict with the United States temporarily restricted underwater war. GermanCommand gave the order without warning not to heat passenger ships. OnSubmarine commanders practice this order is not executed.

The passenger liner "LUSITANIA"

 

InMay-June 1916 between English and German navy continuedlargest naval battle in history. In it from both sides attended the mainForce fleet. The German command decided to break through a sea blockade anddefeat the English fleet.  Collisionhappened in the North Sea off the coast of Jutland (Denmark). German navy triedrozsikty British fleet to split it in parts, but theа had not be exposedлаXia cutою of itstheir own databases. German Navyhurriedly left the battle. During the battle anliytsi lost 14 ships. Germans - 11. Returning to basesGerman fleet over the high seas did not appear. Maritimeblockade of the Entente could not break through.

Exit Allspice fleet inopen sea

 

InGermany again active supporters of unrestricted submarine war. "Wecod will drown even if it will float to England "- supportedof Kaiser Wilhelm II. Entente countries suffered from a German submarineboats (on the bottom was sent more than 2000 vessels), although they are often killed andthemselves. On the challenge of Germany landни Entente answered shipbuilding deployment, developmenteffective means to combat submarines. German Aggressionresented the world community. Death of American ships, especiallyAmerican citizens all over the country against public nastroyuvaloGermany. It became clear that submarines are unable to decide the fate of warwhich became protracted.

4. Exhaustion of the warring countries

ProcrastinatingWar was to understand that victory depends not so much front asrear. Command belligerent countries relied on short duration of waraction. Large stocks of equipment and ammunition has been done already and1915 all had difficulties supplying the army. Biggest dyfitsytweapons, because of the weakness of its economy,  Russia felt. To expand the scale of military production has startedrebuilding the economy. In all countries, it primarily meant puttingsevere government regulation. The state determined the amount of requiredproduction, placed the order, provided the raw materials and labor.Labor service was introduced that gave the opportunity to reduce operating deficithand that was caused by conscription of nearly all adult men to the army.As military production grew at the expense of peace, ended theconsumer goods, which forced the type of price regulation, regulationconsumption. Mobilization hurt agriculture. In all the warringcountries except England, food production decreased and itled to the introduction of card distribution system of food. InGermany, which traditionally vvozyla food through the blockade happenedvery difficult situation. The government there was forced to ban fattening cattleGrain and potato, introduced various substitute products - ersatz.The system of state control over production and consumption in most hardappearance came in Germany, which suffered from limited resources.

Women and adolescents from the factoryof shells

 

Thus the lives of most people warring countries radically changed.Its level has fallen everywhere. In Germany before 1917 filling grocery cardsnot even satisfy physiological needs - famine (Winter 1916/1917years), whose victims were about pivmiliona people. The difficulties of war -  long working hours, unfortunate foodcausing great mortality among the civilian population. Along with martialThis loss led to a significant population declineAustria-Hungary, Germany and France. Backbreaking daily work, stay inqueues, hunger and cold were the fate of millions. In pryfrontoviy stripSevere constant companions of the civilian population wereshelling with long-range guns. Begun using aircraft forbombardment of civilian targets in the rear. During the civil warpopulation fell under the occupation armies of the enemy. Occupation authorities with localpopulation does not usually manizhylasya: requisition, indemnities become sophenomenon. Especially cruel was the occupation regime of German troops. Specialresentment in the world caused by German companies exported 60 thousandbilhiyskyh workers (This was another precedent generated by the First Worldwar. During Дruhoyi World War it has become commonplace). Civilianssought to avoid the occupation, there were refugees.

Agitational leaflet, which showsatrocities of German soldiers in Belgium

 

Queues for bread in Petrograd

 

All theseproblems as perceived by most people need to suffer in the nameinterests of their country. But patience was not endless nations.

5. Anti-war speeches

WavePatriotism has created favorable conditions for mobilization and commencementrebuilding rear. When the wave subsided, it began to artificially pump, for whichcreated special promotional agencies. They produced brochures,cards that glorify valor of troops and awakened hatred for the enemy.Each party thus sought to prove that it is this most civilized,she has to fight against the Hun "and" savages. "

British propaganda poster

 

American propaganda poster

 

But already in 1916 was moremore people in warring countries began to realize that no goal can notjustify those sacrifices which they took the war, and wanted only one - Earlyits completion. Expressesthese sentiments was the growing strike movement. The real sensationNear the demonstration was in Germany under the slogan "EndWar, "" Down with the government. "In Austria-Hungary in protestwar Social Democrat Friedrich Adler shot October 21, 1916 headCouncil of Ministers Shtyurhka graph.

Barricades in Dublin

 

Irish rebel arrest

 

Proofthat patriotic slogans have lost their fervor, was the uprising in 1916 inIreland. She had to get dominion status in 1914, but thisprevented war. This prompted some radical activistsnational liberation movement to armed speech. On the night of April 241916 In 1200 the rebels captured the important points in Dublin and proclaimedindependence of Ireland. During the week 20000th English army suppresseduprising. Five of its leaders were executed.

Offsetin the public consciousness marked by tactics and social democratic parties.Position the left-wing Social Democrats, who were branded as imperialist war,predatory and encouraged her to turn against the exploiters in a civil,at first did not enjoy the support. But every year the number of its supportersgrew.

Moremore strengthened the position of center Social Democrats. They were made by makingdemocratic peace without annexations and indemnities. Their position coincided withposition of the pacifists who were totally opposed to conflict resolutionmilitary means.

 

Documents and materials

In the letter, General military Yakushkevycha Minister Sukhomlinovon December 6, 1914

"I know that cause you worries and anxieties with their appeals,but what to do? Because hair is dybки of the opinion that due to lack ofammunition and rifles will submit Wilhelm? The smaller the cartridges, thengreater loss? If immediately pour 150-250 thousand tons, it could be in 1-1,5week rejected an enemy and immediately win situation? "

 

Questions to document

1.      To which the effects caused shortages of weapons and ammunitionEastern Front?

2.      How this situation was caused by ammunitionEastern Front?

 

A memoir of the Ludendorff offensive of the German-AustrianTroops on the Eastern Front in 1915

"General von Makenzen wasappointed commander of the new 11 Army  which consisted mainly of troops  inverted from the west. In early May hehad cause flank attack in Western Galicia and rout Russians  which  Despite the loss, led offensive in the Carpathians ...

AM 2 May (1915)army General von Makenzena brilliantly executed carefully prepared attack andbroke through the Russian front on average Dunaytsa ...

However, the Allies could develop theirsuccess in general only front, although they tried to make localenvironment  mainly the western flankRussian troops  which depart fromCarpathians. Trying surrounding their right-wing Austrian-Hungarian armies in BukovinaSuccess was not ...

Frontal oust the Russians fromGalicia  no matter how they feltit had not been essential to the war. They battle awayso far as rear combination allowed us to move. The Russians have notfought on their own land and to it still could give a large area. In addition,During these battles our losses Front were remarkable ...

According to the supreme indicationcommand began training in large scale crossingNarew. This army is only 12, but right-wing armies were grouped into eight ...

July 13th both armies beganattack ...

July 15 after a fierce battleSturm gaining one of the strongest rear position and 17 captured Narew.

July 23to storm and Pultusk Rozhany, August 4 - Ostro

In Poland, a bend in the Vistula River, also began work in September Army and Army GroupGeneral von Voyrsha ...

Operation Allied armies in Poland, Vistula River to the east unit, led,I like that and expect to frontal pursuit continuous battles with the Russians.However, attempts to encircle the Russians, but they were always in vain. AlthoughRussian army and given a chance to stop, but leave it to luck. Russiansoften resorted to brutal counterattack large forces, and many areaswetlands and streams year gave them an opportunity to consolidate again and successfullydo further resistance. Continuous movement for several weeks naughty waysand mostly unfavorable weather required the vehicles our troops a greattension. Clothing and footwear obderlysya, food supplies becamedifficulties, buildings for accommodation of troops for the night was very little ...

Large stresses September day again gave us onlytactical success. Had to leave the only serious crisis ... "

 

Inquiries to document

1. Thatprompted Germany to cause  mainimpact in 1915 against Russia?

2. WhyLudendorff offensive of the German-Austrian army in the spring of 1915 assessed astactical success?

3. What reasons led stop German offensive in autumn 1915?

 

Newspaper Russky ynvalyd "about fighting in Verdun

"From the descriptions of battles at Verdun in the official summaryPosts and articles of war correspondents can understand  that Germans   As before,  attacked denseMasses   that skoshuvalysya Frenchartillery and suddenly replaced with new benches dense chains (with someinformation, even columns), this famous German tactics dranhu (mercilesspressure at any price) is not responsible inventory peopleGermany and is an act of desperation ...

During the first onslaught French German batteries  are good sites to prystrilyalysyaareas that lay ahead, fired thick lava advancing enemy andswept their deadly fire. When, due to repeated attacks by the new enemy of the masses,of Germans moved very close to the first line of the French, the French nightTroops were ordered to withdraw to the second line of trenches in the morning and Frenchbatteries were again mow Germans   thatadvancing to the new site,  and so on,  while the French failed to reach the main defenseVo-line Duomon - height Puavr, here they stopped the counterattack in bayonetsenemy, and part was surrounded by Germans in the ruined fort Duomon andat an altitude Puavr Germans sat down on the northern slopes ...".

Inquiries to document

1. Ascan be explained by the use of German command such destructive tactics?

2. Whatvalues were fighting at Verdun for the further course of the war?

 

English historian B. Takman of German policy onoccupied territories.

"Howonly German troops entered the city, the walls began to advance bilityprinted ad? punishment for civilians in shootsoldier's death. "Any who, if fit shine than 200 yards from an airplane orballoon, will be shot in town. Homeowners, where you will findhidden weapons will be shot. All those harboring in itself? soldier willsent to the permanent workforce in Germany. Village, which will"Hostile" acts will be burned. If "hostile acts occur on the road between the twovillages, the inhabitants of both villages will be applied tizh most measures.

 

Inquiries to document

1. Reasonconducted for this occupation policies?

2. Whichcharacter novysyla First World War? As it reflects the document?

 

Results"Underwater War of the book A. Stahl" Development of methods of submarine operations inWar of 1914-1918 he was on the main maritime theaters "

«У  during the First World War in Germany wasbuilt 344 submarines, of which 178 were lost? Submarine sunk5861 boat (no vessel tonnage accounted for less than 100 tons.). The largest loss of shipswas in 1917 - 2734. In toga German submarines were sunk in 1910Liner ships, 20 cruisers, 31 destroyer, 3 kanonerski boats,6 mine layer, 3 monitors, 10  submarines. 22 auxiliary cruisers, 34 trawler and storozhovyka 16lovushok vessels, 1 submarine base. Total 156 koarbliv and ships. ? Onedied underwater boats had to 33.8 ships destroyed.

Inquiries to document

1.      What show are statestychni data?

2.      Why Germany can not win the "war underwater?

 

Questions and Tasks

1. Asevolved events on the Eastern Front in 1915? What has caused the defeatRussian troops?

2.Describe the battle of Verdun and the Somme 1916 What they hadvalue of the current war?

3. Thatallowed Russian troops under General Brusylov makesuccessful operations against the Austro-German troops?

4.Discover the relationship between the course of military actions on various fronts in 1915-1916he

5. Whatchanges occurred in the techniques and tactics of fighting during the war?

6. ThatRomania urged to join war on the side of the Entente?

7. Asevents unfolded on the sea ground fighting? Describe Yutlandskyybattle.

8.Make summary: Fighting in 1915-1916 biennium

 

Note the dates:

April-December 1915 - DardanelskaEntente military operation.

April 22, 1915 р. - The first successfuluse of chemical weapons near the city Ypres.

May 1915 - TopGerman-Austrian offensive on the Eastern Front.

Autumn 1915 - FailureSerbia.

February-December 1916 - Battle of Verdun.

May-June 1916Yutlandskyy sea battle.

Summer 1916- Brusilovskybreakthrough.

June-November 1916- Battle on the RiverSomme.