§ 1. The beginning of World War II (textbook)

 

OV Hisem, VM Danilenko, AA Podobed

 

World History

1914-1939 biennium

 

 Grade 10

 

Allowed the Ministry of Education andScience of Ukraine

(Protocol, from 1/11-340413/12/2000 City)

 

Preface

In 10 grade you should read the latest period of world history- A direct continuation of the new history time. Between Modern and Contemporaryhistory no such tangible differences both between Antiquity and the averageages. The latest developments initiated during the second decade of XX century. Andit lasts till now.

Clipmodern period of world history, you learn that it is complicated andcontroversial content. He absorbed a lot of events and facts,ambiguous by nature of phenomena and processes of world development - economic,technical and intellectual progress and exhausting war, national liberationand social movements and the collapse of empires, fighting forces of democracy and totalitarianismworld split into feuding camps, national and state separationinternationalization of economic life. In counting the modern history of significanthad the effect of revolutionary events of 1917, Russia, wherebyAsian-European country deviated from the evolutionary path of development andvast spaces made unprecedented social experiment that ithad to go through and Ukraine. So in a world-historical developmenthumanity in the first half of XX century. dominant creative and destructive element, and attemptsgreat powers to achieve political and economic dominance combined withstruggle of peoples for national independence, democracy, the right of freechoice of forms of society.

Forfirst half of XX century. enormous in scale and quality improvements coveredeconomic, political, scientific, cultural and educational activities arena.And if not for world war 1914-1918 biennium and 1939-1945 biennium, thesocio-economic progress of human civilization would be much more successful.On the one hand, the war demonstrated the inability of the leading countries in the worldresolve problems by peaceful means and on the other - have become a serious warningfor future coexistence of the countries and peoples.

 

* * *

Workingof the textbook, the authors followed the current version of the World Programmehistory for secondary educational institutions. Itprovides a systematic account of the history of socio-political and economicdevelopment of Europe and the U.S., the peoples of Asia, Africa and Latin AmericaInternational Relations 1914-1939 he was used in this contextSamples from the history of the Ukrainian people, documents and illustrations.

Textbookbuilt by problem-chronological order; basic principles of educationalmaterial is its availability, consistency, and educational educationally oriented.It is designed to give students basic knowledge, stimulate their thinking and interestfor historical science. Big role in these tasks is a teacher.

Fall into aTextbooks help questions and tasks to each paragraph.Answers to some of them need familiarization with additional sources.Worldviews broaden the appeal to the terminological dictionaryrecommended educational and scientific literature.

Onthe book also coverage of events and phenomena that happens a lotnames, place names, dates. Separated to give bindingremember, they give students knowledge of harmony and specificity inanswers in class and on exams.

Studyworld history and new knowledge will contribute to spiritual growththe younger generation a better understanding of national and universalproblems.

 

Entry

1. Mainfeatures of global development in the 1914-1939 biennium

Twentieth century.was an important step in the civilization of mankind. World Civilizationcontinued its movement in the direction of further development of the world in unityeconomic, political, cultural terms.

Comparedin previous centuries it seems that humanity was movingfaster. This is because due to progress in science and technology economy, and forit and other areas of human life, began to develop rapidly. Evenfor the life of one generation dokorino changed everything: the environment, everyday life,technique, the behavior of others. Yes, the man who saw the first aircraft flight (1903)witnessed in human space flight (1961). As в in the last centuryfirst half of the twentieth century. major changes occurred in the West (Western Europeand USA), which continued to act as the locomotive of history. They endedof industrial society (machine-made, massproduction, urbanization, the final establishment of market mechanisms to regulateetc.). Unprecedented growth to the productive forces and production pushedleading country in the world to find all new markets and, consequently, to acutetheir competition. Peredilyvshy world among themselves, they are in their colonialpossessions ruthlessly destroy the traditional system of management, involve forciblypeoples of Asia, Africa and Latin America in the world economy. Such economicWestern expansion led to the fact that economies are interlocking `connected.Evidence of this was the "great depression" 30 years, which beginning in the U.S.encompassed almost all countries. In the first half of the twentieth century. a change of leaders. IfNineteenth century. world's leading countries was England, which in the early twentieth century. pressedGermany, in the 20's finally confirms the U.S. economic leadership.

HomeWorld War II and especially the economic crisis of 1929-1933, the establishment receive Himsystems of state regulation of economy. In some countries, was totallygovernmentalization Economy (USSR) в Italy, Germany and Japan was the establishment of zhostkyy state control, but inUSA, Scandinavia logo was more efficient, indirect influencestate on the economy, which should not result in  deformation of its structure.

Sincebeginning of the century with a strong position in the industry leading countries begintake a new industry: chemical, elektotehnichna, automotive,air, oil and others. However, the smelting of iron and steel productionmachinery and equipment, basic extraction of raw materials continue tovmstupaty main indicators of development. The world economy continuesdevelop in the extensive way.

Beginningbecoming an industrial society escort significant simplificationsocial structure of the provisional period. The main layerssociety became businessmen and industrialists on the one hand, salaried workers withmore. At the beginning of the twentieth century. this social structure has undergone substantial changes.Among the industrialists and entrepreneurs evolved group of large financiers andIndustrialists (Wall Street), which became an influential force in the considerablepolitical life, in making public policy. They did not lagRepresentatives of former powerful aristocratic families that have retained theirriches and influence. Together these two groups were the elite of society. New phenomenonbecame a middle class (middle and small businessmen, officials,creative and technical intelligentsia, vysokooplachuyemi workers - all those who in the casesocial upheaval that was to lose), which is dependent on internalsocial stability. Having a business deal or vysokoplachuyemu stateservice, they were interested in holding such a domestic policy that wouldunymozhlyvyla social upheaval. This stratum of society was at the beginningcentury and the majority of voters.

In the firsthalf of the twentieth century. the largest social group continued to remainsalaried workers. Despite all the reforms of the late XIX - early XX century. Theyremained the most disfranchised and socially vulnerable. Their socialinstability manifested most clearly in the years of economic crises and othershocks. Having to forcefully combat voting rights, workers wereinfluential force in political life. The core mass working class partiesand movements. Ability munipulyuvaty their sentiments have become an `extensive study attributePolitical leaders in the first half of the twentieth century. But workers in the twentieth century. noconstituted a single social stratum, the workers released quite numerousgroup labor aristocracy (workers with high professional skills andsignificant revenue). Held a stratification among workers of old and newindustries. Recently received significantly higher wages. Held ageneral improvement in living standards of workers. Showed shortening robochahoWeek of 70-60 to 40 hours. From`Workers appeared legislation, system safety,leave, which paid more. However, these positive changes are handledWestern Europe and the U.S. to the rest of the workers have littledifferent from the situation in the nineteenth century. In the worst situation of workers wasAsia, Africa and Latin America.

New system of social structures formed in the USSR. It disappearedclass of owners. Caste won party-bureaucraticelite. Robitnytsvo, which was announced ahead of hegemony, notso many more of revolutionary transformation. Living standards remainlow.

An important phenomenon in social development are the significant pace of urbanization.City population grew rapidly. According cut back rural population.At the end of 30 years in most European countries the urban population perevschuvaloAgriculture. The most radical social changes experienced peasantry in the USSR.There was the forced demolition of the peasant way of life. It was physically destroyed prosperousof the peasantry. The peasants lost ownership of the land turned intocheap labor to artificially created collective farms - collective farms.

In the first half of the twentieth century. turned the process of emancipation of women. During the firstWorld War II, women began to massively machines. After the war, almost all countriesEurope they have voting rights. However, continued to be storeddeskryminatsiya women: they received less wages than men forsimilar work, the first exempted from work  If an economic crisis, women's social welfare systemwas in the initial state and so on.

Political History of Europe and the U.S. the first half of the twentieth century. wasfull of struggle over social issues and problems of democracy. Variouspolitical forces seen in different ways address these issues: some preferredsolving the first question, the other - the second.

World War I aggravated all social problems. In some countriesaccumulated problems explode revolutions, in others - gave the ruling eliteadvantages of very deep political and social reforms.

After relative peace in 1944, Europe again engulfed in war and grew ryvolyutsiy.The main driving force behind the revolution in mass workers' party. SocialRevolution swept the Russian and Austro-Hungarian Empire, Germany.Significant social performances were held in Bulgaria and Italy. First, duringrevolution formed the desire to create a democratic republic with moreequitable social parade. At the same time frustration  the existing authorities and lack of politicalexperience has generated the desire to create a system of direct democracy in the form of tips.But attempts to create a Soviet republics turned restriction and thenElimination of democratic institutions, establishing rigid dictatorships(Dictatorship of the proletariat in Soviet Russia). Attempts to build socialFair (socialist, communist) society turned formationSoviet-style totalitarian system.

As the deepening of Revolutions and growing wave of counter-revolution, which inmost cases led to the loss of democratic gains of the first daysrevolutions: the establishment of authoritarian regimes (Hungary, etc..) ordominance of conservative forces in subsequent years (Germany, Finland, etc.).

In countries where the revolution was avoided (England, France, Scandinaviancountry, etc..) carried out reforms in the direction of further development of liberalDemocracy: The extended voting rights, the development of civilsociety, the expansion of social protection. However, in 30 years thiscountries could not avoid the tendency of some restriction of democratic rights,This reflects the expansion of state intervention in economic institutions of powerand other sectors of society, but this was not the dominant trend.

Post-war aggravating social and political struggle, the crisis of existinggovernment institutions and engendered a new political phenomenon - fascism. The Nazis alsooffered their prescriptions for further development of society, but with fulldenial of democracy, with spreading fascist totalitarian system type.

So after World War I to the world opened up threeProspects for further development: the development of liberal democracies, constructionSocialism (communism), fascist modernization. Contents of the world in20-30-years is to fight these trends. After the last two weredead end branches of mankind. I have proven that democracy andmarket economy has no alternative.

Significant impact on political life in the interwar period keptnational liberation movements. The people who were enslaved or subjected tonational oppression sought to decide their fate. Attemptssolution of national problems jazaty  after the FirstWorld War II were not successful. They only gave rise to many new problems.Methods that try to solve national problems in 20 30 years (frommass destruction of people in attempts to find agreement) showed that onlyway to solve national problems, the right to self-determination, orconsideration of interests of minorities and the creation of such a systeminternational relations which would zabezpechyvaly free development of all peoples withoutlosing their national identity.

2.Pereodyzatsiya world of early twentieth century.

The First World War (1914-1918)

Warwas the result of the development of international relations in the late nineteenth - early twentieth century.Combating major powers for hegemony in the world has led to their aggressiveness andpursuit of external expansion. In the end the arms race and the desire to destroyshtuvhnula major competitors in world war grew. The existence of military-politicalblocks (Entente and the Triple Alliance) led to involvement in the war vidrozu largegroups of States. Gradually it in its orbit that involved 36 countries worldwide (67% нaselennya planet). Attackactions there were in Europe, Asia, Africa spaces ocean.

FeaturesWar:

-         Was the world;

-         Poles mainly invasive nature (except for Belgium andSerbia, the victims of aggression);

-         The massive use of new weapons (powerful gun,machine guns, planes, tanks, submarines, etc.);

-         The existence of continuous front line;

-         The Army mobilization of its human resources (70 millionpers.)

-         The huge scale of destruction (especially in France, Belgium,western regions of the former Russian Empire, the eastern regions of the formerAustria-Hungary);

-         Significant loss of life: about 10 million (of which 10%civilians). Thus, in France in 1928 killed every citizen, England - each57, Russia - 107;

-         Economic potential and technological level of production asnever became one of the deciding factors in winning the war;

-         War of the structural changes needed in the systemgovernment, highlighted the many difficulties in the state of power;

-         An important factor was the ideology of war, propaganda,ability to mobilize and objectsconnections people around an idea;

-         Made a fundamental change in strategy and tactics of war.

Pictures of War

 

The war has created a number of precedents that later became commonplacehistory of the twentieth century.: developing a framework of state regulation of economy, masslabor mobilization, bringing foreign workers forced to work onenterprises; total war (to run out of material and humanresources); mass propahandyski companies, creation of intimidation andbluff citizens devaluation of human life, acts of genocide (the destructionArmenians in Turkey in 1915), the use of weapons of mass destruction (chemical)etc..

HomeWorld War fundamentally changed the world. By its end he could notback to previous state.

Post-war instability(1918-1923 biennium)

Revolutionreform, revision of borders, creating a new system of international securitypolitical and economic crisis have led to:

·   deployment of the revolutionary process, the effectswhich in different countries were different. Yes, in Italy the Nazis to power dostupylysya(1922), in Hungary established authoritarian dictatorship(1920)In the USSR - the Communistdictatorship (1917-1918 biennium); In Germany faced the Weimar Republic (1919-1933years)BasedUnion of Social Democrats and the military-aristocratic elite;

·   intensification of democratic and labor movements,reforming government activity aimed at removing socialtensions in society;

·   split in the labor movement, creatingCommunist (who sought to realize the vision of world revolution) andSocialist International, trade unions;

·   drafting and signing peace treaties withcountries that were defeated in World War II, creatingVersailles-Washington system.

 Stabilization (1924-1929 biennium)

Inspecified period of Europe and the United States coped with the consequences of war, transferredeconomy to peaceful track, rebuilt it and began to raise rateseconomic development. In Eurasia lucky end to the armedstruggle. For the stabilization period were characteristic features of such socio-economicand political development of:

·   modernization of industrial production emergence of newsectorsintroduction of new technology and Technology, New areas and methods of work(Pipelined, standardization, mass production);

·   stabilization loan and financial system;

·   reduction of government regulation;

·   changes in political party structures of somecountries;

·   establishment of authoritarian regimes in countriesCentral and Southeast Europe, consolidation of the fascist regime inItaly; revival of the Russian Empire based on the new ideolohiychniy in form USSR;

·   formation of new Europeansecurity, weakening Versailles-Washington system;

·   significant changes in the ideological and political,cultural, social, psychological, moral atmosphere of Western society(Increasing role of the media, the democratization of clothing, especiallyWomen, sports development, tourism, new genres of art - jazzmusicals, etc...)

3. Great Depression (1929-1933 biennium)

In 1929 the world got in the face of unprecedentedeconomic crisis. It was unprecedented for the world and the depth andduration.

The main causes of the crisis:

·   extremely high degree of concentration andmonopolization (nadmonopolizatsiya) capital and production;

·   transition to mass production technologiesThat there wasbacked by consumer;

·   reduction of government regulation;

·   uneven distribution of nationalwealth, the narrowness of the domestic market.

Crisiscovered all industrialized countries, almost all economic sectors and continuedfour years.

The symbolic image of the Greatdepression "

 

MainScore crisis - the overproduction of goods. This led to bankruptcylarge number of businesses, reduction of industrial production by nearly80%, agriculture - at 30, trade - almost 70%unemployment (over 30 million people), lower living standards.Aggravated domestic problems. Increased shmlnist society toradical action. Intensifiedworking-class, communist, fascist movements.

The greatest crisis hit countries that end20-ies had the highest growth rate of the economy - the U.S. and Germany.

The only country that has not experienced the crisis was the Soviet Union,at that moment began the forced industrialization.

Nazrivannya Second World War (1933-1939 biennium)

Crisissharpened the differences between countries. Different countries have searched the crisis aloneand a variety of ways, ignoring the interests of other states. This led toof "trade wars and interstate conflicts.

ActsGovernments around the world can identify two main trends. In general, theysought to expand the role of government in economic life.

Yes?U.S., Britain, Canada, Scandinavian countries have made liberal reforms ininterests of the general population, extended state control over the economy.It laid the foundations "of the state of prosperity."

In Germany, Italy, Hungary, Bulgaria, Japan wasestablished totalitarian regimes (Nazi type) who searched the crisisby reviewing the results Пershoyi World War and military expansion, claimingworld domination. Ended up of the totalitarian regime in the USSR inforeign policy under a communist slogans on the road and territorialpolitical expansion.

This will significantly worsen in the second half of the 30'sconfrontation between democracy and totalitarianism.

In some countries (France, Spain, Chile) on the waveanti-fascist struggle for power came at a time People's Front, whichhad a radical social reform. Over in Spain, which fought against fascism,threatened by a communist dictatorship, the republic was overthrown and installednationalist-totalitarian regime of General Franco (1939).

Stop the peaceful promotion of totalitarian states toworld domination is not lucky, and the world were involved in Дruhu World War1939-1945 biennium

 

Documents and materials

Development of industrial production in European countries,%(In 1929 - 100%)

 

                                           1931   1934   1937

 

Germany                                     72       83       116

Austria                             70       70       103

France                              89       78       83

Hungary                             87     99       130

Italy                                  78       80       100

Poland                             77       77       109

United Kingdom                  84     99       124

Czechoslovakia                          81     67       96

Sweden                              96       110     149

USSR                                161     238     424

 

Inquiries to document

1.After reviewing the table, find out: which countries most affected byeconomic crisis? As a country relatively quickly out of the crisis?

2. Whatcan be explained by different rates of industrial development?

 

Questions and Tasks

1. Onгruntuyte periodsworld development in the interwar years.

2. Identify the features of the First World War, compared to warsprevious eras.

3.Discover the main causes of post-war instability.

4. Whyperiod 1924-1929 he called stabilization?

5. Aseconomic crisis has affected the economic, political and social developmentworld?

6. Whatstate in the 30's conducted an aggressive policy?

 

Note the dates:

1914-1918 biennium - First World War.

1918-1923 biennium- Post-warinstability.

1924-1929 biennium- Stabilization.

1929-1933,- Total worldeconomic crisis.

1933-1939 biennium- Aggravationdifferences between states. Nazrivannya Дruhoyi World War.

 

Post and 

The First World War 1914-1918 biennium

Editor! Make collages such as the intro before eachSection

 

 

§ 1.The beginning ofWorld War

Historyhumanity knows many wars. But two of them the magnitude of destruction and humanlosses are not equal. Both occurred in the XX century., And they participatedall major countries of the world. War came from Germany, the main fightingdeployed in Europe.

Overfour years - from August 1, 1914 on November 11, 1918 longThe First World War. She had drawn three6 States with a population of over 1 billion people. Inbloody battles killed 10 million people, 20 million were wounded orhurt.

1.The causes of war and objectives of

The firstWorld War resulted in exacerbation of the differences between the major powersworld and the struggle of two military-political groups - and the EntenteTriple Alliance. Most were irreconcilable interests of Germany andEngland. They are rivals on land and at sea. The initiators of warby the ruling circles of Germany and Austria-Hungary, although other countriesspecific objectives pursued aggressive. The arms race has become unheardproportions. On military spending spent more than half of budget expenditures ofEurope.

 

Military-political bloc

GermanEmpire aspired to world domination. Her plans included the seizure of largeterritories in Europe, including Ukraine and the Baltic States, colonial possessionsEngland, France, Belgium, strengthening the position of Turkey and the Middle East.Austria-Hungary hoped to conquer Serbia, Bulgaria and Montenegro, acquireRomania's oil deposits, dominate the Black, Adriatic and Aegeanseas. Turkey, which in case of victory going to divide the country Ententedrew their views on the Balkan Peninsula, Crimea, Transcaucasia, Iran.

 

A cartoon on global assaultWilhelm II

 

In turn, England claimed the German colonies, the Turkish possessions inMesopotamia (present Iraq), they demanded greater influence in the Middle East andin the Mediterranean. In the interest of England was to undermine the economic powerGermany and its growing role in world trade. France intends to return Alsaceand eastern Lorraine, Germany picked up her 1871, capture richSaarskyy coal basin and of the Rhineland region of Germany. Economicallysought to weaken Germany and Russia. In addition, the persecuted Russian tsarismstrategic objectives - control of the StraitsBosporus and Dardanelles, to do away with the Austrian and German influence in Turkeyand the Balkans. Control of East Prussia. Silesia,Galicia and Bukovina.

Russian postcard. Women represent"I heartily agree (Entente) of France, Russia, England

 

Mosthesitant in defining their claims Italy. As an ally of Germany andAustria-Hungary, Italy still prorahovuvala where it expects a higher profit.Since the war it waged protracted negotiations with the two warring parties;Finally, the Entente countries promised her more territorial acquisition. Englandwas prepared to provide a large loan. It bowed to Italy before moving to the sideGerman opponents.

 

Causes of World War I

 

Thus,war was unjust, rapacious nature of the state of both blocks.They are a cover slogans homeland security and the future of their peoples,destroyed in the flame war, millions of innocent, deceived chauvinistpropaganda people.

2.Austro-Serbian conflict. The July crisis of 1914

The reasonbefore the First World War was the Austro-Serbian conflict. June 281914 Gavrilo Princip, a member of a secret organization "MladaBosna, which fought for the unification of all peoples of the South, killedsuccessor to the Austrian and Hungarian throne, Franz Ferdinand. Archdukewas chief of the army of Austria-Hungary and came to Bosnia to militarymaneuvers. His provocative visit to Sarajevo and shot 19 year-old Serbianstudent played a sinister role.

Arrest after shots Gabriel notionsin the Archduke Franz Ferdinand

 

23July Austria-Hungary delivered an ultimatum to the Serbian government, which violatedsovereignty of the latter, meaning interference in internal affairs. У If deviation from Serbiathe requirements of her threatened rupture of diplomatic relations, war. LargeState took the fence to avoid being accused of zmovnytstvi. Inprescribed period, Serbia has announced its agreement to accept the ultimatum.The exception was the item which was part of the Austrian police in conductinginvestigation on the territory of Serbia. This was enough to threats had been made. 28 July Austro-Hungarian troopsintruded into the territory of Serbia. Began artillery bombardmentBelgrade.

 

3.Enters the war the great powers

Imperialambitions of Russia, whose Government is sympathetic to Serbia, causing significantimpact. У ofRussian military districts on the Black Sea and the Baltic Fleet wasconducted mobilization, which has developed into a general. In response, Germany August 1also started a general mobilization, and in the evening the German Ambassador handed inPetersburg, Russian Foreign Minister a note to the declaration of warRussia. August 3-note the same content was given the Frenchgovernment. Blaming the French in violation of neutrality of Belgium, Germany, withoutwarnings invaded its territory. This was a serious reason toimmediate entry into the war England.

 

Caricature of the Austro-Serbianconflict. Austrian eagle swoop on Serbian cock, and hid by Kem

 

Bya few days became a world war. It rozhoryalasya across the globe. On the sideEntente States was Japan, with a view to capture the German colonies inPacific and China possess. In October, to Germany joined the OttomanEmpire. Formed new fronts in the Caucasus, Syria, Palestine. Butfrom the beginning were the main western and eastern fronts. In the west Germantroops resisted the British, French and Belgian soldiers. In easterncombined force of German and Austro-Hungarian armies were directed against Russia.

Record volunteers toEnglish army

 

Onbeginning of the war wave of patriotism and nationalism flooded Warring States. Over timeit changed disbelief and fatigue, led to a strengthening of social democracy anddistributing pacifist ideas. But while it created conditions formobilization of all forces on the front and rear. Outward expression of national feelingsbegan renaming cities in Russia with German names, includingSt. Petersburg became Petrograd, in the UK royal family, originally fromGerman Hanover took a new name - Windsor. The war was followed byacute struggle of various social and political currents.

 

Performance at antiwar rallyFrench socialist leader Jean Jaures. The war began on the second day afterhis murder

 

 

Вmortar countriesFirst World War

Year

Entente and its allies

Germany and its allies

1914

Serbia, Russia, Фrantsiya, Belgium, Montenegro, Britainя its dominions  and colonies,  Japan, Egypt

Austria-Hungary, Germany, Turkey

1915

Italy

Bulgaria

1916

Portugal, Romania

 

1917

USA. Cuba, Greece, Siam, Liberia, China, Brazil

 

1918

Guatemala, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Haiti, Honduras

 

 

4. PlanShliffena

On the eveWar, the Allies had the advantage in human and material resources overcountries of the Triple Alliance. Navy dominated by England and Franceon the seas. But the number and quality of weapons and in respect to the mobilizationbetter prepared war Germany. Almost a year before the outbreak of hostilities inGermany was prepared military operational plan to attack France and Russia.German Emperor on his chief of general staff reportedGerman G. von Moltke. The basis of these hostilities began onGeneral Plan Shliffena - chief of staff in Germany1891-1905 biennium

Chief of General Staff G.von Moltke German army at positions

 

InevitabilityWar on two fronts for Germany was evident. So the main idea of the strategic plan wasbeat opponents apart. At the initial stage of the war in the west (Against France)expectedconcentrate about 80% of the armed forces of Germany and the rest - to the east (Against Russia). The invasion of Francesupposed cause through neutral Belgium, north of Paris aroundbasic forces of the French army. As a result of this strategic maneuver("Indirect attack") was supposed to surround and destroy the French army beforehow Russia will complete the mobilization of its army. After the rout within 4-6 weeksFrench army Germany had to transfer troops to the east and in the flowlightning war to inflict a crushing defeat of Russia.

 

5.Fighting in 1914

У пershi days of the war Germantroops invaded the territory of Belgium. Capture of the fortress capital of Brussels and Liegewas poor consolation for the German army, because then they suddenlyto a fierce resistance narazylysya Belgians, who did not want to seem. Started punitiveagainst the local population. Hrebuyuchy not by any means, the German commandtroops drove west. At the Franco-Belgian border have failedFrench, which added confidence to the Germans. Opens the way to Paris. Frenchgovernment left the capital and moved to the city of Bordeaux.

German troops moving throughField Belgium

 

German infantry attack

 

French infantry attack

 

StrategicGerman command counsel seemed satisfied. Two German Armycorps and cavalry division, over to help eastward to Prussia, where thereadvancing Russian armies, commanded by generals Samsonov and Rennenkampfa.ButThis assistance proved unnecessary, because the Russians were defeated earlier than arrivedmentioned already in part and September were vytisnAnnie from East Prussia, and 30 thousand soldiers are inenvironment, and General Samsonov shot himself.

At the same time in August and September were successful actions of the Russian Southwest FrontThat acted againstAustria-Hungary.The initial success of the Austro-Hungarian army suffered defeat after defeat.Russian army and Ruzkoho Brusylov by Galician battle capturedLviv, was under siege Przemysl fortress, occupied almost all Galicia and Bukovina came to Кarpatskyh passes.

 

Russians rejoice in victoryGalician battle

 

AfterVictory in the Battle of Galicia the Russians opened offensive opportunities throughpasses to invade Hungary, or direct blow directly from Poland to Berlin.At the insistence of his allies, Russians ran a blow against Germany. At thesame time, the German command concentrated its forces to strike at Warsaw, todistract the Russians and their allies to save the Austrians. As a result, Germanand Russian troops clashed in a counter offensive on a front of 300 km aroundIvanhorod and  Warsaw. The Russians, havingoutnumbered, defeated two armies opponent. The Road to Berlin and Viennawas opened. The state saved the German generals P. von Hindenburg and histalented young colleague E. Ludendorff. Skilful maneuvers and quite anlosses they have managed to prevent Russian invasion.

Russian soldiers killed in easternPrussia

 

French soldiers lead defensefighting in r.Marni

 

Timtime of 05.12 in September broke a grand battle to the north-east of Paris onRiver Marne. The German command, believing that the French are incapable of doingserious opposition decided not to bypass Paris from the north, as mandated planShliffena and piyty straight. It cost them dearly. German troopsMarne River met the strong resistance to the French, in the short termmanaged to collect in the right place substantial forces (in French troops overturnto the front Vilik G. role played by Parisian taxi drivers). The German offensive wasstopped. When the French say, "miracle of the Marne. Plan lightningWar failed. However, the German command estimated the situation as temporaryfail and cause a flank attack sought to encircle the French and takecapital of France. But French and British troops who arrived onfront  attacked. Eachparties sought to circumvent the enemy's flank, which resembled a "big to sea."Front Line vydovzhuvalas and reached 600 kilometers - from the bordersSwitzerland to the English Channel. The front stabilized. This was an important strategicsuccess of the allies.

"Marnske taxi. Frenchtroops sent to war by Parisian taxi

 

ToThis war was maneuverability, but now it has become the positional character. Bothzaryvalysya those soldiers in a trench, which were built before excavation and concretefortification, inaccessible even for the heavy artillery. Before the trenches stretchedminefield and rows of barbed wire. To overcome this defense then attactics and technical equipment of the troops needed considerable human reserves, which at that timein neither party was.

The fields of barbed wire

 

6.Accretion scale war

Noparty did not have sufficient means to irrevocably change the course of events.So they tried to engage as quickly as possible in this world other slaughterhouseallies.

The firstcould draw Japan into a war that was on the side of the Entente. Itcaptured German possessions in China and the Pacific. Entente countries demandedsend Japanese troops in Europe, but the Japanese government refused to do so.

Russian postcard. Germany TPAustria-Hungary Turkey pushed for war

 

Germanysupported the Ottoman Empire. To expedite the entry of Turkey into the war, Germanship "Heben" and "Breslau" under the Turkish flag bombarded Odessa,Sevastopol and other cities. This caused an establishment with a few fronts.Russo-Turkish front in the Caucasus, which stretched for 350 km. Here offensiveTurks failed. In Sarykamyskiy battle (December 1914 - January 1915)Turkish army main force was defeated. Russian troops entered theTurkey. Blame for the defeat of the Turkish leadership has put in the Armenians,allegedly facilitated the Russians. Against Armenian pogroms were organized andslaughter. At the end of 1915 to 2.1 million Armenians in Turkey left 600 thousandSuch a genocide of humanity is not yet known. It was the first precedent for the traina wide range of mass ubyvst on a national, racial or в why innocent peopleoccurred in the twentieth century. One of the reasons to hate the Turkish Armenians were: religiousintolerance (Christian Armenians, Turks - all Muslims), the dominance of Armenians ineconomic life of the Empire (80% domestic and 50% of foreign trade in theirhands).

Victims of Genocide

 

Alsohave fronts in Palestine and Iraq where the Turkish army faced withEngland.

Failuresand met the Austrian army in the Balkans, which has twice Belgrade, Serbia but notAustrians capitulated and forced out of the country.

Fights onWestern and eastern fronts meant undermining the German plan of lightning war.The war was protracted writing and grow in scale. Butsuch a war neither side was ready. Now the fate of war is not virishuvavfront and rear (economic, human potential).

 

DocumentsMaterials

With speechGermany's Foreign Minister Byulova Reichstag in December 11, 1899

"Wenot suffer,  to some foreignState  to some exotic Jupitertold us: "What? The world is already divided!" We do not want anyoneinterfere, but we will not allow anyone to become an obstacle for us. We will notpassively stand aside? while   asothers share the world. We can not and do not want to tolerate this. We have ourinterests in all parts of the world? If the British talk about the UK,French for a new France, the Russians conquer Asia, we demand the creationGreat Germany? We can only stay on high, when understoodthat are not available without the great wealth of power without a strong army, withoutstrong fleet? In the next century the German people would be either the hammer oranvil?

 

Questionto document

1. As youunderstand the importance of last words Byulova contained in this document?

2. Towhose consequences led policy of Germany, proclaimed in this speech?

 

Austro-Hungarian ultimatum to Serbia

(Excerpt)

1.Disable all publications   to incitehatred and contempt for the monarchy (Austria-Hungary) and general trendsdirected against its territorial integrity.

2. Immediatelydissolve the organization "People odbrana, confiscate all its meanspropaganda and do the same with other organizations and associations inSerbia   doing propaganda againstAustro-Hungarian monarchy?

3. Immediatelyremove from the schools of Serbia? teachers, textbooks, allserves or may serve as a support of propaganda against Austria-Hungary.

4. Removefrom military service and general administration of all officers and officialsguilty of propaganda against the Austro-Hungarian monarchy.

5.Agree on Cooperation in Serbia of the Imperial and Royalgovernments in the suppression of harmful movements aimed against the territorialintegrity of the monarchy.

6.Open trial in criminal cases against co-conspirators on June 28,   that are on Serbian territory.Bodies  Imperial and authorizedRoyal Government will take part in a proper investigation.

7.Quickly hold major Voyya Tankosycha Tsyhanovycha and Milan, officialSerbian state, compromised the results of the Sarajevo investigation.

8.Undermine aspects of the participation of Serbian authorities in the illegal transportationWeapons and explosives across the border?

9. DatesImperial and Royal Government of explanation about unnecessary applicationssenior Serbian officials  asSerbia  and abroad,   what? do not hesitate to speak upinterview unsustainably against Austro-Hungarian monarchy.

10.Immediately notify the imperial and royal government on the implementation of measuresprovided detailed above paragraphs.

 

Inquiries to document

1. Whatitems were unacceptable ultimatum to Serbia and why?

2. Whatevents triggered above an ultimatum?

 

PismoGerman Emperor Wilhelm II of the Austro-Hungarian Emperor Franz Joseph II (1914City)

"Allshould be sunk in the fire and blood, to kill the men and women, childrenand old, can not leave no houses, no trees. This use is a seriousthe only methods that are able to intimidate a degenerate people, as  French; war finishes in less than twomonths ... "

 

Questions to document

What wasdue to the cruelty to which Wilhelm II called?

 

 

From the book of the daughter of British Ambassador in St. Petersburg MirielBuchanan

"How we were full of enthusiasm, how filledassurance that the fight for the right thing in the name of freedom, humanity, for betterLife on earth. With our high spirits and we expected triumphsvictories.

Russianinfantry! Royal Navy! French artillery! The war will be completed byChristmas  and will include Cossacks to Berlin!The famous Alley Victory in Berlin  itsElector bilomarmurovymy shiny statues and kings from the house of Hohenzollern,will be destroyed. Allies will dictate its own conditions of peace the German emperor,and at the table, made from "tree of victory, where he stroke of a penordered the start of hostilities, it will be forced to sign a peacecontract.

 

Inquiries to document

1. Whattreat people before the war that started?

2. WhyFast forward to end the war is justified?

 

Questions and Tasks

1. Whatmain causes of the First World War?

2.Find plans belligerents, and give them a rating.

3. Whichconflict started the war? Can it be solved by peaceful means?

4.Bring unjust and rapacious nature of war.

5.Please stages involve major powers in the First World War.

6.Describe the fighting fronts in 1914 Why German plansGeneral Staff were doomed?

7. Orwere interlocking `associated events in the western and eastern fronts? If so,how?

8.Make a chronology of events of war in 1914

9. Thatis the way war?

 

Note the dates:

June 28, 1914- Kill the heirAustrian throne, Archduke Franz Ferdinand.

August 11914-The beginning of World War II.

September1914 ­ Homebytva the Marne.