national revival in the first half of the nineteenth century. occurred mainly in the field of culture.
Despite the low educational level of population, education continues to evolve. Schools were four categories: 1) parochial schools - the lowest states for people, 2) county schools - for the nobility, merchants, government officials, artisans, and 3) high school - for nobles and officials, 4) high school and universities - for the gentry. Most of Ukraine's population was illiterate. While in Ukraine was 19 schools, 2 high school - Odessa (1817) and NIZHYN (1832), Kiev Theological Academy and 2 universities - Kharkov (1805) and Kyiv (1834). Lands in the West were: Lviv University (1661), World Technical Academy (1844), the Kremenets Lyceum (1805).
During the growth of national consciousness in Ukraine since seeing renewed interest in national history. Ukrainian intelligentsia began to search their own history.
Famous scientists - Nikolai Kostomarov - prominent Ukrainian historian, social activist (1817-1885 biennium). Written by well-known works from the history of Ukraine: "B. Inc "," devastation "of Russian history - in the version history zhyzneopysanyyah eё hlavneyshyh figures of. Kostomarov was a professor of Kiev University. Nikolai is also a romantic writer. Author of such collections: Ukrainian Ballads "and" Vitka. Posted historical drama "Sava Chaly" and "Pereiaslavs'ka night".
Nicholas A. Markiewicz (1804-1860 biennium) - Ukrainian historian, writer and ethnographer. Type-collection "Ukrainian melodies. Known and his historical work in five volumes of "History of Little Russia." Its very interesting collection of documents on the history of Ukraine seventeenth-century HVIII.
Mikhail Maksimovich (1804-1873) - famous Ukrainian historian, naturalist, linguist, folklorist, ethnographer. Wrote an interesting historical drama "Where on earth went Ruska story Nesterov stories and other writings of ancient Rus. He is also author of a number of works on history haidamak movement, has published many valuable documents on the history of Ukraine.
MO Maksimovich was also a famous botanist, one of the earliest precursors of evolutionary theories of English scientist Charles Darwin.
Kharkov University in the first half of the nineteenth century. become a center of scientific research. Renowned Professor of Mathematics TF Osypovskyi was rector of Kharkov University with 1813 in 1820 he created three volumes "Course of Mathematics.
Michael V. Ostrogradsky - prominent Ukrainian mathematician, founded the St. Petersburg mathematical school. His major work covering the question of mathematical analysis, mathematics, physics, analytical mechanics. Mikhail Vasilyevich was the close friend of Shevchenko.
In 1817, in Lviv was established cultural and educational institution called the Lviv Institute Ossolinskis (Ossolineum). The founder was M. Ossolinskis - Polish educator, bibliographies, literary critic and historian. The Institute has two divisions: the library and museum. Institute Ossolinskis educational center was at that time.
Ukrainian literature in the first half of the nineteenth century. represents the bright titanic figure of Taras Shevchenko (1814-1861 biennium). Creation of the Ukrainian genius was a huge influence on spiritual development and the national consciousness of the Ukrainian people. His main works: published in 1840 Kobzar, 1841 - Haidamaky, 1843 - "Nazar Stodolya, 1845 -" and dead and alive, and others. were not only a literary phenomenon, but also a political manifesto. Taras was the great Ukrainian poet, artist, thinker, philanthropist.
worth mentioning are the other founders of modern Ukrainian literature, especially Kotlyarevskyi (1769-1838 biennium). In 1798 he published the poem "Aeneid." Important role in the development of drama played play Natalka Poltavka. In literary activity Kotlyarevsky participated in public life in Ukraine.
P.Hulak-Artemovsky (1790-1865 biennium) wrote dozens of poems and fables. His famous fable "Pan and the dog, which was published in 1818
P. Kulish (1819-1897 biennium) creatively worked on development of Ukrainian culture and literature, the awakening of national consciousness Ukrainian patriotic. Kulish tried to develop an ideological program for the Ukrainian people, dreamed of building statehood in Ukraine, insisted on the idea of an equal union of Russia and Ukraine. Famous historical works Kulish: trytomnyk "History vossoedynenyya Russia" brochure "Easter eggs Rusyns and Poles at Easter 1882," poem, "Kulis in hell," novel "Black Board".
G. Flower-Osnovyanenko (1778-1843 biennium) - a prominent Ukrainian writer. The most famous of his satirical works: "Noble elections, Shelmenko batman", "Courtship of Honcharivka, Konotop Witch".
E. Hrebinka (1812-1848 biennium) - Ukrainian gifted fabulist. Most of his works: "Little Russian proverb," Colonel NIZHYN Zolotarenko, Tchaikovsky and others. Many helped Shevchenko, especially when it bought out of serfdom slavery and helped give Shevchenko Kobzar.
With talented people came out singing and lyre-minstrels, who promoted the heritage of folk art throughout Ukraine. The most famous kobzars were: Andrew Shut, John Kryukovsky, Ostap Manilov, Theodore Gryshchenko. The first collections of folklore: M. Certelev "Experience collection of ancient songs Little, M. Maksimovich" Little Russian songs, Ukrainian folk songs ".
lands in the West was the publication of folklore collection "Mermaid Dnistrovaia, which published" Ruska trinity.
Ukrainian architecture prevalent in the classical style. Example: Opera in Odessa (architect Thomas de Thomon), Kyiv University (architect Beretta). Works of landscape art were beautiful the park in Uman, in the village Sokoryntsyah Galagan Palace, the White Church in the city park "Alexandria".
In the field of music have become very popular songs, romances: "Cossack rode for the Danube, the winds blow, the sun very low. In the words of Taras Shevchenko created songs, romances "My Thoughts", "Hey I'm one, one," "Testament", "roars and moans wide Dnieper, the words of M. Petrenko -" I look at the sky, "in . Zabily M. "Gude in the very wind, not schebechi, singing." In 1809, with the opening of the theater in Odessa M. Ovsianikov-made Kulikovskii with his symphony, which is created based on Ukrainian folk songs.
in Ukrainian art was prevalent romantic direction. The highest achievement was the work of Shevchenko. He created 130 portraits. Known his watercolor painting "Fire in the Steppe" and others. The peak of artistic creation became the series "The Parable of the Prodigal Son," Kara ribbon, "" In prison. "
I. Soshenka (1807-1876 biennium) - a friend of Shevchenko, worked as a teacher draw in Kiev Gymnasium. Notable of his works: "Portrait of grandmother", "Sale of hay on the Dnipro.
N. Vasko (1820-1866 biennium) wrote a series of portraits of famous teacher, worked as a teacher drawing, taught at Kiev University.
A. Mokritskiy (1811-1871 biennium) created a series of portraits of famous people - Gogol, E. Combs, A. Koltsov.
Thus, despite the anti-Ukrainian policy of tsarist Ukrainian culture developed, abounding with new achievements.