Facilities Ukrainian lands in the first half of the nineteenth century.

1. Agriculture and agrarian relations in Dnieper Ukraine

In the first half of the nineteenth century. Dnieper Ukraine's economy kept agrarian character. in its agricultural sector employed about 95% at the beginning and 89% of the population in mid-century.

About 75% of all farmland was in private landlords. The main producers of agricultural products were peasants, who by their legal position were divided into two main groups:

Landlords or peasants were serfs in their personal dependence on landlords and were attached to their estates. Squirearchy numerically dominated by peasants on the Right Bank;

State peasants belonged to the treasury and officially called free rural resident. They were personally free and were farm. State peasants prevailed in the South and the Left.

number of farmers in the population Naddnepryanschine the middle nineteenth century.

Right Bank

Left Bank

South

state peasants

22%

35%

25%

landlords villagers

20%

53%

24%

average population

58%

12%

51%

main form of exploitation of rural landlords was vidrobitkova boon or rent. State peasants paid rent money, paying a quarter of its profits as tax state. The Russian government officially restricted in 1797 serfdom three days a week. However, landowners avoided the law by using a system of regular school activities, when serfdom was given one day such a task ("class"), which can be met only by 2-3 days. Landowners also practiced the transfer of peasants to "misyachynu, when farmers received for their continued serfdom monthly maintenance in kind.

and peasants suffered from obezzemelennya. Growing demand for agricultural products caused that wealth holders increased number of landed estates, as their sources of income, and continually reduced the size of rural divisions.

Strengthening exploitation of serfs, serfs in a short period increased their profits. However, the impoverishment of villagers, the decline of their economies, lack of incentives for better work, inability to use the new technique made the inevitable decline of the landlords' estates. In 30-40's of the nineteenth century. After a brief period of prosperity feudal economy were in crisis. In southern Ukraine, where the most widely used free-labor agriculture is developing rapidly.

tovaryzatsiyi increasing the agricultural production led to property stratification of peasants. It rapidly unfolding among the state peasants and the Left Bank of the South. In particular, the province Katerinoslav peasant-owners have concentrated in their hands 18% of all private land. Appeared some wealthy farmers who owned or rented 100 and more acres of land. The imperial government supported state peasants. They were equalized in rights of the burghers on land acquisition, are allowed to organize factories.

separation processes unfolding among landowners and farmers. They were allowed to buy land in the name of his landlord, use of employees, establish enterprises on processing agricultural products. However, their legal status remained unchanged and the landowner could ever take away all their property.

worsening conditions made the serfs in their source of social instability. "It is dangerous and hide this danger is a crime - reported chief of gendarmes Benkendorf O. Nicholas II - The people have no one who was 25 years ago. Generally serfdom is powder magazine under the state. When something out of something and you want to start and start slowly - than wait until people start from the bottom. However, trying to solve the peasant question the imperial government was reluctant discontent landlords, who thought his actions interference in their affairs.

2. The beginning of the Industrial Revolution in Dnieper Ukraine

Industrial Revolution - a process in the development of productive forces of society in which the transition from manufactury to machine production.

In the 30's of the nineteenth century. Dnieper in the Industrial Revolution began. Manufactory of Ukrainian lands in the Russian Empire was feudal enterprise based on the forced labor of serfs. Therefore, the transition to factory industry, which was based on "free labor here caused a gradual destruction of feudal order.

decreased number of manufactories, and factories and plants grew. in 1825, in the Dnieper there were about 650 enterprises of plant industry, and in 1861 there were in 2330. Particularly rapid process of new enterprises was held in the cloth industry. From 1805 till 1859 the number of enterprises in the Dnieper cloth increased from 27 to 160. The main center of the cloth industry was with. Klyptsi in Chernihiv region, where in 1860 there were nine cloth factory. Rapidly developing coal industry. In mid-nineteenth century. Donbas became the second largest (after the Silesian Basin in Poland) in the Russian coal industry center of the empire. New listings also appear in the sugar industry. In mid-nineteenth century. Naddnipryaschyna provided to general over 80% of sugar production. Glory won the first Ukrainian sugar manufacturers to Yahnenko and F. Semyrenko.

first machines for factory enterprises imported from abroad, mainly through the port of Odessa. In 40-50's of the companies producing industrial equipment appeared in Kiev, Yekaterinoslav Romny, near Lugansk and other cities. In 1861 there were in the Dnieper about 20 mechanical plants.

Along with the formation of plant industry shaped new social groups: entrepreneurs and industrial workers are hired. Among the owners of factories and the majority were Russians. Crop industrial workers prevented the existence of serfdom. The sources of his improvised state peasants were ruined by urban artisans and released on servage serfs, who gave some of their earnings as cash servage landowner.

number of industrial workers in Dnieper Ukraine (thousand persons)

1800

1825

1846

1853

1860

10,0

15,0

51,7

61,7

86,7

the workers of most factories and workshops have been extremely difficult. Business Day reached 15 hours, salary was meager and the conditions of life - just awful. Many workers become crippled and die due to lack of safety and care.

3. The state of farms and nature of economic relations at Western

West-land in terms of their economic development is much inferior to other regions of the Habsburg Empire. The basis of the regional economy was agriculture. In Eastern Galicia dominated agriculture. During the first half of the nineteenth century. obezzemelennya increased in the land of peasants. During this time the average size of peasant holdings decreased from 6 to 4 hectares of land holdings and landlords increased from 400 to 600 ha. Field crop cultivation was extensive character, and therefore - low yields. Under such conditions, natural disasters and crop failures caused famine in the countryside in 1805, 1817, 1829, 1844-1847 gg Thus in the same years of grain landowners estates taken out to other provinces of the empire and abroad.

landlordism at Western in the first half of the nineteenth century.

Region

%. landlords who owned the land from all

Eastern Galicia

1996

Northern Bukovina

1969

Transcarpathia

1990

In Transcarpathia the most arable land used for industrial viticulture, horticulture and agriculture. The vast majority of lands owned by Hungarian and German landowners, state and monasteries. Small peasant holdings could not provide their owners food. This made the villagers go to work for other parts of the empire. The farm land in mountain areas important role played by farming and logging. Transcarpathian wool and wood came from there for the Hungarian and Austrian markets. The peasantry suffered from bezzemellya, and about half of it had no land. Most of the farmers constantly starving. Almost every year thousands of peasants died of starvation.

In most parts of Northern Bukovina leading role in the economy played agriculture, and in mountainous areas - farming, logging and hunting. Actual masters in the land were large landowners, who owned two-thirds majority of farmland and villages.

vast majority of peasants were serfs of the Western and was in very serious condition. Boon instead of 2-3 days set by the end of XVIII century. reforms of Maria Theresa and Joseph II, reached 6 days a week. In addition, there were a tribute to nature, duties in favor of the landowner (summer helper days, night watchman, Toloka etc.) and state (roads, bridges, 14-year military service, land tax).

Industry of Western Ukraine has been under prolonged stagnation. Traditional sectors of local industry - leather, salt, textiles, timber, tobacco, of iron - almost not evolved. Industry craft kept manufactury-level. In most villages located manufactories, which were owned by landlords or the state. Worked on them serfs.

In 30-40's of the nineteenth century. under the influence of the industrial revolution, which swept the western province of the Habsburg Empire, began some recovery in the industry of Eastern Galicia. In 1843, the company land, the first two steam machines (at that time in other parts of the empire there were over 200 cars). However, the work camp follower workers used very little.

Demand for industrial products at Western mostly satisfied with its inbound western provinces of the empire. As a result, a cheap local products for factory goods were causing the decline of handicraft enterprises manufactury-Western Ukraine.

Thus, in agriculture Dnieper Ukraine dominant position occupied by feudal relationships, which are increasingly becoming braking factor in its development.

In the 30's of the nineteenth century. Dnieper in Ukraine started the Industrial Revolution. However, the pace of its development upovilnyuvalysya lack free-market labor.

farm lands of the Western developed very slowly. The economy led the country before agriculture, based on a feudal relationship. Serfdom was also the main obstacle to development into the local industry in manufactury factory.