Glossary (textbook)

Terminological dictionary

 

 

Absolutism - form state government in which monarch is unlimited empire. A. characterized by the fact that the state reaches a level of development in which created a large bureaucratic government that exacerbate the punitive organs formed a professional army.

Autonomy -government of a state (population) that are within the limits provided by general state laws.

Administrative division - divide the country into separate parts - administrative-territorial units (provinces, provinces, regions, districts, counties, etc.), in which established and operating authorities and local government.

Assimilation - process loss of previously independent people (the people) or some of its share of the culture, language, traditions, etc. due to the absorption of another, usually many; people (the people).

Industrial Relations -social relations that arise between people in the course of material production.

Geopolitics - political concept that links the policy of the state with a ratio of geographical factors - location of the country, territory size, the presence of natural resources, population density and more.

Nobility -privileged social classes, landowners.

Demographic explosion -rapid population growth in a relatively short period of time.

Diaspora - totality Immigrants from some countries and their descendants who live abroad.

Export - exportation outside the country of goods, securities, capital.

Elite National -active group among ethnographic mass of people, which is the bearer of the national idea, leads to the development of uniting political values on the basis of which forms nation. Е.н. manages the whole nation, stands on her forehead organizational political institutions, creates certain cultural, moral, political and organizational costs, which eventually learns the whole nation.

Ethnos - community people united common origin, culture, language, history, traditions and customs; has its own identity and name.

Ideology - system conceptually designed concepts, ideas, visions of political life that reflect the interests, ideology, ideals, attitudes of individuals, social classes, nations, societies, political parties and other political entities life.

Empire - great state, consisting of metropolitan and subordinate to the central government States and nations that forcibly integrated into a unified system of political, economic, social and cultural relationships.

Import - imported into the country commodities, securities, capital.

Industrialization -process or simply a great machine production in all fields national economy, especially in industry.

Industrial society - society in which completed the process of creating a large, technically developed industry (as a base and a leading economic sector) and appropriate social and political structures.

Intelligentsia - workers intelligentsia, who have expertise in various fields of science and culture (Engineers, doctors, teachers, scientists, etc.). II is formed from representatives different states.

Capital - term for were called in the period of capitalist money that entrepreneurs invested in the development of their production for profit.

Manifesto - grand written appeal to higher authorities of the population; written appeal of public organizations, political parties, to the society or its individual sections and groups statement of his views, programs, proposals and decisions.

Manufactura - form industrial production, characterized by the division of labor between hired employees and the use of manual labor. M. preceded the rise of factories and plants.

Mentality - characteristic Each common way people feel, think and behave.

Modernization -updating, improvement of anything modern image, processing up to modern standards.

Monarchy - form state government in which state power is fully or partially focused in the hands of one person - the head of state, often child rulers monarch. There are unlimited (absolute) and a limited monarchy (Constitutional), in which power is limited by Parliament.

Employees -social group which, having no other means of livelihood, except to Labour is the owner that owns the basic means of production.

National Revival -term that has become widely used in ХIХArt. and personified the processes associated with the awakening of national consciousness stateless nations of Europe. Н.в. passing by several stages identified by scientists as folklore and ethnographic (the period of scientific interest), cultural (the formation of national consciousness) and political (Struggle for the independence of the nation). The content and form Н.в. was actually sense formation of nation.

National Liberation Movement - struggle of peoples for national independence, economic independence, spiritual liberation and social progress.

National - group of people who have common institutions and customs, a sense of social cohesion and common interest. Most characteristic features of NS are generally considered the only common language or similar dialects, a common religion, traditions and history, a common understanding truth and wrong and more or less compact geographic location.

Opposition - opposition Some views of others.

Party - political organization that expresses and protects the interests of a particular social stratum, Group and manages its political activities.

Industrial Revolution -process in the development of the productive forces of society in which there manufactury to move from machine production.

Protectionism -economic policies aimed at protecting the national economy and promote their own industry and trade.

Realism - one basic properties of art and literature? which is in the quest for true reflection of objective reality and play in the forms? she match. In a narrow sense - trend in the arts? that resisted Modernism and the vanguard.

Revolution (social) -radical upheaval in society, the mode of production, science.

Reform - gradual transformation, improving anything.

Market - economic category, which reflects the natural regulation of relations on the basis of available price and income scale in the world economy (World foreign market) country (national, local market), regional (local market) relations emerging between producers and consumers about sale, the organic link between production and consumption.

Autocracy -monarchic state in Moscow and the Russian Empire in XVI- Early XXArt., relations based on nationality alone and unlimited power.

Easement - installed law or customary law the opportunity to use (partly or jointly) another's property. On the right of servitude in the Ukrainian lands with farmers landlords used the forests, pastures, meadows and so on.

Socio-political movement -original form of expression of the political activity of human masses, joint activities, association of people who differ with their ideological principles, objectives and methods achievement, strength, role in political life, degree of responsibility social development needs of others.

Commodity production -form of production, where products are manufactured for sale.

Tradition - customs orders, rules that have developed historically and is transmitted from generation to generation.

Factory - Industrial enterprise based on the use of machines, form a large machine production.

Federation - form state system; Union states, consisting of state entities that have limited sovereignty.

Censorship - system state control over the press and other media.

Civilization - communion people who over time (the origin, development, destruction or transformation) is separate territory resistant special lines in the socio-political organization, economy and culture, common spiritual values and ideals and mentality.

Chauvinism - extreme form nationalism, national exclusivity sermon, contrasting interests one nation interests of all other nations.