Slightly more than one hundred years were covered on the pages of the manual were important in the history of Ukraine. It was an era of great change in the life of the Ukrainian and ihnomuworldview. Despite the fact that in this period were completely devoid of Ukrainian and national independence, were divided between two empires, they were able to find the strength to realize their identity and lead the struggle for national liberation. Another important change in life ukrayinkyhland was their rapid industrial development (especially eastern and southern areas), especially in the second half XIXArt., dragging them to the world economy.
National revival, which covered different regions of Ukraine in the end XVIII- in XIXArt., with its regional peculiarities in 60 years XIXArt. merged into a single national movement, which distinguished two streams: the western lands the Austro-Hungarian and bank Ukraine, which was by the Russian Empire. Developing in difficult circumstances and persecution prohibitions (particularly in the Russian Empire), acquiring different organizational forms end XIXArt. Ukrainian movement stood before problem of making clear its political program. This process led to the appearance of politicization trohmajor political currents: the socialist, liberal or national-democratic and nationalist. Defending National Interests Ukrainian people, each of the main trends and put forward one of the primary provisions: social liberation, gaining democratic freedoms or restored Ukrainian state.
Tragedy of the Ukrainian movement was that the various currents and could not come to the unity of action in the fight for Ukrainian state. Moreover, only in Galicia, which became the "Ukrainian Piedmont "Ukrainian political parties, regardless of political affiliation declared that their struggle is the independence of Ukraine.
So at the end XIX c. .. Ukrainian movement, though a significant factor political life has not reached the two empires of that consolidation, which could lead to independence. Therefore, Ukrainian leaders before the war begin to put great hope on external forces.