Development Ukrainian culture in the second half of the nineteenth century.
Remember: 1. What are the main trends culture of the first half of the nineteenth century.? 2. What is the relationship in the development of the Ukrainian movement and Ukrainian culture?
In the second half of the nineteenth century. As and the first development of Ukrainian culture held in colonization political regimes that prevailed in Ukraine. The most popular are plagued education. Elementary and secondary schools was not enough. Until the abolition of serfdom in Russian Empire (1861) Education in Ukraine, especially primary, downfall. Nobles thought that farmers do not need education. Imperial Government almost usunuvsya completely from the material maintenance of primary schools.
In education, changes were felt already on the brink of 60's Young intellectuals, students, grouped in community actively cared creating Sunday schools. In 1862 in Ukraine were more than 110. Teaching in many of them has been prepared Ukrainian language, was published primers and textbooks, including "Primer" Shevchenko. But of the same in 1862 tsarist government decided to close Sunday schools, and Many organizers and teachers of these schools were arrested.
The situation started to improve after the reforms. In the 70's XIX century. zemstvo contributed to opening new schools, care of the content and teaching methods. They increased appropriation for maintenance and construction of schools. Since 1871 by 1895 appropriations have increased in 6 times. Vprovadzhuvalosya study history, geography, mathematics.
On the Right Bank Ukraine, where zemstva there was no system of primary education was subordinated to the Russian Orthodox Church. Ordinance 1881 stated "that the influence of the clergy must apply to all kinds of elementary schools. A 1884 Could Regulations of church school.
The policy reforms carried out tsarism simultaneously with the policy of repression of Ukrainian culture. The Government allowed to study in Ukrainian. Valuev Circular and Ems decree clearly defined the main direction of educational policy in the Russian Tsars Ukraine: prevent the Ukrainian language at school. However, due to the spread primary education, literacy rates in the Ukrainian villages late Nineteenth century. was about 20%, and in cities - 50%.
Some changes in the field of education not omitted and Western Ukraine. In 1869 Government of the Austro-Hungarian Empire declared general compulsory school education at Western. But because material privations many Ukrainian children were unable to attend school. In addition, the vast majority of training was conducted: Eastern Galicia - Polish, North Bukovina - German, Romanian, in Transcarpathia - Hungarian. It resulted that the level of literacy among Ukrainian population barely reached 40%, and in mountainous areas - 10%.
Much more attention to the governments of Empires paid to secondary education, because it was considered the foundation of higher education, which prepared specialists of public administration, national economy, culture and Science.
In the secondary education system Russian Empire there were several types of schools: the classical school, real, Cadet and religious schools, seminaries. In some (classical schools) preference study of Greek, Latin and logic, and their graduates were qualified to to enter universities in other (real) - modern European languages, mathematics, natural sciences. In 1859 was opened in Kyiv first women's gymnasium.
In 1876 school there in all provinces, and some county towns. In the 90's in Ukraine was about 150 male and female gymnasiums.
For the separation of real and classical secondary education in 1871 was a reform of secondary education. Real gymnasium turned into a real school. They were clearly expressed by professional specialization, preparing students for practice. Training in High School lasted 6 years. Seventh, additional class gave right to enter into technical universities. In 1876 were 19 real schools. Their number did not change until the end of the century.
In Western Ukraine basic secondary school was also a gymnasium, mainly from Polish language. In 1899 Ukrainian school operated only in Lvov, Przemysl, and in Coloma, Ternopil and Chernivtsi - some high-school classes.
Special secondary education development of industry has gained distribution. Industry, which developed, required a large number of specialists from various areas of management. In 1888, approved the "Fundamentals of Industrial College, according to which created a system of industrial and technical education. College provide qualified personnel railway transport, mining, steel, sugar industry. They were preparing for professionals agriculture, trade, fleet.
In the vast Russian Empire Most secondary schools, especially specialist was assigned to several government agencies: the Ministry of National Education - Teacher Seminary, interior - Veterinary College, the Army Department - Cadet Corps, military schools and school founded by the special synod theological institutions. Many secondary schools maintained zemstvo (vocational schools) or individuals. Among the most famous was the last board Paul Halahan Founded in 1871 in Kiev. She worked in a special program and give broad general knowledge of Ukrainian and humanities.
Pavel Galagan College (Second Male High School)
Universities in Ukrainian lands are Kyiv, Kharkiv, Odessa, Lviv, Chernivtsi University.
In the Russian Empire after relative liberalization in the 60's and 70's, when universities used right internal autonomy, began during restriction of their rights. After assassination of Tsar Alexander II of populists in 1884 adopted a new university charter, under which likvidovuvalys autonomy of universities, election of rectors, deans, professors skasovuvalas. All faculty subject to verification blahonadiynist.
Establishment of industrial society, development of industry resulted in the emergence of higher technical education institutions: Polytechnic Institute in Lvov and Kiev, two senior veterinary schools in Kharkiv and Lviv; other universities - Technology in Kharkov, Odessa agricultural, mining in Yekaterynoslav. And yet, as before, higher education institutions remained institutions for a narrow range of youths.
National Technical University "Kyiv Polytechnic Institute
State University "Lviv Polytechnic"
So, in the second half Nineteenth century. in education in the Ukrainian lands were many positive developments, due to time needed for educated specialists. It was a step in development of universal primary education. However, the Russian imperial government Empire and the Austro-Hungarian monarchy were not interested in solving Ukrainian culture, fearing the growth of national consciousness of the masses.
Literacy of the population of the Ukrainian lands in the second half of the nineteenth century.
On the territory of Ukraine was not any higher education institution with the Ukrainian language teaching.
At a time when most people Ukrainian lands was not able to read, but success in development of education were negligible, progress in science impressed the imagination.
In the second half of the nineteenth century. in Europe experienced flourishing natural and physical sciences: chemistry, physics, geology, botany, biology and mathematics. Research centers were university laboratory. Universities in the Ukrainian lands have become important research centers like the Russian Empire and Europe.
The development of science are shaped factors:
· development industry reforms after the 60-70's that required a skilled specialists and new technologies;
· pan progress in science and technology;
· distribution and continued dominance of positivist philosophy, which promoted a search for reliable and precise measurements of physical and social phenomena;
· absence ideological context in studies, and therefore - the conflict with the authorities, although not always.
During the second half Nineteenth century. there was a series of prominent scholars world-class, which, Unfortunately, attributed to the Russians, Poles and other peoples in the lands through which different circumstances they had to work. In fact, they were sons of Ukrainian a nation which is not avoided.
World fame healed: scientist-ethnographer M.Mikluha Maklai, whose research Oceania, Southeast Asia, Australia did not lose their value and still, O. Voloschak who made significant contribution to the development of botanical geography, flora investigated Carpathians; M. Conditions - founder of the Kiev school of theoretical physics; Beketov scientist - a chemist who worked at Kharkov University, the first the world began teaching physical chemistry; mathematician A. Lyupanov; embryology A. Kovalevsky, Mechnikov and M. Gamal, who were founders of the first Russian Empire and the second biological station in the world, and launched Successful treatment of such terrible diseases as plague, cholera, typhoid, tuberculosis; M. Pylchykov, who made important contributions to the development of electrical engineering, started new discipline - nuclear physics, and many others.
One of the greatest Ukrainian scientists of that period was John Puliui (1845-1918), which showed their talents in elektromehanitsi, and also served and Ukrainian movement. Not without cost Pul'uj and translation of the Bible Ukrainian.
John was born on Puliui Ternopil region. After school he studied at the Theological Faculty University of Vienna, but after finishing it, not accept the dignity and entered the Faculty. Still, it took over physics. He moved to Strasbourg, where he studied electrical engineering. In 1877 received academic Ph.D. in physics specialty. Next year the World Exhibition in Paris Pul'uj awarded for inventions physical and electrical devices. He was invited to teaching. In 1902 he became the first Dean first in Europe, Faculty of Electrical Engineering. His creative personality was conspicuous in electrical engineering. Yes, he perfected manufacturing technology rozzharyuvalnyh threads for light bulbs, which allowed to create a lamp, which surpassed the technical characteristics of the lamp Edison, the study was the first "cold light", which later was called Ne. For his active participation running at a constant power range current in Austria-Hungary and in Prague - the first in Europe to alternating current. He constructed a tube for the detection of X-rays, where used German scientist X, from which the names of these rays got their name.
In scientific work, he opened broad socio-political activities: he took an active part in the Scientific Society named. Shevchenko, organized cultural propaganda Company "Sich" to spread the truth about Ukraine, founded Youth study group to study and popularization of Ukrainian history and literature.
Not without cost Pul'uj and translation Scripture Ukrainian.
In the second half of XIX century. a marked rise occurred in the humanities, especially history. Widespread recognition enjoyed works of Kostomarov, who dedicated a number of extensive research the history of Ukraine period ruins and Hetman. Laborious work on research of historical documents held Mr. Antonovich, who is then studied history of Ukrainian Cossacks and haidamak movement. In the 80's 90's started active research activity of the young generation of historians - AY Efimenko, Bahalii DI, DI Yavornitskogo, MSGrushevsky. Thanks to their research has produced a general scheme of Ukrainian history from ancient times. In the field of research of the Ukrainian language, literature, folklore fruitfully worked Zhytetsky PG. Low important works of linguistics O. Potebnya created.
Hrushevsky the beginning their creative work on writing a multivolume "History of Russia-Ukraine"
"Write a solid history Ukraine early, even in times of Kiev, has become my intimate clue to some measure to honor her and her generation, as much as the most outstanding representant of Ukrainian Historiography of the older generation was still considered CE thing for which you have not chant, lack of material, large gaps zistayutsya etc. In his idea I had while writing short stories and zahalnoprystupnoyi in three small little volume, which would be covered old Lithuanian-Polish and the new period. Having occupied the chair, I have seven semesters with a number of (1894-1897 biennium) read the general course of history of Ukraine. Then repeated the second time again with R. 1898-1901, is this course was to serve like a skeleton of that Planned history. I say: the skeleton primarily because the course is this only slidyv central thread of political history, without going into the history of culture, reviews structure, economic life, etc., then took the stand this place final implementation plan.
? During 1897 and 1898 was written the first volume and at the end of 1898 was printed with?
? In Galicia is this the beginning of history was adopted with great zainteresuvannyam can say with enthusiasm. But prozbu of approval for Russia's response was an absolute prohibition.
Judge: 1. For what purpose was conceived History Ukraine-Russia "? 2. Why had work differently perceived in Galicia and Russia?
New phenomenon was the emergence public research organizations. In research universities created Company: philological, mathematical, physical, medical, psychiatric, obstetrical and gynecological, researchers of nature, historical. In addition, Dnieper Ukraine encountered various cultural and educational associations.
If the bank Ukraine science developed as part of an all, we in the West lands were laid the foundations of national Ukrainian science. Its center was Shevchenko Scientific Society (Shevchenko Scientific Society) - scientific and cultural public organization founded in 1892 Progressive Ukrainian public expense Lviv and other cities in Western Ukraine. The predecessor was NTSh Literature by Shevchenko Scientific Society, founded in December 1873 Society was formed as the prototype of the Academy of Sciences - with historical and philosophical, philological, mathematical and natural-drug section and subsection, from the edition of "Records, books, magazines. Active members of the community and elected honorary members. Along with research activities conducted NTSh cultural and educational work population. NTSh united experts in different fields of knowledge, writers, cultural and public figures from Western and Dnieper Ukraine, other States. Active members and leaders were NTSh O. Barvinsky, Hrushevsky, Franko, V. Hnatiuk, S. Tomashivskogo et al.
The main merit of the company was that in the absence of Ukrainian statehood, it served Ukrainian Academy of Sciences. Creative works NTSh (LNTSH) since 1873 on 1939 amounted to 1172 volumes of various publications, including 943 volumes of serial scientific publications. In addition, the Shevchenko Scientific Society was the main publisher of Ukrainian textbooks. Thanks NTSh were published in the first eight volumes of the monumental work Hrushevsky "History of Ukraine-Rus".
Major achievements were the sphere of social sciences: history (Labour Hrushevsky Dzhydzhora I., I. Krypyakevych, I. Krevetskoho, M. Korduby S. Tomashivskogo), philology and literature (Labour M. Wozniak, M.Derkach-Futrak, O. Ogonovsky, K. Studyns'kogo, Franko) Ethnography, Folklore and Art (Publications V. Hnatiuk, Zubryc'ka M., F. Kolessa V. Shukhevych), anthropology (F. Wolf, I. Rakovski) bibliography (I. Levitsky, V. Doroshenko) and others.
NTSh had undeniable merits in development of the Ukrainian scientific terminology. Historical Society role was to withdraw Ukrainian Ukrainian science beyond. To most important achievements of members of the Shevchenko Scientific Society in exact and natural sciences should include the discovery of cathode rays of Life Ext (subsequently named X-ray) Horbachevskyi synthesis of uric acid in the works of Zubryc'ka the theory of mathematics, the contribution of S. and W. Rudnitzkiy Kubiiovych in research Geography of Ukraine and others.
In October 1989 at meetings initiative group of scientists has been restored Lviv Shevchenko Scientific Society in Lviv.
1. Describe the development of education in Ukrainian lands within the Russian Empire.
2. What was due to development special education?
3. What is the role of Ukrainian scientists in development of world science?
4. As was becoming Ukrainian national science? What role in this process played NTSh?
5. Make a story about one of Ukrainian scientists.