§ 30. Old Ruthenians, Muscophiles populists and social and political life of Galicia (textbook)

§ 30. Old Ruthenians, Muscophiles and populists in Public Life in Galicia

Remember: 1. What are the main achievements of the Ukrainian movement in the revolution he was 18481849? 2. What are the main features of the Ukrainian movement in bank Ukraine in 60-90's Nineteenth century.

 

1. Old Ruthenians, Muscophiles

In 50-70's Nineteenth century. in Ukrainian movement Galicia sharply intensified starorusynskyy direction branch which was moskofilstvo or Russophilism. Initiated this trend was more 40-ies It ranks appeared almost all of the old Ukrainian intelligentsia, including James Holovatsky. Social base flow were clergy, landlords, bureaucrats, intellectuals. Muscophiles recognized leaders in different times were: in Galicia - Denis Zubritsky, Bogdan Didytskyy, John Naumovich and Michael Kachkovskyy; in Bukovina - Kasian Bohatyrets; in our region - Adolf Dobriansky and others.

Significant role in the formation of ideas starorusynstva played the Greek Catholic clergy during the reaction was in defense of the Middle Ukrainian customs, went against the church and latinization secular culture, in particular against attempts to translate "Ruthenian language" in Latin alphabet, the Gregorian calendar replaced the Julian.

The reasons for this dominance direction were:

·   strengthening Polish position in Galicia, Ukrainian disbelief in the fairness of the Austrian Emperor;

·   disbelief in own forces, in search of a reliable pillar of the social and political life. Such support vbachalasya Russia;

·   dissemination large part of Galician peasants in the 60-80's naive faith in the Russian King, who seemed to drive out the Jews, punish the Poles, will select the ground at masters and would give farmers;

·   conservative nature of Ukrainian society in Galicia;

·   Help Russian troops in Austria in suppressing the Hungarian revolution of 1848-1849 biennium As one of the researchers wrote: "To the army was so much their understandable population of people, just Ukrainian brothers. Galicians seen that strong it was a force before which one of their national enemy (Hungarians) were without a fight weapons. The second national enemy (Poles) tried to rebel in Warsaw 1830, but the terrible power of the Russian ... only zdavyla resistance;

·   dissemination of ideas Pan-Slavism (theory of the special role of wordsJan and need them atunity in a single state);

·   fall authority of the imperial power after defeats in wars in 1859 and 1866;

·   aggravation Austro-Hungarian relations with Russia.

First time political significance starorusynska flow came in 1866 when Austria lost the war against Prussia. Then the rumor went, that sooner or later suffer the fate of Austria Speeches Commonwealth, and Galicia go to Russia. Old Ruthenians clearly expressed position, stating that a separate Ukrainian nation exists, and the Galician Ruthenians represent "a unique velykorusskoho people" who resides in "From the Carpathians to the Urals. They also objected to the independence of the Ukrainian language; it, without any grounds for it, proclaimed one single pronunciation Russian language.

In the wake of growing anti-Polish Confidence Old Ruthenians adopted leadership in community and cultural facilities Lviv - Stauropegial Institute and the House of Rus' and Galicia-matrix, and in the open in 1861 Ruska conversation.

To communicate their ideas Old Ruthenians launched an extensive cultural and educational activities. In villages and cities created reading, libraries, schools, cooperatives, various Society. An important focus of their work was the struggle against drunkenness. Old Ruthenians started publishing a series of popular books for farmers artificially created a language called "yazychiyem. It was a horrible mishmash of Russian, Ukrainian, Polish, and Church Slavonic languages. Gradually, this mixture passed and periodicals was published ethnographic and scientific contributions works by Russian and local writers.

Such pro-Russian position could not not seen in St. Petersburg. The tsarist government in support of Old Ruthenians directed substantial subsidy. For pro-Russian stance starorusynsku flow were call moskvofilskoyu. But starorusynstvo phenomenon was wider and had a solid resistance in Galician society. The main feature was a clear anti-Polish starorusynstva orientation, resistance any penetration of modern Western influences. Having doubts about the capacity independently defend their culture, and the more political existence, they stated: "If we are to go down, you better do it in a Russian sea than in a Polish bog. This position zblyzhuvala them with Russian and tsarism Russian Slavophile conservative circles.

In 1870 Old Ruthenians founded a political organization - Rus Council, which was to extend the affairs of the General Ruthenian Council 1848-1851 biennium concerning the protection of the rights and interests of the population. It created a powerful publishing framework. The bodies were Ruthenian Council magazine Slovo (1861-1887 biennium), the newspaper "Rus­ka Council "(1871-1912 biennium), "Science" (1874-1900 biennium) and others.

Yet, despite such scope and support from outside, from 80's starorusynstvo in Galicia began to decline. However, in Bukovina, especially in the Transcarpathian region, this area was dominated until the mid- Twentieth century.

 

2. Populists

The views that their professed Old Ruthenians not meet all the representatives of the Ukrainian movement, especially youth. Youth opposition first emerged under the influence of the Dnieper Ukraine - his poetry, and contacts with writers, mainly from Kulish, A. Rodin, who, along with I.Nechuy-Levitsky of 1864 started printed in. So at Western in the early 60's Ukrainian movement originated in a new direction - people '.

 

A. Barvinsky. Memories of my life. Ternopil gymnasium

"Shevchenko's first works, we started reading, got us into the hands of "Vechernits, after some reading we "Fundamentals", and since then Shevchenko became our "apostle of truth and science." His martyr's life, longing and regret, that it is not in the world, exploration of Senator Framework Kostomarov Kulish Zhemchuzhnykov and others, Xu rozzharyly spark People's awareness and love for his people, who still like in the ashes, in tlila our hearts with her divorced polumin clear that we all are comprehended, connected in "Community", and warmed to the idea of national measures of Ukraine-Rus', which as loud spokesman stanuv Shevchenko in our eyes. "

 

A. Barvinsky

Judge: What was floated Shevchenko work on the Ukrainian movement in Galicia?

 

In the populist movement can distinguish two stages.

The first (1860 - 1879) - registration ideological movement, active cultural and educational activities of its representatives to the awakening of national consciousness population.

Second (1879 - 1890)-active political engagement, organizational design movement.

Populists preaching ideas national revival, initiated by Ruska three "and figures from Dnieper Ukraine. They came out of that Ukrainian - separate nation, residing in the territory from the Caucasus to the Carpathians. The main objectives of populists were development of Ukrainian language on the basis of national dialects, a unified literary language, raising the cultural level people of Western lands, unite the national intelligence forces. That is why the first phase of its activities are focused on cultural and educational aspect.

At first the differences between Old Ruthenians and populists concerned only language and literature. In other aspects of the supporters of both areas have much in common and looked at the controversy as manifestations of differences between older and younger members of one family.

The activity began narodovtsi attempt at establishing the periodicals and the creation of communities, such as Kiev, seniors and students from the city (the first community established in 1863 D. Tynyachkevych). Communities played a huge role in educating Galician youth in the spirit of national consciousness and gave a significant number of workers Ukrainian national liberation movement.

In 1862-1863 he populists organized around the literary weekly "Vechornytsi" (F. Zarevych, D. Tynyachkevych, V. Shashkevych - Markian son, K. Klimovich, N. Vahnyanyn). Through Weekly lack of funds declined, but vidtvoryvsya called "objective" (1863-1864 biennium), edited by young writer Xenophon Klymkowych. Then edited by Kostya Horbal out magazine "Niva", and Vladimir Shashkevych - "Mermaid".

To young and populists joined older workers - a priest Stephen Kachala, Judge Julian Lavriv, lawyer John Boryskevych, former deputy head of the Supreme Ruthenian Council, writer Cornelius Ustyyanovych Vorobkevich and Sidor.

In an environment where all cultural and educational institutions in Galicia were influenced by Old Ruthenians, populists resorted to creating its own network of cultural and educational institutions. In 1861 they founded the "Rus conversation, and later her theater, which was first professional Ukrainian theater. His first performance he gave in 1864

Breakthrough was the creation 1868 society "Enlightenment", which had by statute: "spomahaty folk Gap areas of moral, material and political. In the proclamation of establishment of "Enlightenment" stated that it his business to "zalozhyty future of our peoples. "

Milestone in the activities of the populists was the establishment in 1873 Lviv by Shevchenko Society, which subsequently, without their own state, effectively played the role of the Academy of Sciences of Ukraine.

Ukrainian word prohibition in Dnieper Ukraine and the persecution of the tsarist regime against Ukrainians added liveliness populist movement. Ukrainian leaders have tried from Dnieper turn in Galicia "Ukrainian Piedmont, providing both financial and intellectual assistance to the national movement in Galicia.

From 1879, after defeat Old Ruthenians in elections to the Galician Diet, populists have acted as political force.

The first political act populists was the publication of that same year, the newspaper for peasants "Fatherland", edited by Julian Romanchuk, which proves their desire to lure a wide audience of people Galicia.

In December 1879 the counsel meeting with 36 people under the leadership decided to launch Romanchuk Ukrainian daily newspaper "Delo" that, in contrast starorusynskomu "Word" "Deeds, not words make for better people." The editor was V. Barvinsky. The first issue was released in January 1880

In the same year to discuss situation and needs of Ukrainian society V. Barvinsky called in Ukraine first Ukrainian mass meeting (assembly), which converges to some 2 million people.

Growth in popularity populists contributed Muscophiles trial. Found themselves on the dock Adolf Dobriansky and his daughter Olga Grabar., I. Naumovich, VI and other Ploschanskyy Muscophiles. Although the accused was acquitted, the investigation revealed unsightly aspects in the Muscophiles, particularly their relations with the Russian tsarism.

In 1882 was loud process Olga Grabar, daughter of Adolf Dobriansky, leader of Transcarpathian Old Ruthenian directly. She was accused of anti-state activities, as it retained links with antyavstriysky minded Russian politicians forces. Found themselves on the dock Adolf Dobriansky, I. Naumovich, V. Ploschanskyy and other Muscophiles. Olga Grabar court justified because of its ties were exclusively cultural. Later she went to Russia together with his father (her son - the famous painter, academician Igor Grabar).

This trial had other consequences. In 1882 Old Ruthenians between populists and the transaction was concluded in which is determined by an agreed framework for the future. Since then, for doing cases, "common to all Rusyns" had formed committees with equal number of representatives both flows. Over time, the arrangements became more umovnishymy because further qualitative development of parties was not the same. Narodovstvo actively developed, while starorusynstvo, played its historical role in deterrence process polonized, exhausted himself and become an anachronism.

Political activity populists led to their establishment in 1885 his political organization - People's Council, which was led by J. Romanchuk. Her first general meeting held February 2, 1888

Conquest leading populists position in the Ukrainian movement forced them to pave the path to the Ukrainian peasantry - the main source of strength of the Ukrainian movement, these trails could not avoid rural Greek Catholic priests. Compromise of the clergy and agreement stipulated the entry of the Old Ruthenians narodovstvom conservative figure.

Socio-political movements in Ukrainian movement - and starorusynstvo narodovstvo - phenomena were purely Ukrainian origin, arising as a reaction to the Ukrainian society challenges. Still, even the most active activities populists and Old Ruthenians could not provide the exaltation of the Ukrainian society to the level of other European nations.

 

3. Development of national life. "Enlightenment"

Leaders of the Ukrainian movement in Galicia realized that no serious public support any political struggle will not be successful. To this end, during the second half of the nineteenth century. rozbudovuvalosya national life through a network of socio-political, economic, cultural and educational institutions, companies that might provide cultural and economic needs of the Ukrainian population, while inhibiting Polish influence on him. Central to this process was the company "Enlightenment".

In 60-ies Nineteenth century. Slavic peoples of the Austrian Empire created a cultural and educational associations to raise the educational level of the population. Nazrivala need for establishing Ukrainian educational institutions, and was initiated by Stephen Kachala. His support young populists.

The defeat of Austria in the war against Prussia made the Austrian government postuplyvishym, September 2, 1868 ministry Education adopted a charter and establish the company allowed "Enlightenment". December 8 Moreover, in Lviv was convened in the first general gathering society "Enlightenment" which was attended by 65 people. The first head of the company was Anatole Vahnyanyn - musician, conductor, writer, professor of academic high school.

 

A. Vahnyanyn

 

Under the first charter "Enlightenment" was a scientific and educational organization, the nature of the reminiscent of the community in Dnieper Ukraine, but unlike them acted legally and had a clear structure. In the early years the number of members Society did not exceed several hundred. "Enlightenment" preferred research in the field of ethnography, history, geography and others. Besides right in the statute was not intended to attract the masses to educational activities. But this line of work the company did not meet demands. There was a need for organization is in place the people's clearance and attracted the masses to the national liberation movement. So in May 1870 second statute was passed, which is said to educational activity. (Scientific research pereynyalosya Shevchenko Society, founded 1873) Regional Offices of Enlightenment "is constantly attracted to organizing new members.

The main focus of "Enlightenment" was typography. At the first general meeting decided publish books in Ukrainian without Polish, Russian and Church Slavonic words in simple and accessible style. The very first was issued "for the reader rural people "called" Dawn ", concluded O. Partytsky. The book was successful, it quickly sold out. The next edition of "What we lose, and that aid can?" S. Kachali, "Catechism for Children" K. Seletsky, "People's Calendar" and other contributed to the popularity of partnerships and the deployment of its activities. Through request of Vice Marshal Galician Sejm Yu Lavriv "Enlightenment" was provided state grants.

The deployment of the company needed to improve organizational structure, diversification of forms work. With this purpose in 1876 and 1891 adopted new regulations, which eventually turned the "Enlightenment" with a small group of enthusiasts Ukrainian case for a powerful organization that, without exaggeration, created the national life edge. In addition to publishing popular books for the people, developed and issued Ukrainian textbooks for primary and secondary schools, create reading, handicraft company. In addition, "Enlightenment" actively joined the cooperative movement in the province. At the end of the nineteenth century. no such link cultural and economic life of the region, which would rozmynulosya Company. In 1897 Society operated 18 branches, 522 reading, 146 shops, 124 borrowed cash and 60 barns. It was laid strong foundations build independent business and economic and cultural institutions that would improve socio-economic­но­Charts situation of the region. In addition, an important achievement "Enlightenment" was that the end of the century the number of illiterates has fallen by 16%.

 

4. The cooperative movement

One of the areas of building national life was the deployment of cooperative movement, which had to pull out Ukrainian farmers from dependence on the Polish lords and  lyhvaliv. Promote social and economic development of the Ukrainian village.

The cooperative movement in Galicia, which originated in the 60 years of development came in the 80-90's. Pioneer union movement in Western Ukraine was Vasily MOUNT (1847-1921). For a long time studying the cooperative movement in Switzerland, he deployed actively to establish a network of cooperative unions in the province. At first it was krydytni unions that had saved the peasants from predatory percent of moneylenders and innkeeper (150-250%).

In 1883 W. MOUNT founded consumer cooperative "People trade, which created a network of stores by villages and cities, where reasonable prices can buy necessary things for peasant economy bypassing intermediaries. Thus saving money peasants.

In 1892, founded the insurance Company Dniester "that provided the stability of the cooperative movement.

Kryviy krydytuvannya and Insurance farmers cooperatives distributed among farmers modern methods of management (Society of farmers "(1899)), supported education, promoted distribution of socio-political, educational and other literature.

 

Questions and Tasks

1. What were the main reasons Ukraine-Polish Confrontation in Galicia?

2. Determine causes starorusynstva the Ukrainian movement in Western Ukraine and its dominance 60-80's

3. Fill in the table: "Ukrainian movement in Western Ukraine in the second half of the nineteenth century. "

 

 

Starorusynskyy, moskvofilskyy

Populist

Organizational forms

 

 

Leaders

 

 

Purpose

 

 

Maintained

 

 

 

4. What progress in building Galicia national life can you name?

5. What is the role the company "Education" in development of national life?

6. What is the relationship between the cooperative and national liberation movements?