Subject VІ

West-Ukrainian lands within the Austrian (Austro-Hungarian) empire in the second half of the nineteenth century.

 

§ 28. Socio-economic development of Western lands in the second half of the nineteenth century.

Remember: 1. What was the situation in Ukrainian Habsburg rule? 2. How affected development of western land reforms of Maria Theresa and Joseph II? 3. What was characteristic of socio-economic relations at Western during the first half of the nineteenth century.?

 

1. Population and living conditions on Western Ukraine in the second half of the nineteenth century.

During the second half of the century Western Ukraine population increased. According Austrian and Hungarian state censuses of 1857 and 1900, the Western Ukraine was just under 2600 and 3814 thousand thousand Ukrainian. As for this segment the total population has increased significantly, Ukrainian share in its stock dropped. The growing population increasingly aggravated local socio-economic problems. In Galicia population density in rural areas during this period increased from 32 to 102 persons per 1 sq. km. km.

 

Demographic state of Western Ukraine in the late nineteenth century.

 

During the second half Nineteenth century. socio-economic characteristics of the western lands was not undergone significant changes. They remained an agrarian society, since 95% trudylosya population on earth, and about 1% worked in industrial enterprises. Western intellectuals, including the local clergy, was numerically small. Thus, in eastern Galicia, it was about 0,5% of the total Ukrainian population. At the same time the Poles, for example, accounted for 22% of the inhabitants of eastern Galicia, and their intelligence was over 3% total population.

Note. At Trans 85% population at that time worked in agriculture, 10% in industry and transport.

 

Living conditions in the West lands have been extremely serious for the indigenous population. The living standards of Western Ukrainian was only one tenth of the general standard of living the rest of the population on these lands. Mortality reached 40-48 people per 1 thousand and 28 among the Ukrainian people 1 thousand among Poles. Number of products consumed by one person in Galicia, was only half of what he ate citizen Western European countries. According to historians, every year from hunger, malnutrition and disease in Galicia itself only 50 thousand people died. More than half of children not survive to 5 years, sometimes dying from diseases due to elementary lack of medical care. In western and central provinces of the empire Habsburg one hospital accounted for 295 residents, and in Galicia - in 1200.

 

2. Features of Economic Development Galicia, Bukovina and Transcarpathia

Revolutionary events 1848-1849 biennium were an important stage in the development of European countries. Despite that the revolution ended in defeat, they made it possible to speed up the process further development of industrial society.

A completely different situation to Western lands. After 1848 feudal order is not impede economic growth. However, the western land to last days of the empire remained the most backward in the economic plane of the territories of Austria-Hungary with the lowest standard of living.

In the 50's and 60's, thanks policy for the Vienna and western and central provinces of Austria-Hungary rapidly developing industry, and Galicia, Bukovina and Transcarpathia preserved ancient, agrarian nature of the economy. Its development in West lands increasingly defined interests in large-scale industry western provinces.

The imperial government actually did not use any measures for industrial development at Western. Government range of West Ukrainian businessmen refused to give tax relief those used in the western provinces. Access West Ukrainian goods on markets of Austria-Hungary and neighboring countries was actually closed. Simultaneously there were incentives for the export of raw materials and semi-finished here. Even inside edge of West Ukrainian entrepreneurs was very hard to keep competitive against foreign firms. Cheap factory goods are squeezed from the market place products.

In the 70's Western land attracted increasing attention from the Austro-Hungarian entrepreneurs not only as market goods, but also as a source of cheap raw materials. As a result, become rapidly develop the oil and logging industries. In the late nineteenth century. foreign capital has strengthened its position in the economy Western Ukraine. Large firms perebyraly trade, banks, entire industries industry. Foreign businessmen absorbed all the companies whose existence was undesirable to them, make it impossible the creation of those activities are contrary their interests.

Agriculture Western Ukraine has developed very slowly. Huge land tracts were owned by landlords, while most peasants constantly suffered from the shortage of arable land. The natural population growth more aggravated the situation.

Economic situation Western lands in Austria-Hungary still remained close to the Colonial. This land was a market for finished products central regions of the empire and the source of raw materials. At the same time he was reservoir of cheap labor, which came from here to Eastern and overseas labor markets.

 

3. The development of industry

In unfavorable conditions Austro-Hungarian rule of Western industry developed slow pace. The vast majority of industrial workers are not working in large-scale industries and to small enterprises and workshops. By official figures, 1885 in Eastern Galicia in 175 companies manufacturing industry with the number of workers over 20 were only 10 thousand shower. In Transcarpathia, but then there were several such businesses, and all of Bukovina was not.

Branch structure of industry land was one-sided. The bulk of the product gave the field of mining and processing of local raw materials - forest, wood, oil, brown coal, salt. The biggest industry was the oil industry, which began to develop with mid-nineteenth century. Center for the oil industry was Borislav. Control development of this industry immediately set Austrian and German businessmen. The interest in increasing exports of oil Galician encourage them to application of technical improvements. The result was growth Oil production from 20 tons a year in 1874 to 326 thousand tons in 1900 But the Viennese government prevented construction naftoperehinnyh plants in eastern Galicia. Galician oil processed into Austrian and Hungarian plants. Although oil and kerosene production steadily increased, farmers had to buy it for that and lit their homes splinters.

Foreign oil tycoons in predatory plundered natural resources of the land, receiving huge profits. Joint campaign that operated in the province, to pay its shareholders a dividend of rate of 20-27% per annum. Such high profits have never received the shareholders in western parts of the empire.

A large number of high woods (oak, fir and beech) resulted in the second half of 1960 - the beginning 70's rapid development of the lumber industry. In forest areas Carpathians was summed railways and mahogany exported to Germany, Austria, Italy, England, France, Turkey and other countries. Early Twentieth century. taken out of the Carpathians annually 608 million cubic meters. m of the forest.

If the sawmill industry developed rapidly, the pace of furniture manufacturing and other industries timber industry was very slow. Requirements of the Western population in furniture, paper and cardboard satisfied imported products.

In the least developed areas owned light industry and metal processing industry. Local weavers, shoemakers and tailors clothing and footwear provided only the rural population, and commoners wore western clothing fabric textile mills. "Products from fabric and yarn from the shirt until the carpet, - wrote a contemporary Galician Economists - iron and metal products, tools, machinery, fertilizers ... word all that person needs from cradle to grave until, almost all imported, buy, lend to others.

The largest companies in the land were railroad repair shops in Ukraine, and Stanislav Stryi. But do they repair was not possible, and machines were sent to Germany. Formation of plant industry in the land was extremely slow. In the second half of the nineteenth century. in the land were Only five large state-owned tobacco factories (Eastern Galicia - four in Transcarpathia - one), employing four thousand workers. In Eastern Galicia there were also several match factories, steel and building enterprises.

The development industry has been associated with the emergence of new social groups - industrial workers. In the late nineteenth century. their number in the land was about 55 thousand souls. The sources of replenishment of the working class were ruined artisans and peasants.

State of West workers was among the worst in Europe. In pursuit of high profits entrepreneurs are reluctant to spend money to create safe working conditions. Consequently, the constantly increasing number of accidents. In mining Transcarpathia their number was several times higher than in the central provinces of the Empire and other Western European countries.

Appalling living conditions were Borislavskoe oilman. Most lived in their barracks, where an outbreak just on the floor. Some workers spent the night outdoors. Workers employed -camp, spent the winter in dugouts. Business Day Western workers took an average of 12-18 hours.

Salaries industrial workers in the province was a half times lower than in central areas Empire. According to official figures of Austrian institutions, wages of workers in Lviv accounted for 48-58% of wages of their counterparts in Vienna. Often (especially in and Borislav at the timber) published earnings are not money, coupons, which workers could get the products at higher prices only in the store business. Widely fines workers under various pretexts. Sometimes size fee income reached several days. Size paid industrial workers did not provide them a living wage.

Severe working conditions and low living standards among workers were causing the spread of diseases such as tuberculosis, rheumatism, etc.. Medical care because of its high cost was almost inaccessible to them.

 

5. Changes in agriculture

Agricultural reforms implemented in Western Ukraine during the revolution of 1848-1849 biennium, the peasants uvilnyly remnants of serfdom, but their situation remains very serious. During his freeing peasants had for 50 years to pay annual fees. In general reform of 1848 Western peasantry cost over 300 million florins.

In favor of the landowners to resolve and the land question. Although under the reform for the peasants had to be kept those lands, which they enjoyed, they stripped the landlords more fertile grounds. West-land became the land, where agriculture major picture were small sized farms 2.5 hectares and large land possession of 15-20 hectares.

Consequently, the Evolution agriculture took place very slowly. In economic relations peasants and landlords dominated the refining - with borrowed grain as rent earth, wood and more. Only in the late nineteenth century. refining steel yield free "work place. About 80% of farms were put less than 5 hectares (Remember that portion size could provide the minimum needs of the farmer). Consequently, most farms were doomed to poverty, ruin and decay.

One of the main issues for farmer at the time was right to use the servitude. Landowners previously administered excessive price for their use, knowing that ultimately lead farmers anywhere. Hopes of thousands of peasants to find justice in the courts were useless. During the 1848-1881 biennium land in the courts considered 32 thousand cases rights on easements from landowners whose benefit it was decided to 30 thousand

Inability of most farmers to provide for necessary by the work in its own economy forced them naymytuvaty go to big landowners. However, for their work, they received four times less than the agricultural workers in other provinces Habsburg Empire.

New problem in napivzhebratskomu life of the Western peasantry was usury. Forced to borrow money to pay many taxes, farmers quickly found themselves depending on moneylenders, who, resorting to shameless fraud, under the pretext of a debt and interest on it (on average 150-250%) taken away their business. The result was impenetrable plight of the peasants spread drunkenness. Landowners most often pushed them to this, saying that instead of wages for work laborer coupons that they can be realized only in the pub. It is not surprising that in the end Nineteenth century. Eastern Galicia fell one pub for every 230 inhabitants, While primary school - for every 1500.

The main branch of agriculture farms in the province was agriculture. In impoverished rural progress in the ways cultivation of the soil was very low. The level of mechanization agricultural land in western significantly inferior other regions of Austria-Hungary. A large number of cheap labor landless peasants did not profitable import expensive machinery from the western regions of the empire or even from England. Slow progress implementation agronomic science behind land cultivation machinery indication to low yields. During the second half Nineteenth century. yield of crops in the land was half to two times lower than in Western countries.

And yet, though slowly, look western village changed. The vast majority were malozemelni economy, the owners of which could not survive on their holdings. Local underdeveloped industry was unable to absorb surplus agricultural population. Farms middle and wealthy peasants were the foundation from which could form a new social group of Western rural entrepreneurs. Unlike the urban bourgeoisie and the landlords, farmers, entrepreneurs were mainly Ukrainian.

5. Beginning Ukrainian labor migration

Hardships of their earnings or total no, fear not yet broke the peasants to future poverty, impoverishment Most peasants, lack of land, searching for salvation from starvation, the burden national political oppression and injustice were the main reasons labor emigration to western farmers of Europe, North and South America.  It was a direct consequence of government policy Vienna, aimed at life-giving vysmoktuvannya juice from the ends of the national center for the benefit of a developed empire.

 

Resettlement and Ukrainian emigration in the second half of XIX - beginning of century.

 

Mass emigration Western peasantry began in 80's Nineteenth century. And largest sizes reached in the early twentieth century. They proceed in forms permanent resettlement and temporary zarobitkovoyi emigration. Permanent immigration emigration took place mainly in Brazil, Argentina, USA and Canada. On temporary seasonal work in western farmers annually left for neighboring countries - Hungary, Western Austria, Germany, Romania, Russia, France and other countries.

 

One of the first Ukrainian immigrants to America - Baptists Sypchenko I., G. Cousins, I. and J. Little Uncle

 

Most permanent immigrants journeyed across the ocean. To organize the recruitment and transportation of migrants there special company. Their agents distributed leaflets, which depicted pleasant conditions for the relocation and settlement in this new land promised to the peasants get a free land, good wages in the industrial and agricultural production. Agents companies were interested in increasing the number of emigrants, as received for each recruited Money: for adults - $ 5 and $ 2 per child. The conditions transportation across the ocean most of the Western farmers greatly resembled transportation of African slaves in the past. During the second half of the nineteenth century. from Eastern Galicia and Northern Bukovina traveled in search of better lives in the ocean About 250 million people. Transcarpathia during the 1871-1900 biennium left 170 thousand immigrants.

In new Ukrainian immigrants found themselves in difficult and unusual conditions. To adapt to new terms of economic, social and cultural life required a certain time. For overwhelming majority of Ukrainian was hard and long.

 

Ukrainian collier in the U.S.. 1903

 

A group of Ukrainian collier in Canada. 1904

 

Emigrants from Ukraine at work in the field. Canada. 1904

 

The first wave of migrant Western Ukraine continued until the First World War. Overall it was part of a global migration process, especially on activated turn of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Scale it dominated all subsequent waves of Ukrainian emigration. The result was her appearance on the American continent large Ukrainian diaspora.

 

6. Cities and urban population. Lviv

West-town, due to imperial policy of industrialization braking land for a long time retained its traditional look. The urban population grew gradually. Rather developed by other city and Chernovtsy, and cities that were significant rail centers - Stanislav Stry et al. Also a growing population Drohobych and Borislav, where there were the oil companies.

Overall, the percentage of urban Western Ukraine population remained relatively small. In Galicia residents of the cities were 10% of the total population. Ukrainian stock in the City population accounted for only 14-25%. Many among the urban population in East Galicia belonged to Poles and Jews. Still, even small in number Ukrainian urban community played a significant role in the development of Ukrainian national life. Cities centers of Ukrainian cultural and political life in the province were in the second half of the nineteenth century. Chernivtsi, Przemysl, Stanislav, Coloma, Ternopil, Uzhhorod. Nationwide center of the national liberation movement was Lions.

Founded in the thirteenth century. Prince Daniel Chee has been the cultural, administrative and economic center Eastern Galicia and the historical capital of the province. During the second half Nineteenth century. its population grew the most among all Western Bridge - from 70 thousand in 1857 to 160 thousand in 1900 and over 200 thousand Domestic 1910 In the late nineteenth century. He was the fifth largest Habsburg Empire city population (after Vienna, Budapest, Prague and Trieste) and fourth in the Ukrainian lands (after Odessa, Kyiv and Kharkiv).

The development of the city helped build railway network edge. Consequently, the Lions became one of the largest Eastern Europe railway junctions. Construction of the station away from the old historic city center caused the emergence there of new commercial, industrial stations. The town developed slowly from the historic suburb toward station and commercial stations. Rapid population growth in the late nineteenth century. contributed to the development of the city, the emergence of new residential districts. From 1858 main streets lit with gas lamps, and since 1900 began apply electric lighting.

The main type of public transport in the 1888-1907 biennium a horse tram. The first electric tram appeared on the streets of Lviv, 1894 At a high level the city water supply and sanitation. Some municipal water pipes were still in XVI century. In the southern part of the city in 1887 was laid famous Striysky park. With its picturesque alleys and comfortable he has become a favorite place for Lviv.

A kind of chronicle of the city's history were numerous architectural and artistic monuments are preserved since XIII. And then, and now numerous travelers believed and believe Lions one of the nicest mistYevropy.

During the nineteenth century. Lviv retained as the value of Polish cultural and political center. Using their privileged position in eastern Galicia the Poles attempted to increase its influence in the city. So during this time was the scene of Lions constantly struggle between Polish and Ukrainian.

In the economic plane west of the city kept its nature crafts and trade centers. But Ukrainian consisting of local merchants almost was not. Absolute majority in this sector was the Jewish merchants. Through their activities in area has been established economic links between cities and villages. Jewish merchants bought in the villages and agricultural products brought for sale Villagers needed goods. At the same time trade-Jewish merchants carried other commercial transactions: money borrowed and sold goods on credit and more. Through their activities in the Western Ukrainian peasantry vtyahuvalos commodity-money relations.

Jewish merchants were active, of course thing, with a view to profit and sometimes not so with the possibility rozmynalosya cheat too trustful farmer. But this is not causing the appearance national hatred between two peoples. Ukrainian peasants respected and esteemed Jewish merchants for their business, understanding need for their work.

 

Extracts from the court case against debt Transcarpathian peasant Basil Ryashka

Vasil Ryashko borrowed from E. Hirsch of Bukovtsya 5 gold, which had returned to the end of the year with 30% nadvyshkoyu. And not Ryashko could pay on time and to avoid execution, must pay to the end 1876 40 gold and paid only a fraction, 5, 10, 14 evils. Then when I could. I had no money - brought corn. Gersh When clicked on it - led horse, then another 5 cows and 15 sheep. In short, with five borrowed Ryashkovi evils. debt became the 600. The case went to trial. Gersh denied that he had borrowed Ryashkovi only 5 evils. And denied that 600 got angry. Instead, he asserted I do not know how many Ryashko borrowed and how much he got from his back. Through lack of evidence case has been closed.

Judge: How userers used the ignorance of farmers in financial matters in their favor?

 

Excerpt from the secret report Austrian police in Vienna about the Western attitude to the peasantry Jews (1890)

"Except for daily bread, the peasants at each step depends on the Jew. It is for them and the client, and advisor, and intermediary and agent. And if we wanted to be rid of them, the villagers first require their return. Although Jews were fully take advantage of this situation by providing loans with interest, controlling not only farmers but also the clergy, it would be wrong to speak of prevalence of anti-Semitism in the sense of racial hatred. "

Judge: 1. What special relationship between Ukrainian Jews in the land and find the Austrian government? 2. What were the positive and negative aspects Economic relations between the nations in the land?

 

Questions and Tasks

1. Describe the features economic development of Western lands.

2. Compare economic development Dnieper Ukraine and Western Ukraine. Identify the common and different features economic policies of governments of both empires to Ukrainian lands.

3. As industry developed in Western lands?

4. Make a plan for item "Development agriculture and peasants "and prepare a story behind it.

5. What were the causes of labor Ukrainian emigration?

6. As there was emigration Western Ukrainian to the Americas?

7 Make a comparative table features of the social and economic development in post Naddniprianshchyna and Western Ukraine in the second half of the nineteenth century. the scheme:

 

Plan Comparison

Dnepr Ukraine

West-land

 

 

 

 

Issues Comparison define yourself.