Remember: 1. When the reform was carried Zemskov and for what purpose? 2. What role zemstvo played in the state of the Russian Empire?
Important role in General- liberation and Ukrainian cultural and educational movements played figures earthly movement.
Zemstvo who were elected vsestanovymy local authorities, its existence has been opposition to the centralized state system of the Russian Empire with unlimited authority of the king. Despite the fact that most were landowners zemstvo (Approx. 75%), they zahalnoreformatorskyh under conditions prevailing in Empire 60-70's Nineteenth century. Have become carriers of ideas for further Russia's liberalization and the introduction of the constitution. Zemstvo became the basis liberal movement in the Russian Empire.
In Zemsky movement can be singled out such activities:
· struggle expansion of government;
· introduction constitution, democratization of public life;
· improvement of material and educational level of the population.
By its nature, a local movement was a liberal. At the core of a liberal alternative to the social development lay the idea of building an economic society based on free market and competition. The state had become law, protect democratic rights of the individual and the minimum interfere in the economic sphere. The ideal form of government, liberals believed constitutional monarchy. Not recognizing the forms and methods of revolutionary struggle in basis of the activity they put the search for compromise with the ruling circles.
Zemsky movement was all-but the Ukraine put it in front of such national and tasks as organizing primary education in Ukrainian.
Poreformenni first years (end 60 - Top 70's) have been time for the movement of organizational development, awareness of the role and place among the social forces, and crystallization of the main goal task. The main activities were directed at improving socio-economic status of peasants, raising its educational level.
In the second stage of (Late 70's - early 1980‑х years) zemstvo became centers of liberal opposition. Schorl active process zemstva synergies to achieve a Constitutional reforms in the Russian Empire.
After killing the king Alexander II, in terms of policy kontrreform Alexander III zemstva opposition activity began to decline, and with the law of June 12, 1890 restrictions on representation nedvoryanskyh states in zemstvo it almost ceased. However at the beginning Twentieth century. they again become one of the centers of opposition to autocracy.
Ukrainian Zemskov organization belonged to the most influential and most radical of the first two stages earthly movement. A highly active zemstvo deployed in Chernihiv, Kharkiv, Poltava provinces. They are united by various forces. Among county officials distinguished: in Poltava - F. Lyzogub (future Prime Minister of the Ukrainian State Skoropadsky in 1918), philosopher Lesevych V., M. Storozhenko, V. Naumenko, V. Leontovich, B. Martos, M.Tuhan-Baranovsky, in Chernihiv - Rusov A., A. Lindfors, I. Schrage, A. Svyechyn, Earl G. Miloradovich, N. Vasilenko, A. Lazarevskoe; in urban Zemstvo Board in working M. Blackie, M. Samoilenko, M. Cherniavsky, B. Grinchenko, M. Kotsyubynsky.
From inception zemstva part of open, partial to their duties seriously got down to business development of the economy, health care, education, veterinary service, communications, insurance, statistics and more. Already the first steps zemstva found their limited jurisdiction, on the other hand - found horrible picture situation of most of the population. For real cases sometimes had to go beyond their permitted activities. In most cases, not provided law of zemstva regarded as seditious by the government and not allowed. During the 1866-1868 biennium zemstvo were put under strict control governors. There have been banned zemstvo establish connections between themselves and make decisions about government regulations. In this way the royal government tried to prevent the transformation of cells zemstva opposition.
Despite these limitations, some zemstvo influenced by their liberal did not leave of open and productive work tried to develop common measures for tackling the causes of unsatisfactory financial position of the peasantry. For example, vowels Chernihiv Province Zemstvo I. Petrunkevich and Karpinskiyy for 1869-1875 biennium their requests, appeals, complaints raised concerns about chronic hunger and rural Mhlynskoho Surazkoho counties, offered to overestimate their land, reduce redemption money, organize savings and loan office, and Artel relocated to other counties nayzlydennishyh.
At the end of the 70's fell most active phase of earthly movement, it gained political overtones. This contributed to both external factors (activation of the national liberation movements Balkan peoples, the Russian-Turkish war 1877-1878 biennium) and internal (populist and deployment of the Ukrainian national-cultural movements, anti-Ukrainian policy Tsars).
In the period leading figures zemskoye movement sought to unite all forces that stood for constitutional restructuring of the Russian Empire. The desire to consolidate power manifested in county meetings and congresses that took place in the 1878-1879 biennium Initiators of vowels were known Chernihiv province zemstvo Petrunkevich I., A. Lindfors, A. Karpinsky, M. Konstantinovich et al.
In early 1878 Zemstvo common language with Gromadovtsi and decided to convene Congress in Kharkiv, under the pretext anniversary H.Kvitky-Osnovianenko (100 anniversary of birth). Meeting in Kharkov Zemstvo launched a political organization. It was agreed force the union all forces in the struggle to implement the constitution in Russia.
Revitalization of school opposition to the king favored treatment community to assist the Government in against "sedition" and "evil". As compensation for the assistance demanded Zemstvo a representative body, the introduction of the constitution and declaration democratic freedoms.
In December 1878 in Kiev the meeting of representatives of Chernihiv Zemstvo, populists, hromadamen, Polish bodies'organizations. The meeting Zemstvo proposed to unite all forces that are fighting for constitutional changes in Russian Empire, but demanded that the populists renounce terrorism fighting methods. The meeting ended without result.
Unable to achieve unification all opposition forces Zemstvo resorted to consolidate their ranks. In early April 1879 Moscow representatives of the five county assembly (Chernihiv, Kharkiv, Poltava, Tver and Samara provinces) convened a congress, which was organized to draw up a local movement within the Russian Empire. But that does not happened.
Nevertheless, the struggle for Zemstvo constitutional reforms gave the results. February 12, 1880 created supreme managerial committee headed by Interior Minister M.Loris-Melikov, who had to draft future constitutional reforms. This has inspired a local movement. Zemstvo at its meetings and conventions developed and approve various projects of reform and sent them to the Commission or the king. They proposed introduction of a broad government, a representative legislature - the State Duma and more. But all these proposals after killing the king remained unfulfilled. Figures of the Provincial Government of motion were repression. Attempts to organize a wide propaganda of their ideas through the organization journal "Volnoe word" also failed. Zemsky movement as liberal, remained amorphous up to the Revolution of 1905
So, opposition activity zemstva basically was legal and peaceful. They used the following methods and forms: statements of requirements and proposals for various meetings, congresses, meetings, press; overcoming petitions, appeals and requests to higher authorities and to the king.
Position II in Petrunkevich Ukrainian question
"In Ukraine, my homeland, there gone almost half my life? I connected with Ukraine not only cool ideas of law and political unity of Russia, but also feelings that entrenched in blood, in the memories and impressions of nature sounds in popular language, in all that imposes an unforgettable stamp on the person and indicates its national origin. But All these local effects do not obstruct me in all the motherland and the unity of Russia for me not only the state or the idea of coexistence of two nationalities, but alive and indivisible whole that has its wonderful artistic and excellent display such gifted people as Gogol and Korolenko, where Ukrainian and Russian, as an individual and universal, reflected with extreme clarity. Try to separate them from Russian Ukrainian: will not work neither one nor the other, lives will be transformed into a lifeless ".
Judge: 1. What were the main ideological Provincial leaders of the movement positions of Ukrainian lands? 2. What earthly business to general traffic contributed development of Ukrainian?
1. What has caused the emergence Provincial Traffic?
2. What is the main goal pursued provincial movement?
3. What were the connections and influence earthly movement in Ukrainian?
4. Describe the opposition zemstva activity.
5. Could a local movement essentially influence the political situation on the Ukrainian lands?
6. What are the consequences of Provincial Traffic?