Remember: 1. What organizational forms removed the Ukrainian movement in 5060-ies Nineteenth century.? 2. In what conditions rozhortavsya Ukrainian movement in the 60-70-years? 3. What are the consequences for the Ukrainian movement Ems decree had?
After the Ems decree of community movement was not stopped. Despite the fact that among the leaders of the Ukrainian dominated were decadent mood, the Ukrainian movement has reached such a level that no decree stop it already it was impossible.
Figures Kyiv community, stating to dissolve the organization continued its activities underground. Thus number of communities reduced from 100 to 55 people.
In the new environment Kiev Gromadovtsi still cared for Culture, mutual assistance, supporting the "conscious Ukrainian and helping them settle down on service.
Attracting new members was the recommendation of at least two hromadamen, after the announcement of two meetings, the third meeting by secret ballot, and if even one vote was against, then that candidate is not accepted, because in such a brotherhood, which was considered community, could be that someone to "have something against someone."
Such a system of community made its conservative and distinguished from other communities that were founded youth. From this came the name and - old Kyiv community.
Ukrainian pogrom movement after Ems decree made before leaders of the future direction development. Pure underground work was incompatible with national culture activities. As and early 70's faced the problem to find a legal platform for promote their ideas.
Within the Russian Empire, where Ukrainian language was banned, it was impossible. So we decided organize the Ukrainian national center abroad, which was set up Free Ukrainian press release and represent the Ukrainian movement in Europe. Run the task requested Dragomantov community, which by decree Ems uvilnyly from work at Kyiv University.
Mikhail Drahomanov(1841-1895) belonged to the younger generation of old Kyiv community. At the time join hromadamen he was convinced democrat. Go to the Ukrainian movement He joined with fervent desire to help his people. M. Drahomanov felt the need to transcend cultural and educational activities hromadamen and move to the solution of political, social, economic and national problems. So, looks Drahomanov pryvnosyly Ukrainian movement in a new ideology. She did not immediately spread to a circle of intellectuals, but fresh trends charitable act on youth.
M. Drahomanov had far-reaching intentions. He estimated the real situation of Ukraine and compared it with the development European states. In the social movement in Ukraine due to appear Drahomanov new goal - to achieve the level of advanced European countries. He believed that Ukrainian democratic movement should combine social, economic and national principles. Patriotism and democracy, according Dragomanova derived from nature Ukrainian people, for centuries oppressed and deprived of its elite.
For the Ukrainian movement important were Dahomanova views on future politics. He advocated separation of Ukraine from Russia, stood at the Federalist positions. However, when Drahomanov this out of the opportunities to reorganize the Russian Empire. He not seen it centralized state, and the loose confederation of autonomous regions. Such views were based on his position that the Ukrainian society there were no forces that could bring the case of National Liberation Ukraine to end. Not opposing nations argued Drahomanov identity Ukrainian, their ability to solve issues of public life. Fell was deleted Drahomanov "time gone" in which he argued that under Ukrainian Russian rule more lost than gained. He made the accusation those who forgot to deal Ukrainian liberation, spilled their own heritage people abandoning the language and culture. With pain in my heart Drahomanov wrote that educated Ukrainian custom of working for everyone, not only for Ukraine and its people.
Collection of "Community". 1881
The attack on Ukrainian culture 1875-1876 biennium Drahomanov forced to leave home. In Geneva, he and other Ukrainian politemihrantamy magazine published "Community" (18781882 years), who became the first Ukrainian newspaper, where the views were summarized hromadamen and put forward a program of the Ukrainian movement. The program lay these principles as a democracy (the introduction of democratic rights and freedoms and the corresponding institutions that would protect them), federalism, kulturnytstvo, evolutionary (introduction new order through gradual reform), socialism (the introduction of social justice). Also in the program indicated that the trends of the Ukrainian movement coincide with the general direction of universal progress. However, such views Drahomanov for Kyiv community leaders were too radical. After polemics and recriminations in the 1886-1887 biennium resulted in rupture. In 1889 Drahomanov moved to Sofia, where he taught at Sophia University.
Drahomanov had influence on Ukrainian not only in Russia but also in Galicia. His ideas fell like especially young Galicia. Subsequently, there was established the first Ukrainian Socialist Party (Rus-Ukrainian Radical Party). The spread of socialist ideas and the creation of groups in Galicia bank Ukraine and helped friends Drahomanov - Nikolai Sieber and Sergey Podolynsky.
Under the influence of ideas in Drahomanov Dnieper Ukraine faced young community, which mainly hurtuvalasya students. They are attracted to the idea of combining the struggle for national and social liberation.
For the Ukrainian movement of securities were not only the ideas of Michael Drahomanov, but his sacrifice, in sequence defending their own principles. The views were Drahomanov neodyemnoyu part socio-political thought the second half of XIX - early XX century.
Hrushevsky from the article "In memory of Mikhail Petrovich Drahomanov"
"?" What ever became Drahomanov Ukrainian revival, it was thanks to sow public missions abroad that condemned him to the bitter emigrant life - but at the same time, placed him especially useful in, for some opinions, and at the same time extremely responsible political and social conditions. Liberated him from the pressure of the tsarist regime, with local and budenschyny kruzhkivschyny from under censorship ezopovschyny, appointing to position of the responsible representative of all the progressive Ukrainian life in cultural world. Issued on condition that forced him for a number of years exert all his energy and all their intelligence, to remind the broad cultural world in the darkest night of Ukrainian life that Ukraine lives, not dead and not dead, despite all the king's affliction and proskryptsiyi. Sentenced him to accept the attacks, innuendo and harassment, directed against this "Pryskrybovanoyi Ukraine, reflect and respond to evidence and expressions of positive, progressive general signs cost the Ukrainian movement. Over Ukrainian same life, Xu heavy, oppressive, demoralizatsiynu his time made the All-Ukrainian public control otsiyeyi outlandish ekspozytury - Drahomanov and his circle that drew from Ukrainians astray localism and opportunism on the ways of the world wide cultural movement and forced to target prospects for the overall political and social liberation. In the long direction of the Ukrainian movement went on so rivnoznachnyku its three centers: Kiev, Lviv and Geneva. Mission Dragomanova Seg of view - an era in Ukrainian life? "
Judge: 1. What role, according Hrushevsky M. Drahomanov played in the Ukrainian movement? 2. What are the basic ideological principles advocated M. Drahomanov in its activities?
80's Nineteenth century. entered the history of national revival in eastern lands as "Dead years". After the assassination of Tsar Alexander II (1 March 1881) and the reign of Alexander III in the Russian Empire began a long period kontrreform, accompanied by reprisals against any revolutionary, opposition movements. Among the majority of old Kyiv community prevailed opinion that any attempt to politicize the Ukrainian movement may cause a new wave of repression, and consequently - its complete suppression. Kiev Gromadovtsi felt necessary to concentrate exclusively on the field kulturnytstva, lead "respectable living cells Ukrainians in the Russian empire, continue build national identity through the illegal population is not propaganda and use the legal cultural activities. This line contradicted slogans that proclaimed Drahomanov in the journal "Community". It drew debate between Drahomanov and leader of the Kiev community. Common language and not was found. Community in Kyiv 1886 refused further financing Drahomanov activities abroad.
The refusal of any acts political activity did not solve the problem of motion - opportunities to promote their ideas. Under the Ukrainian word prohibition in the publication of exit ubachavsya anthologies, which tended to be periodic authorities. Their contents were mostly artistic and literary, sometimes appearing materials bibliographical character, sometimes - ethnographic. The first almanac under name "Moon" appeared in 1881 In 1883 in Kiev went Almanac "Council", 1885 Odessa - Ukrainian book called Niva. Next year in Kherson published collection of "Step" and so on. But almanacs could not replace periodical. Finally, thanks to the financial community and the Kiev V. assistance Symyrenka lucky to get Russian edition of the journal historical subject "Kievan antiquity.The first issue of the magazine came out in January 1882 Around him were united Best Ukrainian scientific personnel and writers, who by their activities outside apolitical, fail to go out the Ukrainian movement. Under the log (to 1907) came out 97 rooms. Its contents were: labor and materials History and Archeology of Ukraine, ethnography, linguistics, literature; correspondence of prominent people, memories, a bibliography and others. The magazine worked: V. A., P. Zhytetsky, O. Lazarevskoe, M. Kostomarov, D. Bagaley, B. Grinchenko Hrushevsky, M. Drahomanov Yavomytskyi O., A. Crimean Potebnya, T. Rila, A. Rusov, S. Rusova, Franko et al.
Cover the Kievskaya Starina
However, orientation is on aspect of a cultural vacuum created an original action. Youth mostly "was a revolution, gave their political power struggle, not only leaving aside national interests of its people, but with contempt treating those "narrow culturists, who dedicate themselves" small deeds " before the great East-revolutionary sun.
Despite this situation in Ukrainian movement, could not deny the existence of the Ukrainian National Life: Ukrainian science evolved, the music, especially the performing arts, literature. Although young people especially in an all revolutionary vlyvalasya movement, Ukrainian kulturnytstvo also found supporters of the young public.
Another important result of 80's for the Ukrainian movement was that its leaders realized: this movement needs daily hard work to lay foundations that will not let him go away. This they decided to lay the foundations in Galicia, where there were more favorable conditions for development of the Ukrainian movement, but do not leave their work and in Dnieper Ukraine. Galicia was becoming a "UkrainianSki Piedmont. Then it was the only right decision.
90's Nineteenth century. - period of rising youth who orhanizovuvalasya in circles and larger companies with one purpose - to do something useful for our people. Unlike older workers, young branch did not want to content themselves with apolitical activities. This radical youth was called "Young Ukraine". Under this name from 1896 in Kiev there was a secret community of more than a hundred participants practiced the ideas of socialism and national independence of the Ukrainian people. According Police, similar communities was 22, and the most important ones - in Kyiv, Chernihiv Lubnah and Odessa. They were mostly students. Members of the public aware that the common goal of a united front needs to go. Based on this Ukrainian students leaders convened in 1898 First Congress student communities, which was held illegally. The Congress adopted resolution which, inter alia, proclaimed: "We, the Ukrainian Youth Group stremlyachy for political self-government, which pursued the ideals of liberty, equality, fraternity, press for equality before the law? freedom of conscience and equality of all belief, education in the native language of free compulsory guidance Science. In the political field, students seeking a constitutional freedom of political autonomy, freedom of speech, press and assembly. The resolution also put forward the requirements of mandatory students of Ukrainian cultural and political legacy, the spread of education among the people of socio-economic reforms.
A year later the Ukrainian students held a second congress, which established a Central Union. Gravamen Union programs were:
"1. Stop harmful and destructive for Our nation's young people vynarodovlennya students in Ukraine and the Russian return of all-Ukrainian students to serve the interests of the Ukrainian people.
2. Bring to the information as masses and the educated strata of society that is evil, bezvidradnyy socio-economic and general cultural condition of our nation depends on its national political slavery as a direct consequences of Russian absolutism.
The rest of the program was dedicated questions of tactics and strengthen the organization. In particular, one of the points required units members of the student community of serious study and comprehensive knowledge of all kinds spread of information on Ukrainian affairs, namely the Ukrainian literature, history, geography and ethnography. Another item required to educate students in accordance with the principles of public morality.
Programs Students' Congress reflected the enthusiasm and idealism of youth, their commitment to national ideals.
The most radical of student communities were tarasivtsi Brotherhood, which existed 1891-1898 years Brotherhood tarasivtsivsudylosya launch period of politicization of the Ukrainian movement in the Dnieper and the nationalist current in the Ukrainian political movement.
In the late nineteenth century. in Ukrainian movement among young intellectuals appeared nationalist current. First, it existed as an idea took shape later in the political unit, but not withstand competition from other streams of the national movement, again returned to the level of ideas and was represented by individuals.
It originated as a reaction to the crisis culture is movement (Ukrainophyls). It is evident that the root causes was the colonial status of the Ukrainian people in the Russian Empire.
In the early 90's Nineteenth century. Kyiv formed student group, which included MI Mikhnovskyy, SM rustle, AP Kuczynski and others. Circle maintained close connections with leading figures of the Ukrainian movement. From this group came out figures, which soon established a secret Brotherhood tarasivtsi. Even in 1891 during census movable property in Poltava province known Ukrainophile OO Rusov attracted the work of many students. The structure of group II consisted of Lipa, M. Bayzdrenko, M. Bazkevych, V. Borovik. Summer 1891r. they back the idea of loyalty oath Ukraine's liberation at the grave of Taras Shevchenko, founded a secret society, members which was later to call ourselves the Brotherhood tarasivtsi.
The first public performance of the Brotherhood was reading the speech on Shevchenko's anniversary in March 1893 in Kharkov University. That year it was published in Galician Journal of Pravda. The ideas expressed in speech, can hardly be characterized as nationalist (an independence), but on the background and apolitical kulturnytstva the general decline of Ukrainian social and political movement after Ems decree they looked truly national radicalism. In his speech, they stated the following principles:
· Ukrainian people are separate nation;
· as every nation, the Ukrainian national will need to work and progress;
· full autonomy Ukraine (then this slogan no one dare not);
· unity Ukrainian people (this slogan was the embryo of the future concept of collegiality Ukrainian State);
· negative treatment Ukrainophyls (kulturnytstva), but recognition of its benefit to the national movement;
· radicalism and extremism of apostates;
· need Ukrainian schools;
· use Ukrainian language and others.
Ideas find their fraternity supporters, but have not begun spreading through the sharply negative attitude to the other trends of the Ukrainian movement, complete neglect of social and economic issues, and also in view of the personal qualities of leadership tarasivtsi MI Mihnovskiy.
The Fellowship was established tarasivtsi the principles of underground and divided into five countries, which in the middle 90's acted in Kharkov, Odessa, Katerynoslav, Poltava, Chernihiv and some other cities.
Brotherhood members held in Basically, organizational and educational work, aimed at shaping national consciousness.
In 1893 took place in Kyiv organizational gathering, which probably had to give a slimmer organization form. But as the Brotherhood tarasivtsi had no concrete program of action and sometimes simply duplicate old kulturnytstvo in the original extreme forms (Eg, demonstrative wearing traditional dress), it was a decline late 90's virtually disintegrated. This was helped by police and prosecution of members of the organization.
Since program requirements Brotherhood tarasivtsi
"We are aware of Ukrainian, and strongly Good communication with ukrainfil breaks. We are aware of Ukrainian, all oddayemo our forces on the creation of the Ukrainian culture, national and political liberation oppressed Ukrainian people. We use only the Ukrainian language. We work only for the Ukrainian people. We must agitate for our thoughts, translating into practice, by the way, and that everyone should teach for a year vkrayinskomu literacy in at least two members of our organization. "
Judge: 1. Do you think that what was due declaration tarasivtsi break ties with ukrainfil? 2. What is its main goal proclaimed Tarasivtsi? 3. What nekonkretnist requirements tarasivtsi?
Tarasivtsi Brotherhood - the first Ukrainian group that clearly expressed political demands, launching this period of politicization of the Ukrainian movement in Dnieper. Activities fraternities existed before 1898, found a continuation in the student community, and especially in Kharkiv, from which later emerged first in the Dnieper Ukraine Ukrainian political party - the Revolutionary Ukrainian party (RUP). Important fraternity in existence was that it left behind those figures whose names related to subsequent Ukrainian movement, and particularly with the first steps Ukrainian nationalism as a political strategy of the Ukrainian movement. The first among them was undoubtedly Nikolai I. Mikhnovskyy (1873–1924).
Since the 90's took place and a kind of organizational design kulturnytstva (under pressure radical activists, students) aimed at laying basis for future political organization. The first step on this path was creation in 1898 in Kiev, non-partisan organization of All (Tools). Spring 1898 She has united communities in 22 different cities Ukraine. By organization comprised 438 members. She had considerable material opportunities. Annual membership fee was 25 rubles. Considerable financial support Tools received from businessman patron Symyrenka VF, which is already mentioned, also financed the publication of its periodical Kievskaya antiquity.
Management Organization committed Board, which was headed at various times in the composer M. Lysenko, historian VB Antonovich. The Council gathered Thursday at an apartment in one of its members for discuss current affairs. General Meeting of the communities were held once per year. Indispensable presiding at all was a provincial congresses activist, lawyer IL Schrage, who enjoyed great popularity among the Ukrainian intellectuals. While pleased operated publishing group, which included S. Wilkens, FP Matushevskiy, VF Durdukivskyy, OI Lototsky, VM Domanytskyy, VN and VK Strashkevych Prokopovich. It is through this group was formed Ukrainian publishing "Age".
All-no party affiliation organization uniting much of the national intellectual elite, and repressive, directly related to the masses. One of the areas its activity was employment in the national conscious zemstvo intellectuals and distribution and transportation from abroad in the guise of Ukraine banned literature.
The organization unfolding largely under the umbrella of any official government or parastatal institutions, so it avoided specific complications in relations with the police.
So, at first glance, All-no party affiliation organization took care of the same cultural affairs as its predecessors. However kulturnytstvo it was not hurtkivskym shut up in themselves - they get into mass intelligentsia especially rural, closely connected with the people. Furthermore, it was done necessary organizational steps that created the conditions for party organization - the activity spread to Ukraine and isolated communities began to consolidate and coordinate with one center. The only hyboyu this transitional phase to the politicization of the former kulturnytstva hesitation was older members that are not solved at the last step - the nomination Political slogans and party formation. Older members of organizations are burdened families, and post life, were very frightened political demands. But life, ultimately ending this hesitation.
Communities, despite their small number, played an important role in the formation and development of modern Ukrainian movement.
First, they completed association of two regional jets Ukrainian movement in the Russian Empire: Left Bank, which was the beginning of the revival and continued to Slobozhanschine their traditions in Cyril and Methodius Brotherhood, and of the right, rooting in the "Ukrainian school" Polish literature and extended in hlopomaniv activities. The Ukrainian movement of the Left played a leading role descendants of Cossack, on the Right Bank - the descendants of Ukrainian spolschenoyi gentry.
Second, they provide succession of generations in the Ukrainian movement - Cyril-Methodians and younger, that started activities in 50-ies
Thirdly, their Gromadovtsi fruitful research on the history, ethnography, folklore studies, statistics, linguistics have shown that Ukrainians have deep historical roots and clear ethnic characteristics defined ethnic boundaries. This action brought the Ukrainian movement need to formulate and develop a political program.
Fourth, had Gromadovtsi considerable influence on the Ukrainian movement in the Western lands.
Fifth, scientific activities hromadamen laid the foundations of Ukrainian science.
1. Describe the development of community movement in the 80's?
2. What's new with their activity introduced Ukrainian movement in M. Drahomanov?
3. What has caused the emergence of young communities, their specific features? That not satisfied in Ukrainian Ukrainian youth movement?
4. Name the main groups Ukrainian society, which supported the Ukrainian movement. Find out why.
5. What has caused the emergence Ukrainian nationalist currents in motion? What segments of the population supported it and why?
6. Tell us about the origins of the Brotherhood tarasivtsi and its ideological foundations?
7. Discover the historical significance of the Brotherhood tarasivtsi.
8. Describe the politicization of community movement. What is All-organization no party affiliation?
9. Find out the historical significance movement of community development for the Ukrainian national liberation movement.