§ 24. Ukrainian national movement in the 1870-1890 biennium Community

Remember: 1. Identify the previous stages Ukrainian movement and give them a description. 2. Who was the leader of community movement? Give him a testimonial. 3. What are the consequences for the Ukrainian movement Valuev circular had?

 

1. Communities' movement in the early 70's

Late 60's in easing policy was anti-restoration of community movement, but as illegal. Center of community movement revived again Kyiv became where focused considerable intellectual force. Along with former of community leaders appear talented young people - M. Sieber, A. Rusov, Podolynsky S. et al. That added dynamism to the Ukrainian movement. Task each Gromadovtsi was to specific cases in their specialty: the history, linguistics, literature and more.

In Kyiv, communities regained their activity in Chernigov, Poltava, Kharkiv, Elizabethgrad, Odessa. Kiev community coordinate their activities. In 1873 it made with its political program, the main thesis of which was to demand a federal system of Russia granting broad autonomy to Ukraine. In a large proportion of our convictions hromadamen adhered fairly radical views, especially leaders of Odessa community (L. Symenskyy, M. Klimovsk, M. Borowski, A. Kryzhanovsky, I. Lutsenko).

Borders illegal work constrained of community development movement. Its leaders constantly sought to find legal rostrum, which would give space for the general literary, ethnographic, publishing and other activities.

Paul Zhytetsky of outlook Kiev hromadamen

"We well knew that one little freedom - no science, no European education. We knew that nationalism in its pure form leads to the spiritual mood of the person conservative doctrine. In national matters we were not more of that boundary which is determined by the needs of self-defense. It was so disgusting to us is Polish, as and the instincts of nationalism Moscow State Violence

Judge: 1. Describe outlook Kiev hromadamen. 2. As Gromadovtsi attitude to ideas of nationalism? What this attitude was caused by?

 

An important step in this direction became involved in opening 1871 paper and board Gnat Galagan, who taught by members of the Kiev community turned into the best universities in Kyiv. Another step in the dissemination its legal activity was the creation in January 1873 Historical Society Chronicler Nestor. But the most fruitful activities Gromadovtsi deployed through the creation of the South West of the Russian Geographical Society, which became the center of Ukrainian studies, and acquisition of newspaper "Kiev Telegraph" - legal stands for Ukrainian studies activity.

 

2. Southwestern Division of the Russian Geographical Society

Opening of the South West Department of the Russian Geographical Society, contributed to several factors, namely:

1. Military department in escalated the situation required data needed for assembly detailed topographic maps.

2. Agrarian reform and daily needs of its implementation.

3. Significant concentration in Kiev scientific forces. Here were: Commission for the Study of Ancient Documents, and the Commission for description of the provinces of Kiev educational district.

The first attempt to establish a department early 50-ies Nineteenth century. failed - police warning prevailed. But he took his time. In 1869 Russian petitions Geographical Society and his own vice president of PP Semenov (with 1906 - Semenov-Tian shanskoy) PP Chubinskogo was requested lead exposure in South-West Region (land right-bank Ukraine).

Paul Platonovich Chubynsky(1839-1884) was a man, which combined talent of the poet, the organizational ability and exactingness researcher. Despite the high creative highs, his personal fortune turned out to be evil. His twice exiled from Kyiv, as a consequence the hard disease, which brought 45-year old leader of the Ukrainian movement in the pit. The reason for Ukrainophile persecution were his beliefs, and especially verse "It is not Ukraine died, which was destined to become the national anthem.

P. Chubynsky born in Borispol near Kyiv. Studied at Kiev 2 school, then - in law Faculty of St. Petersburg University. He has been active in Sunday schools Petersburg, collaborated in the publication "basis.

Returning after education in Ukraine, Chubynsky became an active member of the Kiev community. His active scientific activity many times marked by awards, while socio-political persecution suffered. While in exile in Arkhangelsk province, where he opened a wide research work. Authority of researcher-ethnographer, he paved the way to native Ukraine.

P. Chubynsky greatly expanded program surveys, joining with her, but ethno-social and demographic characteristics, and even household and cultural characteristics of the population and space - to the borders of the Ukrainian ethnic territory, not just Southwest province.

Undertaken in May 1869 expedition ended in autumn 1870 She has investigated the 54 counties in August provinces and collected rich ethnographic material - a monument of oral folk works, recordings of wedding ceremonies, local dialects, customary law Right-bank Ukraine. There have been studies collected data on population, wages charge, yields, state commerce and industry.

Research work Chubinskogo proved unfounded position of opponents of opening South West Division Russian Geographical Society.

The paper about the opening of contained the following provisions:

Ǥ 2. Division mainly investigates Kiev province educational district in all the aspects that are the subject Occupation Society, and especially the study of statistics and ethnography.

§ 3. ? finds and proves to attention of those already collected, stored in local archives, information about edge, considering them to decide how to use them for science. "

Opening of held on February 13, 1873 Chairman of elected Gregory P. Galagan, a well dignitary from landlords and popular Left Bank Kiev, patron, a man who cheered on the education of national intelligence. The Manager Affairs unanimously elected Mr. Chubinskogo. Body of steel "Notes of south-western department of YRHO. An informal body of was also Gazeta "Kiev Telegraph", which appeared in the 1874-1876 biennium Its editorial Committee members Drahomanov M., M. Sieber, F. Wolf, P. Chubynsky, M. Lysenko, P. Zhytetsky. The newspaper became an ardent advocate and defender of a great and fruitful The study of spiritual and material culture of the Ukrainian people, which Kyiv community leaders launched under the auspices of the Department. Newspaper not missed dedicated to one or another branded anti Russian speech reaction media.

Before working in the department were involved considerable scientific potential. Only full members recruit until 76, including - Mr. Antonovich, MI Drahomanov, VR and MV Lysenko Lysenko, O. Ushinskiy (brother known teacher) and many others. In them, selflessly worked for the Department large cohort of staff and provincial correspondents who performed records of people's everyday life, traditions, beliefs.

In publishing, the department made a series of events. One of the first was a 1874 one day Census Kyiv. The number of residents exceeded 220 thousand was elucidated and national composition of the city: Ukrainian constituted the largest national group.

Another important event of that gained international publicity, was held in August 1874 III Archaeological Congress, which indicated a high level of archaeological research Studies in Ukrainian lands.

Not breaking any laws and circulars, using only the Russian language, scientists have created the humanities Scientific Center of Ukrainian scientific and wide movement involving scientists and local lore enthusiasts, collectors and editors of various materials to major magazines. In Ukraine, an embryo formed National Academy of Sciences.

During the existence of (1873-1876 biennium) was issued seven volumes of "Working South-West EXPEDITION" (in 1200 pages each, not including attachments), two volumes of "scraps South-West Y.R.H.O. Division, also prepared material on the three, volumes of works M. Maximovich; established ethnographic museum, a library, archive.

It took a little time and active Ukrainian studies job alarmed as the tsarist secret police, and those representatives Ukrainians, the Russian public, who faithfully served the king.

 

3. Ems decree

The first alarm sounded immediately in January 1875 Kyiv censor Pozyrevskyy received from the Chief Department for confidential print command: "Given that the main management had received some information about the newspaper "Kiev Telegraph", proposed when you censor the newspaper said treat her with great caution and, incidentally, does not allow it any articles that carry Ukrainian trends.

Colonel Corps of Kiev Novitsky dokladav gendarmes: "?" With the opening of the scattered ukrainfil center received and resistance, by which zhrupuvalysya and have become bolder, so during the year their success has upadaty the eye.

Then followed denunciations, in which Ukrainian movement charged in separatism. Most effort to discredit Ukrainian movement has made Michael Yuzefovych - Poltava landowner, former member of the Kiev community. As a loyal minister of the empire he could not agree with the direction of Ukrainian business community.

Finally, disturbing reports alarmed the king. In his order was established a special commission, which relied task of making the fight against ukrainophiles activity. The Commission concluded that "to allow a separate literature on racy of the Ukrainian dialect would be tantamount to putting the basis for durably belief in the possibility of offices, and even in far buduchyni, Ukraine from Russia.

Commission members provided Ukrainian question so much attention that even bothering the king when he was on holiday in Germany m.Ems. The Commission has prepared for signature king a secret decree, called the Ems act (names of cities). 18 (30) May 1876 came into force.

Ems decree was designed in the spirit Valuev Circular, but it sharply increased the repression against the Ukrainian culture, banning: import Ukrainian-language books, printing and publishing in Russian Ukrainian original works and translations of plays for theater performances, texts to music, except with the preservation of historical monuments spelling original; community. The decree abolished the Southwestern Division of the Russian Geographic Society, has established strict control over literary works Ukrainian, who had published the Russian spelling. Prohibited Activity theater company with purely Ukrainian repertoire, play Ukrainian had to go at the end of play, after Russia, each time demanding performance specific permission. In practice, censorship particularly cared to arriving on the scene Art works are weak, and more or less worthy of attention forbidden. Separate Ems decree item concerned and personally Drahomanov Chubinskogo that were forbidden to live in Ukraine.

At the same time provided material moskvofilskomu help movement in Galicia, which fought hard against the motion Ukrainian.

Separately, officials recommended Ministry of Education especially carefully chosen teachers for schools in southwestern part of the empire. Preference was given to the Russians. Same Ukrainian-teachers who were educated in Kiev, Kharkov, Odessa educational districts had to leave to work outside Ukraine.

Supervision of the Ems carried out the decree of Directorate General of censorship. Without advertising Language prosecution, officials kept that Ukrainian books not reach common people.

Ems decree was a heavy blow and for science and for the Ukrainian movement in general. It was designed to draw attention Remove Ukrainian subjects of serious cultural genres, drive Ukrainian culture stalled provincial backwardness, smash organizational centers Ukrainian movement. Ukrainian people were the only Russian Empire, in which repression suffered a national language.

Wilderness Ems decree was somewhat softened in 1881, when it was allowed to print in Ukrainian dictionaries, though the Russian alphabet. The question of Ukrainian-Performance solved since the local authorities. But in 1884, 1892 and 1895 his supplemented by new restrictions. In 1892 censor recalled inadmissibility of publications Ukrainian translations from Russian. In 1895 special circular was brought to an end printed Ukrainian chytanok children. They are also not to be printed, even if the content was quite innocent. Overall Ems decree remained valid until 1905

Ems decree had serious consequences for the Ukrainian movement, namely:

1. He limited the means by through which one could influence the awakening of national consciousness Ukrainian people.

2. Deterred the development of Ukrainian culture.

3. Has led to disruption of certain times of the Ukrainian movement in Dnieper Ukraine, but not its termination.

 

Questions and Tasks

1. What causes rebirth movement of community in the 70 years?

2. Indicate the main differences movement of community 60 and 70's

3. What is the role played Southwestern Division of the Russian Geographical Society in Development Ukrainian movement?

4. Why Ukrainian movement 60-70's not put forward political demands?

5. Estimate the Ems decree. What were caused by such harsh measures against the Ukrainian movement?

 

 

  

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