§ 24. Ukrainian national movement in the 1870-1890 biennium
Remember: 1. Identify the previous stages
Ukrainian movement and give them a description. 2. Who was the leader of community movement? Give him a testimonial. 3. What are the consequences for the Ukrainian movement
Valuev circular had?
1. Communities' movement in the early
Late 60's in
easing policy was anti-restoration of community
movement, but as illegal. Center of community movement revived again
Kyiv became where focused considerable intellectual force. Along with former
of community leaders appear talented young people - M. Sieber, A. Rusov,
Podolynsky S. et al. That added dynamism to the Ukrainian movement. Task
each Gromadovtsi was to specific cases in their specialty: the history,
linguistics, literature and more.
In Kyiv, communities regained their
activity in Chernigov, Poltava, Kharkiv, Elizabethgrad, Odessa. Kiev
community coordinate their activities. In 1873 it made with its
political program, the main thesis of which was to demand a federal system of Russia
granting broad autonomy to Ukraine. In a large proportion of our convictions
hromadamen adhered fairly radical views, especially leaders of Odessa
community (L. Symenskyy, M. Klimovsk, M. Borowski, A. Kryzhanovsky,
Borders illegal work constrained
of community development movement. Its leaders constantly sought to find legal
rostrum, which would give space for the general literary, ethnographic, publishing
and other activities.
Paul Zhytetsky of
outlook Kiev hromadamen
"We well knew that one
little freedom - no science, no European education. We knew that
nationalism in its pure form leads to the spiritual mood of the person
conservative doctrine. In national matters we were not more of that boundary
which is determined by the needs of self-defense. It was so disgusting to us is Polish, as
and the instincts of nationalism Moscow State Violence
Judge: 1. Describe outlook
Kiev hromadamen. 2. As
Gromadovtsi attitude to ideas of nationalism? What this attitude was caused by?
An important step in this
direction became involved in opening 1871 paper and board Gnat
Galagan, who taught by members of the Kiev community
turned into the best universities in Kyiv. Another step in the dissemination
its legal activity was the creation in January 1873 Historical
Society Chronicler Nestor. But the most fruitful activities Gromadovtsi deployed
through the creation of the South West of the Russian Geographical
Society, which became the center of Ukrainian studies, and acquisition of
newspaper "Kiev Telegraph" - legal stands for Ukrainian studies
2. Southwestern Division of the Russian Geographical
Opening of the South West
Department of the Russian Geographical Society, contributed to several factors, namely:
1. Military department in
escalated the situation required data needed for assembly
detailed topographic maps.
2. Agrarian reform and daily
needs of its implementation.
3. Significant concentration in Kiev
scientific forces. Here were: Commission for the Study of Ancient Documents, and the Commission for
description of the provinces of Kiev educational district.
The first attempt to establish a department
early 50-ies Nineteenth century. failed - police warning
prevailed. But he took his time. In 1869 Russian petitions
Geographical Society and his own vice president of PP Semenov (with
1906 - Semenov-Tian shanskoy) PP Chubinskogo was requested
lead exposure in South-West Region (land right-bank Ukraine).
Paul Platonovich Chubynsky(1839-1884) was a man, which combined talent of the poet, the organizational ability
and exactingness researcher. Despite the high creative highs, his personal fortune
turned out to be evil. His twice exiled from Kyiv, as a consequence the hard
disease, which brought 45-year old leader of the Ukrainian movement in the pit. The reason for
Ukrainophile persecution were his beliefs, and especially verse "It is not
Ukraine died, which was destined to become the national anthem.
P. Chubynsky born in Borispol
near Kyiv. Studied at Kiev 2 school, then - in law
Faculty of St. Petersburg University. He has been active in Sunday schools
Petersburg, collaborated in the publication "basis.
education in Ukraine, Chubynsky became an active member of the Kiev community. His
active scientific activity many times marked by awards, while
socio-political persecution suffered. While in exile in
Arkhangelsk province, where he opened a wide research work.
Authority of researcher-ethnographer, he paved the way to native Ukraine.
P. Chubynsky greatly expanded
program surveys, joining with her, but ethno-social and demographic
characteristics, and even household and cultural characteristics of the population and
space - to the borders of the Ukrainian ethnic territory, not just
Undertaken in May 1869
expedition ended in autumn 1870 She has investigated the 54 counties in August provinces
and collected rich ethnographic material - a monument of oral folk
works, recordings of wedding ceremonies, local dialects, customary law
Right-bank Ukraine. There have been studies collected data on population, wages
charge, yields, state commerce and industry.
Research work Chubinskogo
proved unfounded position of opponents of opening South West Division
Russian Geographical Society.
The paper about the opening of
contained the following provisions:
«§ 2. Division mainly investigates
Kiev province educational district in all the aspects that are the subject
Occupation Society, and especially the study of statistics and ethnography.
§ 3. ? finds and proves to
attention of those already collected, stored in local archives, information about
edge, considering them to decide how to use them for science. "
held on February 13, 1873 Chairman of elected Gregory P.
Galagan, a well dignitary from landlords and popular Left Bank
Kiev, patron, a man who cheered on the education of national intelligence.
The Manager Affairs unanimously elected Mr. Chubinskogo. Body of steel
"Notes of south-western department of YRHO. An informal body of was also
Gazeta "Kiev Telegraph", which appeared in the 1874-1876 biennium Its editorial
Committee members Drahomanov M., M. Sieber, F. Wolf, P. Chubynsky, M. Lysenko,
P. Zhytetsky. The newspaper became an ardent advocate and defender of a great and fruitful
The study of spiritual and material culture of the Ukrainian people, which
Kyiv community leaders launched under the auspices of the Department. Newspaper not missed
dedicated to one or another branded anti Russian speech
Before working in the department were involved
considerable scientific potential. Only full members recruit until 76, including -
Mr. Antonovich, MI Drahomanov, VR and MV Lysenko Lysenko, O. Ushinskiy (brother
known teacher) and many others. In them, selflessly worked for the Department
large cohort of staff and provincial correspondents who performed
records of people's everyday life, traditions, beliefs.
In publishing, the department
made a series of events. One of the first was a 1874 one day
Census Kyiv. The number of residents exceeded 220 thousand was
elucidated and national composition of the city: Ukrainian constituted the largest national
Another important event of that
gained international publicity, was held in August 1874 III
Archaeological Congress, which indicated a high level of archaeological research
Studies in Ukrainian lands.
Not breaking any laws and
circulars, using only the Russian language, scientists have created the humanities
Scientific Center of Ukrainian scientific and wide movement involving scientists and
local lore enthusiasts, collectors and editors of various materials to
major magazines. In Ukraine, an embryo formed National Academy of Sciences.
During the existence of
(1873-1876 biennium) was issued seven volumes of "Working South-West EXPEDITION" (in
1200 pages each, not including attachments), two volumes of "scraps South-West
Y.R.H.O. Division, also prepared material on the three, volumes of works
M. Maximovich; established ethnographic museum, a library, archive.
It took a little time and active
Ukrainian studies job alarmed as the tsarist secret police, and those representatives
Ukrainians, the Russian public, who faithfully served the king.
3. Ems decree
The first alarm sounded immediately in
January 1875 Kyiv censor Pozyrevskyy received from the Chief
Department for confidential print command: "Given that the main
management had received some information about the newspaper "Kiev Telegraph", proposed
when you censor the newspaper said treat her with great caution
and, incidentally, does not allow it any articles that carry Ukrainian trends.
Colonel Corps of Kiev
Novitsky dokladav gendarmes: "?" With the opening of the scattered ukrainfil
center received and resistance, by which zhrupuvalysya and have become bolder, so
during the year their success has upadaty the eye.
Then followed denunciations, in which
Ukrainian movement charged in separatism. Most effort to discredit
Ukrainian movement has made Michael Yuzefovych - Poltava landowner, former
member of the Kiev community. As a loyal minister of the empire he could not
agree with the direction of Ukrainian business community.
Finally, disturbing reports
alarmed the king. In his order was established a special commission, which
relied task of making the fight against ukrainophiles
activity. The Commission concluded that "to allow a separate literature on
racy of the Ukrainian dialect would be tantamount to putting the basis for durably
belief in the possibility of offices, and even in far buduchyni, Ukraine from
Commission members provided
Ukrainian question so much attention that even bothering the king when
he was on holiday in Germany m.Ems. The Commission has prepared for signature
king a secret decree, called the Ems act (names of cities). 18 (30)
May 1876 came into force.
Ems decree was designed in the spirit
Valuev Circular, but it sharply increased the repression against the Ukrainian
culture, banning: import Ukrainian-language books, printing and publishing in
Russian Ukrainian original works and translations of plays for theater
performances, texts to music, except with the preservation of historical monuments spelling
original; community. The decree abolished the Southwestern Division of the Russian
Geographic Society, has established strict control over literary works
Ukrainian, who had published the Russian spelling. Prohibited
Activity theater company with purely Ukrainian repertoire, play Ukrainian
had to go at the end of play, after Russia, each time demanding performance
specific permission. In practice, censorship particularly cared to arriving on the scene
Art works are weak, and more or less worthy of attention forbidden. Separate
Ems decree item concerned and personally Drahomanov Chubinskogo that
were forbidden to live in Ukraine.
At the same time provided material
moskvofilskomu help movement in Galicia, which fought hard against the motion
Separately, officials recommended
Ministry of Education especially carefully chosen teachers for schools in
southwestern part of the empire. Preference was given to the Russians. Same
Ukrainian-teachers who were educated in Kiev, Kharkov, Odessa
educational districts had to leave to work outside Ukraine.
Supervision of the Ems
carried out the decree of Directorate General of censorship. Without advertising
Language prosecution, officials kept that Ukrainian books not reach
Ems decree was a heavy blow and
for science and for the Ukrainian movement in general. It was designed to draw attention
Remove Ukrainian subjects of serious cultural genres, drive Ukrainian
culture stalled provincial backwardness, smash organizational centers
Ukrainian movement. Ukrainian people were the only Russian Empire, in which
repression suffered a national language.
Wilderness Ems decree was somewhat
softened in 1881, when it was allowed to print in Ukrainian
dictionaries, though the Russian alphabet. The question of Ukrainian-Performance
solved since the local authorities. But in 1884, 1892 and 1895 his
supplemented by new restrictions. In 1892 censor recalled
inadmissibility of publications Ukrainian translations from Russian. In
1895 special circular was brought to an end printed Ukrainian
chytanok children. They are also not to be printed, even if the content was quite
innocent. Overall Ems decree remained valid until 1905
Ems decree had serious consequences
for the Ukrainian movement, namely:
1. He limited the means by
through which one could influence the awakening of national consciousness
2. Deterred the development of Ukrainian
3. Has led to disruption of
certain times of the Ukrainian movement in Dnieper Ukraine, but not its
Questions and Tasks
1. What causes rebirth
movement of community in the 70 years?
2. Indicate the main differences
movement of community 60 and 70's
3. What is the role played
Southwestern Division of the Russian Geographical Society in Development
4. Why Ukrainian movement
60-70's not put forward political demands?
5. Estimate the Ems decree.
What were caused by such harsh measures against the Ukrainian movement?
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