Remember: 1. What organizational forms were a Ukrainian movement in the first half of the nineteenth century. and why? 2. Describe the development Ukrainian movement in the first half of the nineteenth century.
The second half of the nineteenth century. as Europe and in Ukraine was characterized by organizational design and elaboration of the ideological basis of the liberation movements that emerged in the first half Nineteenth century.
Each European liberation movement rozv'yazuvav task facing him in three main areas: national general democratic and social. The first direction is important to fight for national freedom, the second - for democratic structure of society, rights and freedoms, in the third - for social justice. Figures and trends, which reduces all problems to obtain national independence, called nationalists. For consistent Democrat (Then they were called liberals) all issues are resolved with addressing the problems of human rights and freedoms. Figures and trends that defended principles of social justice, were called socialists, socialist. The term "socialist" in a time not related to a specific socio-political teachings, which were many (Marxist prudonisty, lassalyantsi, fabiantsi et al.) and widely understood - as an advocate of social justice for the poor, disadvantaged, people with common people.
Uniting all these areas, currents was to change lives for the better, change the existing system of just, viable. Fight for solving this common problem zbalansovuvala these currents forced them to find a common language. However, this rule was true for more or less the prevailing state of nations. For stateless nations focus on social issues or democratic freedoms often led to the separation of national problems, their figures to doluchannya to general traffic. On the other hand, focus on a purely national matters in the absence of national consciousness narrowed the social base movement and its breaking away from the people. So, before the Ukrainian movement was a problem produce a balanced three planes political platform that would be acceptable for all segments of Ukrainian society. In addition, one would find and organizational form of movement. To solve these problems and worked figures Ukrainian movement during the late nineteenth century.
Social and political life of Ukrainian lands in the second half of the nineteenth century.
Late 50-ies a rediscovery of the Ukrainian national movement. The impetus for this revival was the liberalization of political life in preparation abolition of serfdom. One of the centers of national revival movement became Imperial Russian capital St. Petersburg, where she was a piece of Ukrainian community. Here the financial support of Ukrainian landlords-sponsors Tarnovskys Galagan and Kulish founded the printing works for publication Ukrainian literature. It has published works by Kulish, IV Kotlyarevskogo Shevchenko, M. Vovchka et al. Kulish tried to start publishing the Almanac "House" (1858).
Liberalization social and political life contributed to proclaiming amnesty to members Cyril and Methodius Brotherhood, which in 1857 arrived from exile to Petersburg. They even allowed to occupy high positions: Notes on a professor at St. Petersburg University, Shevchenko - academician of the Academy Arts, Belozersky - one of the capital's official offices. New Minister of Education, a Ukrainian native EP Kovalevsky gave permission for printing "Poet" Shevchenko, supported the motion in the opening Belozersky Petersburg magazine "basis.
Seeking as much as possible serve the people, Ukrainian leaders Petersburg 1859 created the first Ukrainian community- cultural and educational organization aimed at promoting national idea through publication of books, magazines, holding parties. In addition to ex-Cyril Methodians, the first community consisted of AF Kistyakivskyy lawyer, head of printing Kulish publisher of popular books D. Kamenetsky, M. Storozhenko writer friends Shevchenko to Lazarevskoe. Actually, the first community organization called hard rather it was an informal gathering leaders of the Ukrainian movement. They were going to apartment engineer F. I. M. Kostomarov or Chernenko. Shevchenko came to the meetings very rarely, Kulish - quite often. But this has become an informal community example to follow and to deploy a new stage of Ukrainian cultural and national movement. Already in 1861 community appeared in Kiev later in Kharkiv, Poltava, Chernihiv and Odessa.
Field activities for the community are Sunday school, which existed in the 1859-1862 biennium, research institutions and industry right.
Revival National Movement Closely related to the magazine base. In this case took VM Belozersky.
Drafting and architectural composition Framework remarkable diversity. Editors were Belozersky, Kostomarov Kulish, General Editor - Kistyakivskyy. They organized the journal of all the Ukrainian community, though in themselves none of them are included. Kyiv community papers presented Mr. Antonovich, T. Rila, B. Poznansky, P. Zhytetsky et al. The Poltava - O. Konynskyy, V. Kulik, P. Kuzmenko, V. Loboda, Kharkiv - V. Hnylosyrov Chernigiv - L. Hlibov, S. Nose, A. Verbitsky et al. Authors had more than 70 names.
The first issue came out in 1912 January 1861 He was bilingual (printed in Ukrainian and Russian). In "Program", the journal published by B. Whitegraindent, it was planned nine permanent sections. Software Magazine tasks defined as follows: "The purpose of our publication - thorough and impartial study of South Russian region, the awareness of the needs a critical look at themselves in the past and present, public benefit. Universal education, as applied to local land conditions will be guiding Received an idea. Circulation of the magazine was at various times from 800 to 1000. It came out only 12 numbers in 1861 and 10 numbers in 1862
From the beginning, as amended Journal Bilozersky differences between affected and Kulish. In addition, the magazine suffered attacks from the Russian press. Finally, lack of funds made cease publication.
In 60-ies It was the only Ukrainian universal periodical that sought to cover all nationwide problem - in culture, economics, politics, education, science, literature, folklore, history and international relations. This is it led to a wide interest and general recognition as a national forecaster revival in Ukraine. Closure of the magazine was the eve of Valuev circular (1963), which banned the Ukrainian word for a long time and interrupted spiritual blow of the Ukrainian nation. Yet, despite the short duration Life magazine had a tremendous impact on public consciousness. He clearly showed that the existence of the Ukrainianїнtion of nation, culture, literature was undeniable fact.
In early 1860-ies among Polish nobility and spolschenoyi Right Bank split group of students conscience tortured realization that their class for centuries oppressed farmers and which decided to move closer to people. This group is led by Vladimir Antonovych called hlopomanamy, although they called themselves ukrainfil. They moved from the Roman Catholic faith in the Orthodox, wore Ukrainian traditional clothing, sang Ukrainian songs, deliberately kept folk customs and not avoided peasant societies. But allegations of treason on the part of Polish officials said Mr. Antonovich article "My confession" in a magazine "Base" in which he stated: "If you want to be consistent and Democrats serve the people, you have to admit that most people on the Right Bank Ukraine of Ukrainian peasants? Thus, the Polish gentry, are before the court of conscience two solutions: either to love the people among whom they live, buy into it interests, to return to his nationality and tireless work and love atone for the evil that was caused to the Ukrainian people their class, or remain as exploiting the labor of others and enemies of national development his people. "
His ultimate strategic goal hlopomany saw in the liquidation of Tsars, serfdom, and in establishing democratic republic based on the promotion of voluntary coexistence of Russians Ukrainian and Polish.
First hlopomany preferred ethnographic work. During student vacations or other leisure traveled through villages (during 1857-1859 years they have made three trips, going Volhynia, Podolia, Kyiv, Holm, and most of Katerinoslavshchina Kherson region), collected folk songs, tales, proverbs, customs and ceremonies. However, students studying peasant life, telling the audience about the glorious Ukraine's past, their miserable situation and possible way out of it. Such activities continued until 1860, but people were walking in ineffective. Rural authorities and police chased hlopomaniv.
In addition to travel to Ukraine hlopomany organized meetings, prepared and read out papers, issued a handwritten magazine founded in 1859 and underground seven-year school where they gathered to 15 poor men who "taught in the national direction. They kept on students their own expense, the most taught, wrote books in Ukrainian. Housed it in the house where lived marriage Antonovich. Under pressure from the police school defunct 1862
Finally, a circle samolikviduvavsya.
Getting revival of Ukrainian movement was marked by severe loss - the death of Taras Shevchenko. Burial large poet became the impetus for the Ukrainian mass demonstrations. Coffin with his body sent from St. Petersburg via Moscow to Ukraine, according to its poetic testament to bury the body of the poet on the Dnieper. Funeral march Ukrainian lands accompanied by mass meeting of those who wanted to pay homage to the national martyrs. Most were massive demonstrations in Kiev, organized by the Kiev community. Burial place of Shevchenko in Kano was a place of pilgrimage Ukrainian patriots.
In 1861 former workers hlopomaniv group with teachers and students of Kiev University (Among them were Paul Chubynsky, Synohuby brothers, John Kasyanenko, Michael Drahomanov) formed a new company - Ukrainian community. In 1862 it consisted of about 200 members. Community activities were legal and cultural. Kyiv community and all of the following occurred, uniting people with diverse political views and beliefs, but all united by their desire to do something useful for their own people.
Gendarmerie Report the Kiev community (1861)
In Russia there is a special company Little, taken by some spirit of patriotism, this company has all its followers, and universities, Kyiv and Kharkiv, serve as the main leaders and spreaders of ideas on how to restore Little. Thus, Kiev University, Little Company emerged under the name "Ukrainian community. They are young and passionate freethinker who make every effort to pestuvanoyi exercise their freedom of opinion and seek closer Little of common people, to teach him literacy and gradually bring it into view Little former glory and charm of freedom with the same purpose, to later when minds of simple people are submitted to their influence, act against the monarchy. With this order are known, it seems Little Russian magazine "Base", distributed propaganda (!) Little Russian language, history is written there in Ukraine and Kiev University everyday folk school, and for this purpose go young people in different places of Little Russia and Ukraine.
Judge: 1. As estimated in the gendarmerie report the Kiev community? 2. Which, according to the gendarmes, was the main goal of the community and who supported?
In October, 1859 trustee Kiev educational district Nikolai Pirogov allowed to open the first in Russian Empire Sunday school for adults. This enabled Gromadovtsi organize popular education in their native language. Members of the public discovered Sunday and daily school teachers working in them, organized public lectures and libraries were the initial creation of schools, schools for training People teachers and others. An important activity in hromadamen was writing Ukrainian textbooks and popular books for people of religious, historical and other subjects. This effort came hromadamen book "Something about the world of God" "Stories from the Holy Scriptures", which is processed priest Stephen Opanovych, "Arithmetic" Konyskyi O. et al. They also distributed among the people works Shevchenko, M. Vovchka and other writers involved in policy- life. One of the leaders of community and the ideological inspirer of the movement was Vladimir Bonifatiyovych A. (1834–1908).
Vladimir Antonovich among Ukrainian figures of the late nineteenth century. was very colorful figure: historian, archaeologist, ethnographer, historians, founder of the populist school Ukrainian Historical Studies, editor-hoc Committee for consideration Ancient Documents in Kiev (1863-1880), from 1878 - professor of Russian history University of Kiev, from 1881 - Chairman of the Historical Society Chronicler Nestor, one of the founders and leaders of the Kiev community by many historical and journalistic works. But a mysterious person that period is difficult to find. His contemporaries and descendants left of him diametrically opposing views and estimates. However, all mark him modesty, being too circumspect, incredible self-control, and almost complete detachment Equality in relationships with different people. The opposite was in estimates Antonovich caused by both personal traits that were mentioned above and its way of life. Son of a father (Janos Dzhydaya), he wore a formal name another (Boniface Antonovich) is still not fully elucidated his year birth (1830 or 1834) and his first rite of baptism (Greek Catholic or Catholic), a Pole by origin, he joined the Ukrainian camp, the official education received in a Russian school, and self-education - in French rationalism, graduated from University Medical Faculty and dramatically changed profession - took history education, social work started in the circle Polish revolutionaries - and turned over to the state Ukrainophiles; participated in secret organizations - and have had excellent relations with the enemy Ukrainians, the University gave a course of history of Russia, and private - Ukrainian, published under his own name-neutral science, but under pseudonym - scientific journalistic work, the main activity, he is in Kiev but the main hope to put Galicia, breaking with the Polish movement, advocated "New era in Polish-Ukrainian relations in Galicia et al. The only thing which he dvoyivsya so it is in their views on the methods and perspectives of the struggle of Ukrainian movement. By the end of his life remained faithful to the words that completing his "Confession": "? Hope that labor and love to Honored when-nibud that the Ukrainians pryznayut me sыnom its people, so as I'm ready Everything partition with them? "And they recognized him!
Following the Kiev organized community in Chernihiv, Vinnytsya, Yekaterinoslav Katerynodar Kuban, Odessa, Poltava, Kharkiv and Moscow. They expanded the network of Sunday schools while their number in Ukraine is close to a hundred. In the Ukrainian Chernigov fabulist Leonid Hlibov published newspaper Chernihiv leaf.
In 1863-1864 he Right Bank Ukraine was one of the areas where the unfolding events of the Polish national EIDVolny uprising. For a long time it prepared by the Central National Committee, which had close ties with the Polish emigration in Western Europe. The main purpose of the rebellion proclaimed competition Poland's national independence and reform. But on the borders of the restored Polish state and the depth of the views of social reform rebellion diverged. Much of the leaders of the uprising, supported the restoration Poland's borders in 1772, ie the division of the Commonwealth. The uncertainty in the end, had negative consequences: the Ukrainian peasants and workers Ukrainian movement did not support the rebellion.
In preparation for the uprising, its leaders paid great attention to the Right Bank Ukraine. Here lived a significant part Polish population (485 thousand, or 9.2%), these lands once belonged to the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, and another uprising in Ukraine had to distract the forces of the king's troops of the Polish uprising of their own lands. In Right-Bank Ukraine uprising prepared the "Central Committee in Russia", then "Provincial Committee in Russia. The leaders of the uprising were designed: in Kiev province - V. Rudnitsky, Podolski - Yablonovsky, Volyn - E. Ruzhitsky.
Uprising that began the night January 23, 1863, quickly spilled over in Lithuania, Belarus and of the right Ukraine. On the side of the rebels crossed the small part of soldiers and officers Russian army officials and all-revolutionary organization "Earth and freedom ".
In Right-Bank Ukraine acted some 20 guerrilla groups, which consisted mainly of representatives Polish gentry. All attempts to bring the rebels to their side of the Ukrainian peasants were unsuccessful. Farmers sometimes even helped Russian troops against Poles. Of the nearly 20 thousand rebels were only 500 Russians and Belarusians Ukrainian. From the Ukrainian who took part in the revolt can be called A. Slavic languages (military organization led by "Earth and will"), I. Nechaya (guerrilla commander unit, which operated in the area of Lublin) and others.
Despite heroic resistance, the uprising in 1864 was suppressed. Although during the Ukrainian uprising proved their loyalty to the royal regime, it did not save the Ukrainian movement of persecution and accusations that he is "Polish intrigue".
Revival of the Ukrainian movement at first caused no concern of Russian authorities. Publishing and Education activities of Ukrainian leaders positively perceived as a Russian intellectuals and government officials. But already in 1862 situation has changed dramatically. Despite the lack of romanticism and political overtones in the work hromadamen, royal officials concluded that the threat of the Ukrainian movement Russian Empire. In Ukraine, conducted arrests and exile were P. Chubynsky ethnographer, historian P. Efimenko, S. Nose ethnographer, writer A. Rodin. Kostomarov after three years had a brilliant career give up the post of professor of Russian history in St. Petersburg. It was routed Poltava and Chernihiv community ceased publication of the journal "Base", "Chernihiv letter"; by decree of the king of June 12, 1862 closed Sunday schools. Against Ukrainophiles campaign unfolded in the press, there accused of trying to create an independent Ukrainian state. Trying to open letter Antonovich and 20 members of the Kiev community refute these witness statements and their loyalty, assuring that their purpose "is the only education people ", and" talk of separatism is a stupid joke, were unsuccessful.
Changes in policy towards the Ukrainian movements were caused by:
· preparation and explosion Polish revolt 1863-1864 biennium, the Ukrainian movement was perceived as "Polish intrigue";
· deployment illegal activities of various opposition organizations tsarism ("Land and Freedom" et al.), which distributed the forbidden literature and strove to speak dissatisfied reform of 1861 peasants;
· rapid growing number of Ukrainian-language educational, scientific, religious literature, that, according to the censors, contributed to the revival of "Little peoples" and "Yuzhnorusskoho separatism. Especially alarmed Russian officials emergence Ukrainian language translation of the Gospel, performed by Philip Marochevskym (1806-1879).
In Ukraine, for investigation of Ukrainian separatism was sent Adjutant-wing MV Mezentsev. By results of the investigation Interior Minister P. Valuev July 20, 1863 issued a secret circular, which prohibited public use of Ukrainian in government offices, schools, churches, print, in Ukrainian popular scientific and religious literature than fiction, where she was regarded as exotic "Dialect". The same concerned the theater and Ukrainian. Problem of the Ukrainian language, issues his famous phrase: "There is no separate Little Russian language does not It was not and can not be. "
Essence Valuev Circular Prohibition was not the Ukrainian language and its use as a language of culture, Science. It can be used in a context where it sounded as exotic common dialect - in ethnography, folklore, literature, theater. The Ukrainian language was off the high concept to save them for Russian culture. But barring publication of educational and religious literature in Ukrainian Ukrainian movement was deprived opportunities spread their ideas among the people and not give it to realize its identity.
Valuev circular was logical Considering formal policy on Ukrainian: Ukrainian is considered inorodtsyamy (Ie the local part of the colony) and the declarative part Single Rus people that kept ethnographic and dialectic features.
Russian officials used Valuev Circular with particular enthusiasm. Thanks to the tsarist censorship, Kostomarov complained in 1871, Ukrainian literature virtually ceased exist within the Russian Empire.
After Valuev Circular the association was dissolved. Kyiv community wound up its work in autumn 1864 The first round of community movement.
But Ukrainian officials have not forsaken work. The main activity they focused on science or educational work in community organizations such as companies literacy, poor students and others. Taken the appropriate position in society, taking teaching, research, public office.
Much of the young Ukrainian intellectuals was absorbed all-populist movement.
1. What was due to rise Ukrainian movement in the late 50 to early 60's?
2. In what organizational forms Ukrainian movement existed and what are its features?
3. Find out the value of the journal "The basis for the deployment of the Ukrainian movement.
4. Who are hlopomany the role they played in the establishment of the Ukrainian movement in Dnieper Ukraine?
5. Who was the leader of the Ukrainian movement in the 60-80's? Make it a historical portrait.
6. What impact did the Polish uprising 1863-1864 biennium to national-liberation struggle of Ukrainian people?
7. Why Ukrainian population supported the Polish revolt?
8. What was the result of the publication Valuev Circular? Expand its basic position.
9. What is the purpose of persecuting king government, giving circular Valuev?
10. Open the main consequences Valuev Circular for further development of the Ukrainian movement.