§ 22. Town and village: life in the days after reforms (textbook)

§ 22. Town and village: life in the days after reforms

Remember: 1. What was daily life Ukrainian peasants in the first half of the nineteenth century.? 2. What qualities of the mentality of the Ukrainian peasantry produced its daily work? 3. Seemed Ukrainian cities in the first half of the century?

 

1. Population in the second Naddniprianshchyna half of the nineteenth century.

During the second half Nineteenth century. population has increased nine provinces Naddniprianshchyna from 13.5 to 23.5 million souls. This extremely rapid growth was a direct result of population explosion in Europe during the second half of the nineteenth century. Before World War Ukrainian population provinces rose to 33 million souls. Most rapidly growing population of the South, where there was rapid development of industry: its number increased from 3.6 million persons in 1858 to 8.8 million in 1897 and 13 million in 1914 Urban population Right Bank and Left Bank has increased over this time tripled, South - five times. The vast majority Naddniprianshchyna (22 million souls) were farmers. Industrial workers in late nineteenth century. was about 360 thousand people. For nationally in the late nineteenth century. most of the people Naddniprianshchyna were Ukrainian. The most numerous national minorities were Russians, Belarusians, Jews, Germans and Moldovans. The largest percentage of Russians living in the provinces of the South - 21-27%.

2. Farmers

To the Ukrainian peasantry was the population, which has kept the popular culture, has seen their mother tongue Ukrainian. In the days after reforms in the whole village kept its old appearance. In different regions of the peasants in many ways built and decorated their houses, but they preserve traditional Ukrainian features. During the second half of the nineteenth century. in among the poor peasantry dominated housing, consisting of houses and porch. But the wealthy owners are increasingly organized in their homes and even a shed. In the early twentieth century. urban influences have led to what is in the house were ward off the kitchen. Traditional interior design of dwelling no significant changes experienced. This traditional view of the villages kept Ukrainian Carpathians, in Left in the villages and established immigrants from the Far Naddniprianshchyna East.

Traditionally an important place in life Ukrainian village occupied the peasant community. However, the reform of 1861 significantly changed the economic and legal basis for her life. Since then she has become a grassroots component of the imperial administration. Land allotment whole array land belonged to the community, which it distributed among individual peasant farms. Periodically there were land conversion stages. All members of the community derived a strip from different fields, resulting cherezsmuzhzhya arose. Having the property of their strip of land, a farmer could sell it with the consent community to give as dowry for his daughter, but it was impossible to use discretion. The joint entity required subordination peasant communities' rotation, which was an unwritten rule of common law, violate which was not possible. Woods, pastures, meadows, rivers, springs remain indivisible common ownership community.

In the Ukrainian diet farmer no significant changes occurred. The vast majority of peasants ate very poorly. Mostly they ate cereal, flour meat, potatoes and other vegetables.

At breakfast in the peasant (during summer field work - at five o'clock in the morning) were borscht and kasha; southward - porridge, soup, etc. supper mostly potatoes with bacon. Food overwhelming most villagers was simple and monotonous. However, many impoverished peasants could afford it. That is why the average level of consumption of Ukrainian remained far behind the leading European population. End Nineteenth century. Dane consumed annually, on average, 2166 pounds of bread, German - 1119, Magyar - 1264, Russian - 1086. And in the granary Europe, as they named Naddnipryanshchyna, average consumption was only 867 pounds.

Late 60 70's Ukrainian peasantry began to use metal tools factory. Widely used new iron plows and plows with iron parts, which vpryahaly horses. Replacement bulls horses increased productivity of land under cultivation in three, and in transportation of grain - four times. Agricultural Plants machinery produced cultivators, steam threshing and other implements. However appliances were able to use only the wealthy economy. In the late nineteenth century. in Dnieper Ukraine, a huge number of mechanical mills, which gradually displaced the old windmills and water mills.

In the days after reforms when peasants began to independently economy, more and more visible it became stratification. Consequently, it podilylosya into three main groups:

·   prosperous peasantry, which is due to a combination of hard work, initiative, rilnytskoho talent, the employment of rural employees (laborers) successfully led economy. Their economy has adapted to market needs and focused on commercial production. They enlarged their lands, buying put impoverished villagers had several horses and farm implements;

·   middle-income ownersOr middle. Plots of land that belonged to this categories of farmers, gave them the opportunity to feed the family. They also had several horses and cattle. Despite the fact that they were hard-working owners, buy expensive farm machinery middle could very rare. They worked mostly alone, for hire laborers had opportunities;

·   poor peasants, or poor were the most numerous group of rural population. They do not land or have had insufficient to prohoduvatysya. To somehow survive, poor men were hired to work for wealthy landowners and villagers or looking for other seasonal work. The reasons for the situation in which they caught were different. Some are not able to farm, someone could not live with their small inheritance, were sometimes the cause of misery, disease, natural disaster, and sometimes - just laziness and drunkenness. A significant indication of poor growth tensions in post Ukrainian village. This situation was somewhat result of inconsistent and incomplete land reform in 1861

 

3. Nobility

Reform of 1861 was speech material event for the majority of the nobility. Accustomed to manage uncontrolled the fate of their peasants and not think about where are money landlords found themselves after the reform in unusual circumstances. Now, in order to normally live, you have to learn to count the cost, expenses profit.

For many of these tasks were too heavy. Instead of refitting their estates, they buy cars, etc. tried to keep the old way of life. When money is not enough - laid possessions and took a loan, a little thinking on what will happen next. Because of of 1877 77% of noblemen had large debts, which are constantly growing. Pay by the habit of relaxing the lives of many had land which they bought enterprising farmers. In 1862-1914 he nobility tenure in Dnieper Ukraine decreased by 53%.

Yet part of landowners Right Bank and the South managed to rebuild its economy according to new conditions. In new estates, savings created large commodity production using free-labor. In the early 90's among landowners farms, estates Naddniprianshchyna savings amounted to 40%. The most famous among They had land tycoons of the South: Fein-fold in Taurus, Arkas the Kherson region, Pigeons on Ekaterinoslavschine. Although their social affiliation of new lords farms remained the privileged status of nobility, they actually away from the big bourgeoisie. Some of them also went on to become masters factories, banks.

Evolution of the nobility Naddniprianshchyna per day after reforms testified that his role ancient imperial elites betrayed into oblivion. New historical conditions forced the nobility to give way to lead social class representatives of the bourgeoisie.

 

4. Bourgeoisie

The structure of Ukrainian society per day after reforms undergone significant changes. The new sectors that are established in the It became the bourgeoisie and industrial workers. The formation of the bourgeoisie began More on doreformenoyi day. Representatives of new social groups were mostly come from wealthy merchants or farmers. An example of becoming Ukrainian Entrepreneurship has become a firm and Simirenko Yahnenko Brothers ", which is mentioned. In post firm at the forefront in the sugar industry.

 

V. Simirenko

 

The next stage of bourgeoisie was industrialization. Simultaneously with the advent of factory enterprises, banks, stock exchanges in Dnieper Ukraine exacerbated its position. Intensified replenish its ranks representatives of other states. In addition to merchants, its membership increased by wealthy farmers, Chumakov, buyers, rural moneylenders. To swell its membership and the nobles who managed to create the Commodity management in agricultural production, food industry. The most famous of them were right-bank Bobrinsky nobles, Potocki, Branytskys.

 

A. Bobrinsky

 

The formation of the bourgeoisie led to the emergence in its composition depends on the level of wealth groups. Upper class was small but concentrated in the hands of the greatest capitals. Its representatives were major holders of merchant capital, industrial enterprises, owners of estates-richest economy. The main mass medium bourgeoisie constituted merchants. It also belonged to the colonists of the South, the lords medium-sized industrial enterprises and more. The most numerous were small bourgeoisie - the owners of shops, craft workshops, the tree, small industrial institutions, wealthy farms.

For the composition of the bourgeoisie was a multinational groups. Ukrainian in her most had. In them, the bourgeoisie belonged to Russians Jews, Poles, Germans, Frenchmen, Belgians and others. During the second half Nineteenth century. within the bourgeoisie have strengthened the position of the Ukrainian people.

Among the most famous Ukrainian business was a family of ancient Tereschenkos Kozak m.Hluhova.

 

M. Tereshchenko

 

Head of family was Art Tereshchenko (? -1873). Own capital he created, supplying the Russian army during the Crimean War. Then put earned money in the construction of a large sugar refinery in s.Hutir Michael's on Chernihiv. Agrarian reform era was the period of the intensification of business head of household and his sons - Nicholas Tereshchenko (1819-1903) and Theodore Tereshchenko (1832-1893). The family took the leading positions in trade with food sugar, cattle, lisoobrobtsi, sugar, distillery, cloth production, she owned over 200 thousand acres of land. In the sugar business, which owned Tereshchenko, annually producing products more than 21 million rubles. Sweet products quickly gained fame in the Russian empire, and global market. Increasing production to forget about people. In their factories for workers was established hospitals, canteens, schools. Conditions for such an organization work and life on other plants of the Russian Empire at that time was very small. On world industrial exhibitions in Paris, Chicago to St. Petersburg Tereschenky received gold medals at the level of accomplishment in their factories.

For successful business Artem activity Tereshchenko was granted knighthood. Then take Tereschenky were among the founders of sugar, sugar-and syndicates All-Russian Society of sugar manufacturers.

Families also Tereschenkos uslavylasya charitable cause, spending on them 5 million rubles. Mykola Tereshchenko provided funds for the construction of shelters, schools, hospitals, churches, museums, monuments, theater space. He was asked and philanthropy, helping Ukrainian artists. His house in Kyyeviiz large collection of works of fine M. Tereshchenko art after his death in 1903 bequeathed to the city. Today this house on the street, named grateful Kyivans Tereschenkivska is Museum, which is based exposures collection Tereshchenko.

Among the representatives of the Ukrainian bourgeoisie days after reforms were Kharitonenko Rymarenko, Semyrenky et al.

 

5. Workers

New social stratum after reforms became Naddniprianshchyna industrial workers. In the late nineteenth century. number of industrial workers Naddniprianshchyna was 330 thousand souls. They accounted for only 7% of the available labor force, though in general their numbers on agrarian reform years has increased four times.

Industrial workers, unlike of farmers had no means of production and therefore had to not sell their own products, and their workforces. Stay on huge plants and factories, awareness rather complex technique of production, participation correlated to the nature of work promoting the formation of a sense close relationship with friends and collectivism. The result was that massiveness behind peasants, they were much better organized for them. Workers formed that mass, which later attracted the attention of various tsarism opposition forces.

Industrial workers in the second half of the nineteenth century. were homogeneous in composition classes. Many seasonal workers were employed in the sugar industry. In pozasezonnyy time they returned to their villages because their work was napivvyrobnychyy napivselyanskyy and character. Purely industrial workers were primarily toilers industrial areas of the South - miners of Donbass Krivoy Rog steel etc.. Quite a motley national structure industrial workers. In many industries Naddniprianshchyna second half of the nineteenth century. Ukrainian minority were among the workers. Caused This situation is largely the fact that living and working conditions of workers zhahaly Ukrainian peasants. So they did their utmost to not break their ties to the land. Consequently, entrepreneurs are attracted to work in factories and mills with farmers other provinces of the empire.

 

Accommodation miners in the early twentieth Art.

 

Living and working conditions of industrial workers, with rare exceptions, does not meet the then European standards.

Here is a typical picture of the early work day. Darkness are heard in the vicinity of loud factory whistle. This is a Call - to work for workers. Each factory has its whistle, and the workers know it. Under the first they had to wake up, the second - Exit barracks, for the third - to be at their jobs. On the street still dark, and herd dark mass of workers had marched to rail access points to their plants. O six in the morning rozpochynalasya job. Shift lasted 10-15 hours. No technical safety and health services did not exist. Working conditions Workers zhahaly everyone who saw them. In the sugar mill, for example, they had walk in wooden sandals on cast iron stoves, heated to 100 ° C. "I saw old gas industry - wrote a witness - who for twenty years labor Gasworks breathed this air, which I could not stand and ten minutes. "

Ukrainian peasants who try to make money, went to work at industrial enterprises of the South, found themselves conditions which reminded them of hell. Housing, instead of the usual house for them to become barn. In shared dormitories along the walls stood three-tier bunks. Often they pocherezhno used, because the place was not enough. For married workers barracks vidhorodzhuvaly corner. About barracks refineries Right Bank Contemporaries said that life in them like a human.

Workers tried to escape from barracks, but to rent a room, had no money. As a result, some built dugouts, digging pits on the slopes of hills. In the cities they filmed in the corners common rooms. Any basic amenities could be found say: right on the floor in a room area of 65 sq. m able to sleep at the same time 40-50 souls.

Terrible living conditions causing decline of morality. Among workers distributed drinking, sexually transmitted diseases. Should Note that in the then Ukrainian Village drunkenness was rare. On holiday or have a wedding, for example, two or three liters of vodka for a few dozen people and saw a few days, according to tradition, with one round glasses. Due to this one person for the evening drank three to four cups. Not surprisingly, those who walked from village work at the plant, believed goner.

Especially difficult was the situation workers in large industrial centers. Though highly workers then started getting paid enough for decent living.

 

Ukrainian social and political activist Sergei Podolynsky on the living conditions of workers refineries

"Only some people sugar mill feeding and not bad enough, for example, Bobrinsky and ought Symyrenka on the pound of meat per day per worker. But almost all other meat plants give only 2-3 times a week and not more than 1 / 2 pounds. Rye flour 1 ought puda 30 pounds to 2 pounds a month for men, cereals - usually millet, 30 pounds. Salt sold 3.4 pounds and as much fat. In fast fat instead give hemp oil. Welding, ie, soup, etc. give very slightly, although in our land vegetables are not expensive ... For dinner, give the same as in dinner, breakfast and noon usually only the most bread ... Not at all plants are baths ... Similarly, nowhere in the factories there to wash themselves prachok shirts worker who because of course go to the black shirts, until they on their shoulders not rozpadutsya ... Not at all hospitals and factories are even not all plants employ a doctor for their workers ... In each If the patient is getting rid of a worker while wages and contractors even calculated from their pay for food. Workers in factories severed, only occasionally get 10 rubles for his injury, of course they do not give anything. "

Judge: 1. Estimate in grams and kilograms how much food is daily rate workers (1 pood = 40 pounds = 16 kg). 2. What was the level of social protection of workers?

 

The life of any person determined by its income. Zar industrial worker was the only source its existence. Workers Naddniprianshchyna received half as much as their counterparts in England, and four times less than in the U.S.. But the salary is not published regularly, and at the request of the owner. Normally payments to workers carried out three to four times a year - at Christmas, Easter and more. Until next paid workers received food in the factory shop on credit at prices that well above market rates. As a result, workers almost did not use meat ate only bread, potatoes and bacon.

If you compare prices of products meal size and charges that, at first glance, it might survive, but full of life not only includes the cost of food. At the end of Donbass 80's miner received 21 rubles. month, and sanochnyk - 16 rubles. On industrial enterprises also paid a month about 20 rubles. Women and adolescents for the same job as the adult men were paid under two third and half of earnings. Bread while costing 45 cents per pound (one pound was equal to about 400 grams), a bowl of soup - a half penny dumplings - 5 cents, sausage meat - 15-20 cents per pound, fresh carp - 50 kopecks. to 1 rub. per pound.

Unfortunate situation caused increasingly frequent strikes and other clashes between owners and their enterprises employees. Due to the workers sometimes fought some improvement their positions.

 

6. Cities change their appearance

Industrialization has caused considerable changes in urban life. Cities have become, to some extent, a reflection of the changes that place in society.

A characteristic phenomenon associated with rapid growth of urban population, is the emergence of lodging houses in almost every major city. Their inhabitants were mostly farmers who worked in local mills and factories. These new commoners were not adapted to the new habitats, new values, local traditions and habits. They broke with its past badly oriented in the present, were not convinced future and therefore often found themselves at the limits of life, became public marginalized (from Lat. marginalis - whoever is on the edge). They to swell the band of urban thieves, beggars and so on. Public bottoms were a mass background of urban discontent, the source claims the introduction of egalitarianism and immediate radical transformations.

A significant percentage of immigrants to those of Ukrainian cities, which became important industrial centers, were peasants from the Russian provinces. Increasing their number in cities and the domination of Russian culture were causing that on city streets dominant Russian language. So, if in Kiev in 1874 Ukrainian language 60% believed their native inhabitants, in 1917 - only 16%. Even the most contemporary Ukrainian public figures and religious leaders of national speak Russian, because otherwise they could not.

Industrialization changed not only composition of the townspeople, but also the appearance of cities. Particularly intensively changed Ekaterinoslav, Kyiv, Kharkiv, Odessa, which turned into a big commercial and industrial centers. A growing number of stone buildings was reduced. Number of stone in Kiev has grown from 361 in 1856 to 3 thousand in 80's Shall a significant number of public buildings: the county and provincial county agencies, city thoughts, noble and provincial assemblies and more. Dwelling quarters started to decorate magnificent homes of businessmen, merchants, bankers. Whole blocks appear profitable private houses, apartments in which solvent employed.

In urban surroundings kupchylysya poor cabin dwellers and workers' homes. These areas were fixed ironic name "Shanghai", "kabyzdohivok", "sobachivok. Beside them, could view similar to rural gardens, hayfields, pastures, where vypasalasya flocks.

Significant changes have occurred in the city improvement. Central Street taught stones, slabs, bricks. Sidewalks late nineteenth century. began to cover the asphalt. Increased attention to landscaping cities. Along the streets in Kiev planted linden, poplar, chestnut, Pridneprovskaya slopes are transformed into cozy parks. On the streets of southern cities were planted acacia. In the second half of the nineteenth century. significantly improved urban lighting streets. First, they lit kerosene, and later - with gas lamps. Late 70's gas lighting appeared in Kiev, the capital, and with 1890 city began to light up the electricity.

Unfolded as building water supply. In 1872 one of the first water supply system was built in Kyiv, provided the city Dnieper water. In subsequent years there were water pipes in Odessa, Kharkiv, Dnipropetrovsk, Alexander. However, most of the urban population, as before, used a private well. The important problem of urban development was the sewage system. Its primitive in the past caused many outbreaks of epidemics of infectious diseases among the urban population. Inside Nineteenth century. sewers were built in Feodosia, where the imperial rest know. End of the century was the drainage work in Kiev, Odessa, Yalta.

In the early 80's started rapid expansion of telephone service. Ten years have phone lines operated in Odessa, Kiev, Kharkov, Nikolayev. A rather high monthly fee number of phone users was small.

The growth of cities and increase their population has caused the emergence of urban transportation. In cities any horse railroad - com. In 1890 Konka appeared on the streets Kyiv, and later in other cities. Since the 80's in major cities Naddniprianshchyna built power plant. Thus in 1892 com on Kyiv streets replaced the first in Eastern Europe electric tram. Prior Twentieth century. tram movement began in Yekaterinoslav Zhytomyr Elizabethgrad, Sevastopol. Distribution of electricity also contributed to changes in light housing. Candles lost first kerosene lamp, and in some time - electric lighting.

 

7. Police - the embodiment of imperial power in the Dnieper Ukraine

Daily life of Ukrainian cities second half of the nineteenth century. was difficult without the usual figure of the steward, okolotochnoho or any other police official. For the population it was immediate authority with which he had to directly solve all the current case.

The police had a huge powers enabling it to intervene in all spheres of public and private lives. One of the most important tools in that it was entitled to issue certificate blahonadiynist citizens. Without them, it was impossible to enter University or take a responsible position. Previous police permission was also needed for business.

Another source of power over police its citizens have the right to establish surveillance on any citizen. In In order for someone ustanovlyuvavsya supervision, selected all the documents and instead seemed certificate from the police. Pidnahlyadnyy had no right to move to another city without permission from the police, his house could ever searched. Him forbidden to hold any public office, teach, lecture etc.. Police also controlled his mail.

 

American journalist late nineteenth century. George Kennan on the restriction for people that existed in the Russian Empire

"If you ... wish to establish newspaper, you must apply for permission to the Ministry of Interior. If you want to establish a Sunday or any other school ... you should permission of the Ministry of Education. If you want to arrange a concert performance or the needs of the orphanage, you should contact the nearest representative of the Ministry of Internal Affairs, then to the program submission for approval or corrections censors and finally deliver profit Performance of the police that his prohulyaye or maybe give asylum. If you want to sell newspapers on the street, you must obtain permission register with the police and wearing a neck copper sheets, the size of a saucer. If you want to open a pharmacy, printing, photo shop and bookseller, you must obtain permission ... If you doctor before you start practice, you must get permission, then, unless you want to visit the sick at calls at night, you must obtain permission refusal to answer them ... If farmer and you want to build on their bath area, you should get permission. If you want to thresh grain in the evening by candlelight, you should get permit or to bribe the police. If you want to go from their villages further than 15 miles you must obtain permission. If you are a foreigner ... you can not live move and operate in the Russian Empire without permission. Police, led by the Ministry of Internal Affairs, through passport controls movement of all inhabitants of the empire, it regularly holds under the supervision of one thousand Suspicious ... It collects statistics, monitors the implementation of sanitary rules carries out searches and seizure of private homes, lurks correspondence suspicious individuals ... and makes people humbly perform one thousand various orders and directives designed to promote the welfare of people and strengthening national security. Laws dealing with the police, take over five thousand paragraphs Code, ... and will not be an exaggeration to say that villages remote from centers of education, the police are omnipresent and omnipotent manages all human behavior ... "

Judge: 1. As a huge police powers characterized relations between the authorities and society in the Russian Empire?

 

For population Naddniprianshchyna vsevladnist police became the embodiment of imperial power. Strict control, set on the life of citizens, was to prevent the manifestation of any opposition sentiment on existing orders.

 

Questions and Tasks

1. What changes have occurred within Naddniprianshchyna population during the late nineteenth century.?

2. Specify the changes that held in position by the Ukrainian peasants days after reforms.

3. Describe the situation of the nobility. How it differed from their lives for doreformenoyi day?

4. What were the features formation of the bourgeoisie in post day?

5. Tell us about a family of Ukrainian Tereschenko entrepreneurs.

6. Describe the living conditions and Labour Naddniprianshchyna industrial workers. (Preparing the response, use Document 1.)

7. Make a comparative description of life, interests and needs of different social strata Naddniprianshchyna in the second half of the nineteenth century.

8. Identify changes that have occurred in Naddniprianshchyna a bridge against the first half of the nineteenth century.