§ 21. Economic development Dnieper Ukraine in the second half of the nineteenth century. (textbook)

§ 21. Economic development in Dnieper Ukraine second half of the nineteenth century.

Remember: 1. What characterized the economic Russian government policy in the bank Ukraine during the first half Nineteenth century.? 2. When and how Dnieper Ukraine started the Industrial Revolution? 3. How has the city and trade in the first half of the century?

 

1. Economic policy of the imperial government Dnieper Ukraine after the agrarian reform

Reforms 60-70's, despite their limited, creating conditions for economic development made it possible, though not acting, industrialization. Her pace after the agrarian reform was very high. Especially senses in Dnieper Ukraine, where a few years Formed entirely new industries. Industrial development was accompanied changes in other spheres of life: all connected the major cities in each newly railway unfolded urbanization consisted New social strata of entrepreneurs and industrial workers and others.

However, the policy of the imperial government was not designed for that Dnieper benefited from his economic development. Following the traditional policy of economic potential of the Ukrainian lands to meet the General- needs, the Russian government used to this new day in post form.

One of them became railway. They regarded as the most convenient way to move, if necessary, military forces to any region of the empire. After completion of the Railways them from Dnieper to the center of the empire dopravlyaly products and raw materials and finished products came from there with Russian enterprises. Because of of the Dnieper to the all-vtyahuvalasya market, according to the role that defined her empire.

In the late nineteenth century. Dnepr Ukraine gave 26% to general revenue, however, on its own used needs no more than half of that amount. The rest of the curtain needs of other regions of the empire. The means of capital transfer from the Ukrainian provinces to the center was also the pricing policy. Prices of raw materials vidpravlyalasya from Dnieper, were much lower than the cost of Russian products that came from the imperial center. Consequently, the Ukrainian capital funded the development of other regions.

The use of economic potential Naddniprianshchyna also manifested that gave priority to those sectors of the Ukrainian economy, which had to meet the needs of imperial (Coal, steel, iron ore), while those who could make Russian business competition (light industry), support not received. Due to this rapidly developing field of raw materials and Other notable behind. On the eve of World War Dnieper gave 72% of all raw materials extraction to the empire and only 15% of finished products. This was an indication that Ukrainian became one-sided, Aware of the nature center.

Economic policy of the Russian Empire on the Dnieper Ukraine in post have not changed in substance, but only changed by form under the new historical situation.

 

2. Features and industrial progress Revolution

Agrarian reform period was the era further expand the industrial revolution. Rural reform of 1861 freed the peasants from serfdom and eliminated this obstacle to the formation free-market labor. Go to work on newly established industrial enterprises forced peasants constantly growing shortage of arable land due to increasing rural population. During the second half of the century Dnieper, like other regions of Europe, experienced a population explosion - explosive growth of population. As a result, its population grew less than 40 years at 72%. Inability to function in the village forced villagers to seek work. During the 60-70's number of workers of industrial enterprises increased from 86 thousand to 330 thousand after reforms became night time attraction impoverished peasants to work in industry, growing cities, forming new industrial centers.

 

Demographic state Dnieper Ukraine for instanceintsi Nineteenth century.

 

New industrial areas, which increased rapidly while the coal and steel Donetsk Krivoy Rog Iron and manganese Nikopol pools. Active development of Donbass began in the early 70's With government incentives here arose many joint stock companies with foreign capital. Leading one Foreign investors owned French and Belgian entrepreneurs. As a result of Donbass coal boom turned into a main supplier coal in the Russian Empire.

 

The contribution of the Donetsk coal basin
General-in coal

 

Year

A total of empire (without

Including in the Donbass

 

Poland), million pounds

Million pounds

%

1860

7,4

6,0

81,1

1870

22,3

15,6

70,0

1880

122,3

86,3

70,5

1890

216,4

183,2

84,7

1900

734,5

671,7

91,4

 

Almost a decade after early development of Donbass turned massive iron ore in Krivoy Rog area. Special place in the development of this region also ranked French capital.

In the early 70's the South started construction of first steel plants. Russian government to construction of large steel plant in the Donbass allocated free of charge English businessman John Hughes land with coal deposits and appointed prize for every pood rails manufactured at its plant. Settlements, where factory workers lived, called Uzivka (modern city of Donetsk). Very Uzivka quickly turned into an important industrial center in the South. In general, for 1870-1900 biennium production of iron ore to steel mills of the South increased in 158 times as much ahead of ancient imperial center industry the Urals (there during that time production has increased only 4 times).

 

Metallurgical Plant in Yuzivtsi late XIX - early XX Art.

 

A rapid industrial growth 60-80's resulted in approval of a large bank Ukraine of plant production. New businesses based on the use advanced technology (steam engines, machine tools, production systems), improved organizational forms of production. The main fuel in the stone industry was coal. The transition to new forms of production in late 80's in general resulted in mechanical engineering. At that time, about 80% of firms used steam energy.

The Industrial Revolution in the Ukrainian lands ended in 80's Nineteenth century. Its consequence is the emergence of plant industry and formation of new social strata.

A characteristic feature of industry in Dnieper Ukraine in the late nineteenth century. was the beginning concentration process of the first production and monopolies - companies entrepreneurs with the exclusive right of making and marketing of certain products. At this time emerged: the Union rail factory (1882), the Union bridge construction plants (1884), Union of manufacturers of rail fasteners (1884).

 

3. The growth of cities

The second half of the nineteenth century. was period of rapid growth of cities. Along with the large industrial enterprises emerging factory settlement, which later turned into the new city. Unprecedented population mobility, the growth of urban population and the emergence of new cities promoted the emergence of railroads. Railway gradually, due to industrial development and trade, turned to city. Naddniprianshchyna urban population in the 60-90's increased more than doubled and the number of cities, census 1897, was 130. And Nevertheless, due to the general population growth while the urban population late nineteenth century. accounted for only 13%.

Especially fast, the urban population increased in the South, where there were new factory enterprise. A typical example was the development Ekaterinoslav that a small city with a population of 19 thousand souls in the middle of the century has turned in the second half in one of the largest Ukrainian cities, the population has increased six- times.

During this time there was process alleged 'cities. The number of small towns has decreased by almost half, then both large and medium cities doubled.

 

Top of Dnieper Ukraine late nineteenth century.

 

City

Population   1897 (Thousand persons)

Odessa

403,8

Kyiv

247,7

Kharkiv

173,9

Ekaterinoslav

112,8

 

Industrial revolution rapidly changing the appearance of cities. Those that focused factory enterprises have become a major industrial centers. The largest of them are Kyiv, Kharkiv, Ekaterinoslav, Odessa, Kherson, Mykolayiv, Yelisavetgrad, Kremenchug, Lugansk, Uzivka, Mariupol, Krivoy Rog. However, industrial revolution has not led to complete disappearance of handicraft and manufacturing. During the second half-century artisan factory and meet needs of urban dwellers and peasants in clothing, crockery, minor household equipment and more.

Big cities are also significant cultural centers, which were higher and secondary schools, scientific and cultural organizations, museums and theaters.

Life of the provincial and county cities are not turned into industrial and commercial centers, has changed little.

 

4. Trade Development

Expanding the industrial revolution, changes in the agrarian reform of the Ukrainian village life helped revive trade. Great value for its development was the emergence of railroads, which made turnover much cheaper and faster. As a result, virtually disappeared chumachestvo. Majority of those who have accumulated capital, engaging in the Milky fishing, put them in organization of industrial enterprises or trading companies.

Railway stations became at shopping centers. Small traders, brokers have based their offices here and the villagers bought the goods for which demand was in the city. At the same time they sold what was needed to farmers. As a result, more and more village vtyahuvalos in commodity-money relations, became part of the structure of the market economy.

During the 60-90's more more varied forms of trade. The growth of cities and urban population caused a gradual replacement of stationary markets through trade and shopping shops. Fixed trade focused in large industrial centers where there were hundreds of stores and shops. New commercial establishments were created and outside cities - in factory settlements and other settlements points. Chain stores formed spontaneously, according to the satisfaction demand. Foremost in their assortment sat factory goods.

However, recovery of domestic Trade in Dnieper Ukraine enriched central Russian province because it came from there most industrial goods. Ukrainian population was forced to buy Russian industrial goods (mostly Made from Ukrainian raw materials) at inflated prices. In this way, Ukrainian financed industrial development in the heart of the empire.

The share of traditional Ukrainian trade fairs in general decreased. For Trade agricultural products and craftworks, as before, came wholesale distribution in the samples. As a result, fair trade has become nature of stock transactions.

To meet the daily needs urban population in cities and towns gathered bazaars, which sold food. Increase their network of 60-90's was associated industrialization and growth of cities. In the late nineteenth century. Kyiv worked daily six markets in Kharkiv and Odessa - five.

Merchants in post has grown numerically and increased its influence in society. But due to limitations of previous Ukrainian decades merchants remained in the minority, yielding quantitatively and the influence of Russian merchants.

In post Dnieper occupied an important place in foreign trade empire. Through Azov-Black Sea ports and located on the Russian-Austrian border Customs Volhynia and Podolia exported a large quantity of goods produced in Ukraine. Most goods exported was raw. Along with the grain exported a considerable quantity of animal products - meat, fat, skin, wool, etc.. Through the port of Odessa in the 80-90's exported millions Ukrainian pounds of sugar and hundreds of thousands of buckets of alcohol. In most contemporary European countries it is consumed Ukrainian sugar.

However, the development of foreign Trade brought no significant benefit of the Ukrainian people. For backward from leading European countries in the Russian Empire export of Ukrainian raw materials was one of the most important sources of revenues. At a time when the Ukrainian peasants saw sugar, he ustanovlyuvav saharozavodchika Prize for his removal. In Dnieper Ukraine inflated sugar prices (because profits went to imperial treasury), resulting in the London sugar sold three times cheaper than at home. As finance minister, said the Empire of the content of its foreign Trade: "insufficient, but take out!"

Through ports and customs Naddniprianshchyna were imported while cotton, silk and wool fabrics, tea, coffee, spices, rice, wine, etc.. Customs duties on imported goods were still source of replenishment of the imperial treasury.

 

5. Agricultural Relations

Rural reform of 1861 freed peasants from personal dependence, but little has improved their economic situation. Most of the farmers received insufficient in size for normal development of economy of land. However, architects of reform have not considered natural population growth, resulting in plots that are owned peasants were reduced to catastrophic proportions. In 1914 on the same allotment of land as in 1861, in Dnieper Ukraine led economy nearly twice as many farmers. In addition, villagers besieged too high taxes and payments for the land. According to official figures, at the end Nineteenth century. farmers paid 10 times more taxes than the nobles.

The emergence of rural poor has a direct consequence of reforms in 1861 Most farmers had little chance to buy nor additional land or agricultural equipment. Unable to conduct independent agriculture, farmers were forced to go to work on the lord's land. So zberihlysya remnants of serfdom as vidrobitkovoyi system that was landed estates by peasants tilling their implements. Employs peasants primarily for money or bread in debt, pledging to work out then. Existence vidrobitkovoyi system caused the use of outdated agricultural tools and low yields. Realizing her discomfort, some landowners abandon and replaced free-refining work. Using free-labor farms are dominated Right Bank and the South, and Left were distributed both systems.

 

Description landlord management of a new type O. Enhelhardta (if registered mail)

"Now I have a lot of work because I changed the whole system of management. Much of the work carried out laborer and journeyman (ie people who can not live with their employed in agriculture and other utilities). Various works: burns heath under wheat vykorchovuyu Berezniaky under tow, took bows for rent on the Dnieper and nasiyav much clover, rye and flax. Employees need a much. To have them, should take care in advance as you hear work will all be busy at home or at other farms. Such recruitment Employees are usually pre-release of money and food for work ... If peasants live well, the forest management (pomischykiv. - Auto.) under the current system can not be: each landowner, every manager, every mayor will tell you that if farmers did not need, he could not farm.

Judge: 1. What are the prerequisites for economic beneficial conversion landlord farms created reform of 1861? 2. What features were inherent new agrarian reform landowner economy? 3. Why landlords were interested in that farmers could not survive from your farm?

 

Despite the poverty of most peasantry Naddniprianshchyna, she kept the role of European breadbasket. Most prominent commodity grain production growth was in the South, the historical free-dominated job. Productivity grew, albeit somewhat slower, and in other regions. Consequently, the late nineteenth century. Dnieper supplied bread in the central province of the empire and provided 90% of exports grain.

At the same time with increasing commodity grain production increased sugar, barley and tobacco. Commodity character acquired livestock. In the Dnieper Ukraine, particularly in 80's there were over a thousand stud farm where grown vysokoporidnyh horses for sale in Empire and abroad. Special place occupied Ukrainian province in meat production, fine-fleece wool, hides, horsehair hair and other animal products.

The development of commodity production contributed to the late nineteenth century. some changes in specific areas of agricultural production. Southern Ukraine, but the Crimean peninsula, has become a region spread Commercial grain farming. Crimea and Bessarabia specializing in development of viticulture. Poltava province was considered one of the main tobacco producers in the Empire. Other provinces Left Bank and Right Bank were predominance region tsukroburyakovoho production. The following specialization allowed not only to understand how important a contribution to Naddniprianshchyna imperial economy, but also why the empire has always insisted that these rich territories - "purely land version.

 

6. The resettlement of peasants in East

Acute shortage of land in Dnieper Ukraine forced farmers to seek other means of subsistence. Land has increased in value, in some regions to 1861 - three to four times. Most of the farmers were unable to buy land or find jobs in agriculture. City with his new life vidlyakuvalo many peasants. Farmers usually kept community, and if traveled, he sought to settle on new old Ukrainian lands and villages to work on the ground. Meanwhile in Ukraine pereyizdyly Russian peasants who went to work in factories. So Russian migration to cities was directed Dnieper Ukrainian - to villages in the eastern empire. According to economists, the surplus labor forces in Dnieper Ukraine reached 68% of the working population.

 

Resettlement and Ukrainian emigration in the second half of XIX - early XX century.

 

The resettlement of the Ukrainian peasants in the land of the Russian Far East Siberia and Kazakhstan, as the emigration of peasants from land in the West Austro-Hungary in the 70's 90's, were the two streams of the first wave Mass Ukrainian labor migration.

Ukrainian emigration to the East were characterized by the following features:

·   Students in Naddniprianshchyna remained on the lands within the Russian Empire and were not immigrants in the traditional sense;

·   resettlement had largely spontaneous nature of free colonization uninhabited land;

·   bulk settlers were farmers who moved to new locations, mostly along with their families;

·   regions, which gave the bulk of immigrants were first Left Bank, Right Bank and later;

·   unlike peasants who migrated from the Western lands to the U.S. continent, residents of the Dnieper area, settling in the eastern regions of the Russian Empire, could not establish their national and cultural institutions.

The attitude of the imperial government to Ukrainian settlers were mixed. On the one hand, his interests consistent development of vacant land on the outskirts of the empire, due to the possibility find it unnecessary to use hands and working to increase both the Russian Populations in Dnieper Ukraine. On the other hand, worry about resettlement settlers did not want the government, and therefore released secret institution in which recommended not satisfy the requests to resettle poor and large families.

 

In government documents on Ukrainian settlers in the eastern parts of the empire

"Little Russians, who did much to Russia is now not only able to serve its national interests, but even badly in need of protection from hostile Russian Polish government on them impact ... Should be involved in the Ukraine peasants Russians, who really would have This region is the Russian spirit, significantly raised in the local community would love to Russia ... Because state-owned and purchased government land in the Ukrainian provinces should give immigrants from the inner, purely Russian provinces, local same poorer population useful to migrate to other parts of Russia, the land intended for immigrants ... The main reason for this policy is that Little Russians are not able to hold the Russian national idea. "

Judge: 1. What was the attitude of the imperial government to the Ukrainian settlers? 2. What proves that the government tried to use the issue for immigrants increase of the Russian population in Ukraine?

 

But stop the flow proved to impoverishment of the peasants was difficult. Official denial caused spontaneous migration whole families and groups; night villagers left their villages and journeyed to railway stations. Most Ukrainian peasants pereselyalasya random. The lack of any assistance in organizing the move led to ailments starvation and death. Among the immigrants were 84% came from the Left Bank, where most plagued land poverty and remnants of serfdom. In total, 1885-1900 biennium from Dnieper to the East moved 367 thousand peasants.

Ukrainian settlers gave names new lands which they inhabited. A narrow strip of its settlements in the southern Nearby Kyrgyz-Kazakhstan steppes Ukrainian immigrants in late Nineteenth century. called Grey wedge, Gray or Ukraine. In the early twentieth century. Ukrainian constituted over 50% total number of immigrants, accounting for about 33 thousand souls. Green Wedge linking land inhabited Ukrainian in the southern Far East - Primorsky Kray, Amur region and the southern part of Khabarovsk Krai. Having mastered the region Ukrainian settlers often named him as the Green or the Far East Ukraine. Path of Ukrainian settlers to these lands - 17 thousand miles - located along the sea from Odessa to Vladivostok. Ukrainian these distant lands of settlers attracted to the fact that at the behest of the imperial government Each family received 100 acres allotment and had great benefits for the payment taxes. This was coupled with the fact that the international situation in the Far East demanded immediate zalyudnennya these huge spaces of the Russian territory. Among all immigrants to the Green Wedge Ukrainian, according to researchers, made in the early twentieth century. 63%, amounting to about 110 thousand souls.

In the early twentieth century. Grey and Green Wedge Wedge were the two largest solid space of the Ukrainian colonization in Asia. Ukrainian settlers paid for their land developed backbreaking work and lives of thousands of compatriots. In the guise of Asia immigrants from Dnieper launched the appearance of the Ukrainian diaspora - Ukrainian population living abroad, beyond the total ethnic Ukrainian territory.

 

Questions and Tasks

1. Compare the economic policies imperial government in the Ukrainian provinces in the first and second half Nineteenth century. Identify common features.

2. Describe the course Industrial Revolution in Dnieper Ukraine.

3. Specify the characteristics of Ukrainian cities in the second half of the nineteenth century.

4. What are the new phenomena appearing in the TRADE?

5. What has taken place in Ukraine foreign policy of the Russian Empire?

6. Describe the development Agriculture in post. (Preparing the response, use Document 1.)

7. Prepare a story about migration Ukrainian peasants in the eastern parts of the empire under the plan:

a) the reasons for migration, b) policy Russian government to Ukrainian immigrants in) features Resettlement, d) land, inhabited by Ukrainian settlers, and e) implications Ukrainian migration to the guise of Asia.

8. Make a comparative table "Features Naddniprianshchyna economic development in the nineteenth century." Scheme:

 

Industries

Characteristic features of

 

first half of the nineteenth century.

second half of the nineteenth century.

Agriculture

 

 

Industry

 

 

Trade