Remember: 1. What was the impact of reforms in the Habsburg development of Western lands? 2. When and how was abolished serfdom at Western? 3. Why the existence of serfdom prevent further economic and social development Naddniprianshchyna?
Late 50-ies Dnepr Ukraine was the most developed economic region in the plane Russian Empire. But further economic development is increasingly hindered existence of serfdom. The development industry resisted no market free "labor and narrow demand for industrial products. Existence serfdom also hindered the process of stratification of the peasantry and the formation social strata of rural entrepreneurs and rural laborers. Besides urban entrepreneurs and merchants could not buy land because it was the subject of free buying and selling.
In mid-century gradually okreslyuvatysya started new paths of economic specialization of regions Naddniprianshchyna. In the forefront of the South took the place of sheep wheat for export. On the left bank of the remoteness of markets grain production caused in the southern part of the main transformation source of livestock income in the northern - flax and tobacco industry. Significant gains landowners Left Bank gave distilling. Right Bank in 40-ies become a main area of sugar production. Reduction share of farms in the Right Bank and grain development tsukroburyakovoho production reflects the changes that took place in the economy Naddniprianshchyna.
During the first half Nineteenth century. When accustomed lands of the South, there prevailed sheep, holders Right Bank estates specializing in growing corn, which sold through the Black Sea ports. Grain economy was based on the Right Bank serfs working in the South - dominated the use of free- workforce. With sales of grain to most of the owners estates Right Bank accumulated considerable resources and, at the same time, taking away land from peasants in grain, caused the appearance of a large number of landless serfs. Therefore landlords, based on existing demand, invested in building sugar factories and laid beet plantations, employing landless peasants. The development also contributed to the production tsukroburyakovoho good natural conditions, large forests, which gave fuel for factories and protectional Russian politics government. All this provided saharozavodchika high profits.
At first the sugar industry was mainly landlord. Gradually, her allowing a merchant capital. But merchants were unable to use free labor and serfs were attract laborers. In the mid-nineteenth century. in Dnieper Ukraine merchants, entrepreneurs rented 24 sugar factories and the land around them.
So tsukroburyakova Industry gained market character and their contents become the direct opposite of dominant feudal system of management. The development of sugar industry caused changes in other sectors. Requirements for further development economy called for the elimination of serfdom.
Peasant and other reforms 60-70's in the Russian Empire had the character of delayed modernization carried out under the pressure of historical circumstances. Its implementation empire pushed a few historical conditions:
· further existence of serfdom empire threatened to turn into a secondary country, as eloquently testified her defeat in the Crimean War. Peasant movement Ukrainian provinces in the late war, constant demands release of villagers tsarism by all the opposition organizations, impacts of elimination of serfdom Western Ukraine in 1848 - all of which also contributed transformation problem abolition of serfdom in urgent need of further development Empire;
· serfdom inhibited the rate of economic development. Presence in the Empire regions such as South, convincingly proves the advantages of free- labor, however, caused numerous inconsistencies between the relations which are here existed, and order in other parts of the empire. However, the landlords' farms gave about 50% of commodity grain, and their rapid and simultaneous elimination could produce catastrophic consequences;
· serfdom in form and content too seemed to slavery. Immorality possession "baptized property "zasudzhuvalasya overwhelming majority of representatives of different social groups. Besides the example of European monarchies, which eliminated the ring law, testified that the act does not shake thrones of monarchs, but rather strengthened them and opened the possibility of accelerating social and economic development.
Opinions about the necessity of eliminating serfdom increasingly spread among all strata of the Ukrainian society. Understanding of serfdom as a big social disaster caused the appearance passionate poetry of Taras Shevchenko and prose works of the young Ukrainian writer Mark spinner. They, according to contemporaries, was "one huge The charges against serfdom slavery.
At the same time demands are not heard confined to the release of the peasants. In his letter to the editor of the Russian emigre journal Bell in London Nikolai Kostomarov in general treating positive intentions of the imperial government to abolish serfdom, rose also to ensure that the rights of peasants urivnyaty of nobles and create conditions for unhindered development of Ukrainian language as the basis of Ukrainian cultural solution. He also expressed the need for a Ukrainian state as part of its Single Slavic Union.
Advocated the elimination of serfdom merchants and entrepreneurs, as understood that it is a major obstacle for development of industry and trade. Among the landowners were also a lot of those who held liberal positions. Known for its progressive views Ukrainian leader, owner of large estates in Poltava and Chernihiv Gregory Galagan (1819-1888) was a member commissions to develop projects for reform. Consistently advocating interests of the Ukrainian peasantry, he wrote that "delay this transformation (Abolition of serfdom .- Auto.) May be most harmful effects with all the horrors popular uprisings.
Rationale for abolition of serfdom squire A. Koshelev (1858)
"Following as landlords farms and feudal life, listening to the words of nobles, peasants and yard people and watching the actions of those and other ... I came to full conviction that it was the deadline for taking decisive action on the abolition of serfdom status ...
Firstly, the discontent of peasants against landowners growing every day ...
Second, the desire of the peasants and yard people appears to be free from the increasing strength and honesty ...
Third, impoverished landlords farmers increases considerably. This factor is unmistakable ... handling reached sizes incredible ... Stock peasant patience is exhausted.
... Seventh, the improvement in Agriculture always require the use of free labor to it. While we have a boon as we can to hire people as you want and moreover, nothing, until these people appear to us with their even any, but costless instruments until the landlord can change every minute peasant plots of land - not until Farming prosunetsya forward.
Eighth, the success of plant and factory industry require increasing the number of available workers. Now many people are trapped in unproductive jobs landowners (in hallway, the barn, etc.). Moreover, various boon, neurochna work absorbs twice, three times more working time than is necessary. All this time, all These workers need to turn to industry, and now feel the labor shortages greatly reduced.
Yet many other circumstances compel much to the early abolition of serfdom ... "
Judge: 1. Why the author considers the abolition of serfdom becomes necessary for further social and economic development Empire? 2. Describe the basic reasons for the abolition of serfdom.
However, most landlords were much more conservative in their views and if agreed to release personal peasants, only without the allocation of land.
Antykriposnytski views and spread among the students. During the 1856-1860 biennium in Kharkov Kiev University and operated a secret political society that is united More than 40 people. Members of the community tried to raise the people to fight for abolition of serfdom. However, his political views they do not go further general political upheaval in the Russian Empire in order to establish constitutional monarchy or republic. The necessity of struggle for national liberation of the Ukrainian people in their views Society members display not found.
Preparation of peasant reform lasted five years. February 19, 1861 Alexander II signed the "Charter", containing all legislation and reform manifesto to abolish serfdom law. "Regulations" in a wing of 17 acts, most important of which were "total position of farmers, freed from serfdom and four local provisions for certain regions of the empire. Dnieper subject to an three local regulations. In the southern provinces and the southern part of the Kharkov province acted "Great Russian local regulations, on the Right Bank - Individual local situation, "the Left -" Little Russian local regulations.
Emperor Alexander II
Laws peasant Reform decide such basic issues:
· cancel serfdom and defining the new legal status of peasants;
· organization peasant self-government;
· creation Institute conciliator;
· empowerment of peasants land;
· determination duties tymchasovozobov'yazanyh peasants;
· redemption of the land peasants.
Immediately after the publication of the manifesto farmers receive personal freedom. Been announced that henceforth the former serfs rural resident are free and have civil rights - to marry, enter their own property agreements, to act on its behalf in court, open commercial and industrial enterprises to move to other states to acquire real estate and more. However, the estate fully inequality peasants likviduvalasya. They remained lower as assessor, had to bear capitation and other money and natural duties, exposed to corporal punishment, were released from more privileged position.
According to "Regulations" all farmers were to join in the community (community) - a form of peasant governments, which were based on common economic interests. Allotment land was given not to individual farms and communities. On Right Bank and in provinces where there were "littleRussia's position, for payment of fees and taxes in line with each farming separately in other regions of solidarity meet the whole congregation. Fails to pay its tax debt peasant distributed between other community members.
To address economic issues community members gathered on rural stairs. Connecting rural communities cooperating in the parish. In the village elder and parish officers, they elected relied local administrative and household functions: monitor order, organize the requirements of higher authorities and government laws.
Agricultural Activities self and relationships with landlords controlled the peasants Justice of the agents. As conceived by the Russian government were to interfere abuse of landowners. However, most conciliator was itself landlords and protect their own interests first, sometimes even against law.
Central to the reform occupied on the ground. Acts of reform based on the recognition by landowners ownership of all land in the estates, including the farmers' holdings. The farmers declared by users of the land, bound by her vidroblyaty establishing "Regulations" duties - servage or serfdom. To take ownership of their inheritance, a farmer had to buy it landowner. Dimensions duties and plots were established for each area separately, depending on the quality of land. In the South, was installed only "ukazna" rule of inheritance - from 3 to 6.5 acres. On the left bank is higher portion size was 2,7-4,5 tithes, lower - half high. For farmers Right Bank were tied to put in those sizes, marked by "inventory rules "1847-1848 biennium On average, farmers receive tithes 1,9-2,3 land. Landlords, by law, had the right to cut off the peasants "extra" land. Only on the Right Bank peasant holdings were increased. It cause need for the Russian government to win over villagers after suppression Polish uprising of 1863-1864 biennium Overall size of the peasant land use in bank Ukraine was reduced after the reform by 27%.
Given that, according economists to ensure the minimum needs of a farm (the play and pay numerous taxes) needed at least 5 acres land, the vast majority of Ukrainian peasants did not receive this required standard. In addition, many serfs engaged in household landlords dismissed without allocation of land.
As long as peasants vykupaly land for their intended position tymchasovozobov'yazanyh. Dimensions peasant inheritance and duties determined by separate agreements. Their conclusion major concern was a conciliator. Increase duties without larger portion landowners prohibited. But the law did not provide reduction obligations in connection with a reduction in holdings. Therefore, after the interval "Excess" land obligations, the peasants actually increased.
The final stage of peasant reform had become a redemption transaction. Villagers were obliged to pay for their inheritance fifth of the sum of its value. The rest of the state debt provided in peasant who was to return it, together with interest within 49 years. By following almost half a century peasants had to pay the state three times for size of the time value of the land.
Implementation of the redemption transaction completed the separation of farm landlord. At the same time landowners receive money for which to implement the restructuring of their economies a new way.
Cancel serfdom in the Ukrainian lands
"Regulations" peasant reform extended to the former serfs. However, significant changes took place in status of state peasants, who accounted for 44% of all peasants Dnieper.
This category of population belonged to the former Cossacks, military settlers, the colonists of the South.
According to the decree in 1866 all ground state peasants, while remaining the property of the state, tied to the rural communities in perpetual use (Podvirna or public). Farmers had to pay for it annually to the treasury "Obrochne submit. State farmers had the right to become owners of plots by the payment of their ransom for 8 years, but the size of their holdings installed no more than 8-15 acres. As a result of this reform exercise which lasted 20 years, the situation of public peasants became slightly better than the former serf. Grant, whom they received were on average twice as large than in the former serfs. In 1886 all state peasants were obliged to redeem their holdings, but the redemption money for them were significantly lower than serfs. Hindered the development of economy state rural communities with the introduction of shared responsibility for payment taxes.
In much better conditions were Southern colonists. Having big to put reform, they have kept them and following it, and got all sorts of benefits. For example, they paid two to three times less "Obrochne submit" than other state farmers. The vast majority of farms colonists was by its nature, large farms, which widely used agricultural equipment and camp follower power, rented, but their plots, large plots of land.
Reform of 1861 caused significant changes in the position of peasants, who at that time were the majority Naddniprianshchyna population. However, because the land here was much better than in other regions of the empire, it is here that most farmers have lost land due to "Segments". The introduction of public forms of land ownership and land use tlumylo individual initiative villagers prevented the formation of market relations in agriculture. The need to pay excessive prices for land prevented farmers develop their own economy. Reform is not created in the rural feeling that they own the land. Under these conditions, redemption payments were seen as new tax, rather than as partial payment received for the land.
Still, despite the large number of defects in general peasant reform of 1861 have a positive value. It eliminated the existing obstacles to socio-economic modernization of the empire.
Abolition of serfdom led to reforms in local government proceedings finance, education, censorship, military affairs. The aim of these measures was to further modernization of steps in other areas of life empire.
To improve the system Local Government 1864 Zemskov reform was carried out. Behind her in counties and provinces zaprovadzhuvalosya Zemskov (local) government. It consisted of a filament (county and province of county fees) and executive (county and provincial management of county) agencies. By county of open meetings elected (MPs) units of different classes - landowners, local owners and farmers. At the county meeting in turn elected vowels province of county fees. Prevailed at the meeting of county landowners.
In the Dnieper Ukraine action of school reform covered only the Left Bank and the South. On the Right Bank was much opposition to the Russian government, the Polish gentry, who participated in the Polish uprising of 1863 Therefore, fearing that activity zemstva contribute to a new revival of Polish national liberation movement in the province, their not created until 1911
Zemstvo Naddniprianshchyna gradually transformed into competent authorities, who conducted a great job in various areas of local governance. Most cases they are funded themselves. Zemstvo created a network of county and provincial agriculturists, organized activities to increase farmers rilnytskoyi culture - delivering seeds, farm machinery, organized courses, exhibitions, reading lectures. Because of their support came peasant cooperative movement, credit institutions for farmers. Zemstvo also took care of construction and maintenance ways, the organization's email service, statistical surveys. They provide food assistance to populations in lean years.
Zemstvo maintained primary and professional school training were free. They repeatedly approached with a request to Government for implementation in schools in the study of Ukrainian language. Unfortunately, all these requests aside, and teachers who tried use the Ukrainian language only as a subsidiary since it was Villagers realized, liberated.
Zemstvo reorganized network health care on principles no charge, the district character create the necessary conditions for inpatient population. One of the biggest achievements of school of medicine was the organization of an effective system to combat epidemics.
Activities zemstva led to in Ukrainian society that they are perceived not only as local governments, but also as an organization, opposition to the policy of Russian Tsars. It is from county agencies left many well-known in future Ukrainian public figures. Zemstvo Naddniprianshchyna repeatedly treated with petitions to the Russian government about the necessity of constitutional reforms.
Activities of county agencies had large positive value for Naddniprianshchyna. On the one hand, they became the school which taught people to the government, on the other - contributed raising national awareness.
For urban reform in 1870 governments in the cities varied from birth to bezstanove. According to Act 1875 in all cities Naddniprianshchyna created municipal councils. Suffrage was given to men of 25 years, but only those who were property owners, commercial and industrial enterprises. Workers officials, intellectuals, which together accounted for most of the urban population, but property and had not paid taxes, had no right to vote.
Municipal councils, in turn, elected City Council - a permanent executive bodies. He headed the Duma and the administration of Mayor. Activities Council and its chairman controlled the governor, who could cancel any of its decisions. City Duma took care of landscaping, contributed to the development of local trade and industry, health and public education.
Despite the limited reforms municipal government, she was positive, since replaced old city authorities had new leadership, based on bourgeois principle of qualification.
Economic development needs prompted the imperial government to conduct financial reforms. In particular, 1860 , the State Bank, which received preferential right credit trading and industrial enterprises. In all provinces were established independent of the local administration of the Chamber. These monthly reviewed the expenditures of all local institutions. With this move, the government tried to somehow resist abuse and bribery, the extent of which in Russia were high. When the emperor once instructed to check which of its executives is not bribes, he reported that only three of fifty refuse "togifts ", ie not assign local taxes population.
It was canceled a long otkupnyh system for collecting taxes, which the majority of the collected money to the treasury not nahodyla, and pocket leaseholder. Instead installed excise taxes collected by state agencies. However, farmers and townspeople were forced, as continue to pay the poll-tax, from which exempted only the privileged states.
Conducted in 1864 Judiciary reform was the most consistent bourgeois character. Because she was made an attempt vyvyschyty imperial justice to the level of contemporary legal Science and judicial practice of European countries. Earlier in the Empire existed is, closed, depending on local court administration with the lack of security charges and red tape. According to new court bezstanovym court statutes became independent from administrative authorities. The meeting of the judiciary were open to the public.
The central part of the new Justice was the District Court in each province. The prosecution maintained prosecutor, defended the interests of the defendant's lawyer. Jurors in the number of 12 people were selected randomly from representatives of all states. They heard both sides, installed, guilty or not guilty of the defendant and the sentence defined by law, the judge and members of the court.
Consideration of minor civil and criminal cases led magistrate. He chose zemstvo or municipal councils. The local administration had the opportunity to remove from office the magistrate or Court of the District Court.
And yet, despite many positive Rice, reform of the judiciary has not been completed. Continued to not linked the general judicial system bower parish court for the peasants, some courts to military and clergy. In court township farmers judged by local law used humiliating punishment beaten. As a result, farmers who were majority of the Dnieper hardly felt the benefits of new imperial judiciary.
The defeat of the Empire in the Crimean War unaochnyla need to reform the army. Due to reorganize military control the country were redistributed 15 county of the three of them - Kiev, Odessa and Kharkiv - Ukrainian were province. The heads of districts were commanders, who led located on their territory and the troops immediately obey military ministry. Government Empire controlled the national composition of the units, because of that units, located in the Dnieper Ukraine, Ukrainian were not 40% of the total composition. However, Ukrainian rozporoshuvaly in parts located in other parts of the empire.
Decisive role in implementation of military reform has played in 1874 instead of recruiting sets a new system of army recruitment through the implementation of general conscription for men who have reached 20 years of age, regardless of birth origin. The term of military service in the Army Troops of 6, the Navy - 7 years. In the late nineteenth century. was found 5-year service life for all generations of troops. Individuals who have received education, serving less time. Military reforms strengthened the imperial army, but in Ukrainian Peasants special joy they have not called, as they recruit changed the total duty military service.
Economic development needs of the empire caused the need for educational reform. Admitted 1863 new university charter, which among other effects spread to Kharkiv and Kyiv University, gave them a wide autonomy in matters domestic life. University as a whole and each professor had the opportunity freely receive from abroad, any books, send for training young scientists abroad. Training for the majority of students remained paid.
Fourth male House gymnasium. Kiev
Educational reform launched in Empire women's higher education. Although women were not allowed to study in universities introduced them to private institutions of higher women's courses. Thus was opened in Kiev higher rates for women with natural (1870), Physics, Mathematics and History and Philology (1878) Science.
Institute of noble maidens. Kiev
N.Polonska-Vasilenko - himnazystka. 1897
Transformation in the field of secondary education consisted in the reorganization of schools. The right to study in them licked representatives of all states, but high amount of tuition paid unemozhlyvlyuvav obtaining a secondary education of children of common people. Gymnasium divided into real and classic, with a separate study of boys and girls. End of Classical High School gave the opportunity to enter a university, the real - to higher technical school.
Third man home gymnasium. Kiev
Funduklei gymnasium (high school female Kiev)
According to the reform was introduced only primary education system. Schools could establish private persons zemstvo other public institutions, but with government permission. An elementary school was to educate children in the spirit allegiant Empire for the content of education in all types of schools uchylyschnoyu controlled provincial council. Teaching in primary schools (except private) was free.
The imperial government saw a large danger in spreading ideas of freedom-loving printed word. It issued a series of laws that strengthen means of administrative influence on organs of print. Institution of imperial and ecclesiastical censorship in Dnieper Ukraine received wide powers to fight against any attempt to promote press organs awakening of national consciousness. Editors of newspapers and magazines under threat forbidden to touch the closure of acute political issues. Violation of these requirements caused the temporary closure of the issue or even ban it.
Reforms 60-70's had eliminate the vestiges of the feudal imperial reality, but to save same basis of Russian autocracy. In pursuing reform, the empire used the administrative-command methods of management, support bower system in all spheres of social and political life. Above the newly local governments, courts, educational institutions, the press kept control of the imperial administration. But the objective of reforms in some areas has led to unpredictable consequences of empire. Most notable examples This was the reform of charge, which dragged the emergence of effective and authoritative local governance, even to put forward national demands of the imperial government. Reform of charge testified that members of oppressed Empire Ukrainian people have used any possible legal remedies for create their own self-government and improve living conditions.
Reforms 60-70's were Proper time concessions that they made the Russian Empire, and had intended to a full-fledged environment for development of both Ukrainian and any with other nations, oppressed empire.
1. Give facts that show that feudal relations Naddniprianshchyna hindered economic development. (Preparing the response, use the document 1.)
2. What were the conditions of peasant reform?
3. Describe the social movement for the elimination of serfdom in Dnieper Ukraine.
4. Make a table "Features reform in 1861 Dnieper in Ukraine "by the scheme:
The main questions reforms
How are they resolved?
5. How has the situation of former serfs? What rights do they have?
6. What changes have occurred in circumstances state peasants?
7. Describe the effects of peasant reform.
8. Make a table "Impact of Reforms 60-70's the development of Dnieper Ukraine "by the scheme:
Name of Reform
Impact on development Naddniprianshchyna
9. Discover the consequences of reforms 60-70's