Subject V

Dnepr Ukraine in the second half of the nineteenth century.

 

 

 

§ 19. Dnepr Ukraine in the international relations in the second half of the nineteenth century.

Remember: 1. What were the location and role Dnieper Ukraine in international relations the first half of the nineteenth century.? 2. What were the consequences Russo-Turkish wars that took place late in the first XVIII half of the nineteenth century.? 3. As Russian Empire used the human and economic potential Naddniprianshchyna to implement its expansionist policy in the first half of the nineteenth century.?

 

1. Ukrainian question in the context European foreign policy

Despite the fact that Ukraine lost its statehood, during the nineteenth century. she remained an object international politics. The deployment of the Ukrainian national liberation movement influenced the gradual spread among European politicians understand that this subdued empires people want to live its own national life. Support Ukrainian movement could cause a weakening of the empire and even if he was a success, the separation from her Ukrainian lands.

In the second half of the nineteenth century. search for ways to counter Russian expansionism started especially those countries that saw the danger in her attempts to resolve the fate of European possessions of the Ottoman Empire in its favor. Men among those countries occupied Prussian Kingdom. Prussian policy at that time developed the idea Union of Prussia, Britain and France to counter Russia's attempt to strengthen their position because of another war against the Ottoman Empire.

When in 1853 Russia launched Crimean war, some influential Prussian politykystaly speak frankly, Prussia would be useful that "only those policies that will lead to division and weakening Russia. They make the calls that do not have time to make Frederick the Great and Napoleon, to the historical fate of Dnieper Ukraine meant primarily opportunity to break free from the power of the Russian Empire.

German politicians planned away from the Russian Empire Finland, the Baltic lands, Poland, South Ukraine and Bessarabia. These plans showed understanding of European politics that the Ukrainian land is not exclusively Russian land, as trying to prove St. Petersburg authority.

However, plans for Prussian politicians nezrealizovanymy remaining. Despite the fact that the Crimean War is over defeat of the Russian Empire, victorious did not want to start on it new war, and peaceful ways to implement the plans division of empire existed.

Ukrainian issue back to international politics at a time when "Iron" Chancellor Otto von Bismarck, the creator united Germany, was to pursue his country's rightful place in European policy. Germany, among others, wanted to consolidate its influence in the Ottoman Empire, which once led to a clash of its claims against Russian interests.

Balkan crisis in 1875 caused the Russian-Turkish war 1877-1878 biennium, which was extremely successful for the Russian Empire. Bismarck saw the danger in these events for interests in Germany. In 1879 Austria-Hungary and Germany concluded an alliance directed against Russia. At the same time "Iron" Chancellor initiated the appearance of an article in which put forward plans for rejection of the Russian Empire captured her lands. Among others, in particular drawing attention to Ukrainian lands, where planned create an independent state - Great Kyiv principality, led by was to be representative of the Habsburg dynasty.

 

From the article German Hartmann philosopher in the German magazine "Hehenvart"

"There is neither geographical nor ethnographic reasons for merging the two worlds - the Russian and Belarusian-Ukrainian state in a single organism. Russians inhabit Volga and Don Rivers, so Russia is vital to have these issues rivers for their whole race, but Russia does not possess the necessary Dniester region - resettlement territory of the Ukrainian and Belarusian people. This river system separated from Russia Dvina watershed-Dolsky hills. Sky nowhere affect Russian territory. So it is no case that both annual basin populated by two different nations - Russian and Ukrainian. Russian National state as in its national character and the geographical conditions facing south-east, not west. In every case both parts can do one without the other as the geographical and beyond trade and political location. Since it follows that after separation from Russia, Finland, the Baltic Provinces, Lithuania, Poland should also be a kingdom in Kiev and the Dnieper rivers Prut. This dissertation on state of 18 million people would have all the necessary prerequisites for independent political existence. The new state must also be obtained from Austria immunity and enter it to the alliance. The separation of the territories of Russia with 34 million people finally put end of its expansion in the West ... "

Judge: 1. What evidence in favor of self-nominated by the Kingdom of Kiev? 2. What benefits have hoped for a result of Kiev Kingdom of Germany?

 

The plan also found support in official circles in Austria-Hungary. The Russian government in response to unfolded massive campaign against this dangerous for the future of the empire plans. In the above inspired articles in the Russian press wrote indignantly heady plans of the German Chancellor. Ukrainian Activists national liberation movement in Ukraine Naddnipryanskiy fear of persecution of the Russian Tsars, express their attitude to these plans could not.

The value of the German plan a Grand Duchy of Kiev was very important for European international policy and the development of the Ukrainian national movement:

·   it is visualized significant achievements of the Ukrainian national liberation movement. European policy has focused on bad Ukrainian problems. In 1869 French politician, a close friend of Napoleon III, Senator K. Delyamar introduced to the French Senate a petition concerning the rights of Ukrainian - "15,000,000th European people, the forgotten history";

·   Ukrainian question gradually developed with the internal life Austro-Hungarian and Russian empires in the part of European geopolitics. Plan Bismarck unaochnyv beginning recognition of some European politicians right Ukrainian create their own state.

 

Excerpt from the petition in K. Delyamara Ukrainian affairs, introduced by the French Senate

"In Europe there are people, forgotten historians - people Rusyns (Le peuple Ruthene), of which 12.5 million live in by the Russian Emperor, and 2.5 million souls - the former Austro-Hungarian monarchy. The people by their number of Spaniards is three times greater than Czechs and equal for all subjects of the Crown sv.Stefana (population Hungary .- Auto.). The people there, has a history that is different from history Muscovy. It has its own traditions, our language, separate from Moscow and Poland has a distinct personality, which is fighting for preservation. History should not forget that to Peter and the people whom we today call Ruthenians, called Rus or Ruthenians, and his land known as Rus or Ruthenium, and the people whom we now call Rus, called then Russians, and their land - Muscovy. Late last century, all in France and Europe is well able to distinguish Russia from Muscovy.

Judge: 1. What the author draws attention to the appeal? 2. What showed the emergence of such publications in Europe at that time?

 

At the end of XIX - beginning Twentieth century. Europe formed two political blocs States: Triple Alliance (Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy) and the Triple Entente (Britain, France, Russia). Countries Triple Union positive attitude to the Ukrainian national movement, as saw it factor weakening their enemy. For this to Ukrainian officials, who fought to liberate their homeland from the rule of the Russian Empire focus on its alliance with the opponents was historically agreed. Therefore, territory of the countries - members of the Triple Alliance Ukrainian leaders had to act quite active, not facing big obstacles on the part of government.

During the second half Nineteenth century. Ukrainian question remained part of European international policy. But Ukrainian, sought help for the liberation of his homeland, that European politicians more interested in this opportunity to thanks own geopolitical plans.

 

2. Another attempt to solve the Turkish Empire question

After the revolutionary events 1848-1849 biennium, when the Russian Empire played a leading role in rescue Habsburgs and the suppression of the Hungarian uprising and its influence and prestige in Europe considerably amplified. Based on this, the Emperor Nicholas increasingly insistent tried to solve the issue in their favor redistribution of European holdings Ottoman Empire, which he called "sick man of Europe". However, plans Emperor provoked negative reactions and promote cohesion European countries. In European democracies, growing aversion to the Russian Tsars and its role gendarme of Europe. Even before the war, British diplomats began to speak of it as a "battle of civilization against barbarism."

During the Crimean War, Russian Empire fought against the Ottoman Empire and its allies - Great Britain, France and the Sardinian kingdom. With the war Russia has sought to expand their knowledge, strengthen influence in the Middle East and Balkan Peninsula. In particular, it claimed to establish protectorate over Danubian Principalities (Moldavia and Wallachia), Bulgaria and Serbia. However, planned control of the straits, which led to the Black Sea to the Mediterranean Sea.

However, presenting these ambitious plans, Empire has proved its utter failure to understand how European policy, and those changes that have occurred in the development of Western civilization during the first half of the nineteenth century. The process of becoming an industrial society in Western States led to enhance their economic potential, heated appetite for conquest of new markets, sources of raw materials and spheres of influence. Under such favorable conditions they perceived help in suppressing revolutionary Russia performances, but had no desire to agree to its adoption in those regions, who claimed to own.

As the dominion of the empire Naddniprianshchyna area was near the rear of the Russian army and the South fighting took place directly on the Ukrainian population once again fell the main burden of unnecessary war.

 

3. The Crimean War

External drives before the war began disputes between Catholic and Orthodox churches around the custody of Christian shrines in Palestine. Russian Emperor "offended" at Turkish sultan, when he handed over the right to take care of them Catholics, and in June 1853 suddenly, without declaration of war, occupied the dependent Ottoman Danubian principalities. Instead, the Turkish sultan enlisting the support of Great Britain and France declared war on the Russian Empire. Turkish troops first fought very poorly and suffered injuries units Russian army. Defeated the Turks in the Caucasus, their Black Sea fleet was completely smashed the Russian fleet in Synops'ka Bay. The Russians started promotion to the border with Bulgaria.

 

Synops'ka battle. The Crimean War

 

The Russian Black Sea Fleet

 

Hero Crimean War, Admiral Kornilov

 

Hero Crimean War Admiral Istomin

 

Hero Crimean War Admiral Nakhimov

 

Since these developments aroused concern in Europe, Britain, France and the Sardinian Kingdom decided to come to Turkey. With the support of other European countries, they declared war on Russia. Requirements for the Emperor withdraw from the territory of the Danubian principalities nominated as Austria and Prussia

Joint Anglo-French squadron began military operations against Russia in the Black Sea coast in attacking her.

March from Odessa to Danube defended three regiments Danube Cossack Host. Defense of the Odessa also led Danube Cossack chieftain imperative. Especially distinguished descendants of Cossacks zadunaytsiv in defense of the city in April 1854 Together garrison of the city they were fighting the Anglo-French squadron and participated in obtaining the English steamer "Tiger". Cossack boats approached the ship naskochyv which ran aground and took him prisoner. "Unprecedented thing - writing witnesses - Cossacks captured steamer! "cannon from British frigate day decorates the Black Sea Boulevard Odessa, recalling the bravery Dunajec Cossacks who defended the city during the Crimean War. Hundreds of Dunajec bearing also served in Mykolayiv and Kherson, reflect attempts to break the enemy search groups in the Danube and the Dnieper.

In June - July 1854 Russian troops were forced to leave the Danubian principalities and their place immediately occupied by Austrian troops. The main battleground has moved to South Ukraine. In early September, British and French troops blocked the Black Sea ports and landed in the Crimea. After several defeats inflicted on the Russian army, Allies began the siege of the main naval base on the Black Empire Sea - Sevastopol.

 

Sevastopol bay

 

Ships near Sevastopol

 

Deploying war increasingly proves military-technical backwardness of the Russian Empire. Armament Russian army considerably inferior in its technical characteristics Allied troops. Lack of Russia fleet of steam and railways made providing all necessary Army unsolvable problem. Ukrainian peasants, which thousands took to the Russian army, died in vain because of illiteracy Russian commanders. One French-wit aptly described the then army of Nicholas I: "The Russian Army soldiers - with the heads lions, the officers - with the heads of donkeys, and the generals - all without heads. "

In Defense of abandoned Sevastopol took part formed in the Dnieper Ukraine Odessa, Poltava, Kremenchug, Zhitomir, Volyn Podolsky and shelves. By significant numerical superiority allies and acute shortages of ammunition (10 guns allies meet one of the defenders), they protrymalysya 349 days. Numerous exploits the deaths of many soldiers and officers failed. Throughout the siege of Sevastopol (September 14 1854 - August 30, 1855) and the Russian government has failed send fresh troops to the Crimea. August 30 last defenders left the city. Loss of Sevastopol, the threat of occupation of Bessarabia, South and even the Right Bank Russian Empire forced to go to conclusion in 1856 Paris Peace conditions dictated by the allies. Danube povertalosya Ottoman Empire Russia get rid of the right to maintain naval fleet and the fortress Black Sea.

Defeat in the Crimean War clearly showed the military-technical backwardness serfdom Empire, which had direct bearing on preparation of the peasant reform of 1861

 

In Ukraine Crimean War 1853-1856 biennium Peasant Movement 1855-1860 biennium

 

4. Impact of War on the situation in Dnieper Ukraine

Since Dnepr Ukraine was not only the family background, but also partly terrain warfare, its economy suffered significant losses. Hence also replenished with recruits and Russian army by militias. Results from Dnieper to the ranks of the Russian army were taken from 750 thousand persons.

In the absence of all the railways supply the necessary burden fell on the Russian army and mobilized Chumakov with their carts and cattle farmers. One only Taurian Province 1856 for military purposes in the peasants were taken about 150 thousand of the knee. Ukrainian lands laid the basic ways of moving parts of the Russian Army to the theater of war. Everything needed for the army on its way rekvizuvalos promotion in the local population.

In the South, which was pryfrontovoyu zone, declared martial law. In front of the advancing soldiers, carts arms and ammunition, and thence returning carts loaded wounded and crippled soldiers. The farmers were taken to war, people had to hold military during Postoj, delivering cattle to carry out various works. Huge burden of the war devastated the economy of the South. Spontaneous riots began. The threat of death from hunger and disease caused numerous flight to other provinces.

Great Heath, resembled Cemetery, was blooming before the Crimea. Russian military suspected local Muslim Tatars in sympathy for the Turks, jeered at them, drove them from their homes, forced to leave Crimea or killed. Politics empire in the peninsula was meant to under the pretext of war to clear it from it useless for the elements which were Crimean Tatars.

Simultaneously in the provinces Dnieper area, located near the Austrian border, by order imperial government began preparations for a possible surprise attack. Peasants Volyn and Podolia provinces was around the clock to zmobilizovano duty in case of evacuation, together with carts. Forces and villagers built strengthened old fortifications. Most of the farmers of border villages were forced to clock watch on the border or bring troops serving in the forest guard.

Felt the burden of war and workers industrial enterprises. Lugansk ironworks supplied the Russian Army artillery shells. Shostkinsky gunpowder factory during the years of war increased volume of production in six times. In the Ukrainian provinces of imperial administration initiative created committees to collect funds military needs. To work in a field hospital sent doctors to the South Naddniprianshchyna other provinces. Official propaganda deployed on Ukrainian lands "patriotic" campaign trying to portray the war as a just mission protection of the Orthodox Church of the oppression of Muslims and the entire nation-wide case population of the empire. However, among different states of the Ukrainian society is increasingly spread more negative attitude towards absurdity of war.

 

5. Cossack project Michal Czajkowski

Losses that are sustained during Crimean War Russian Empire, led to activation forces, its opposition policy abroad. In Paris the intensified activities of the Polish emigration led by Adam Czartoryski, who believed in the West "uncrowned king "of Poland. In the environment of Polish emigration formed political views of right-bank nobleman, Polish Michal Tchaikovsky (1804-1886), who during the Crimean War attempted implement its recovery plan Hetmanate.

Tchaikovsky was a participant in thy youth Polish uprising of 1830-1831 biennium After his defeat he emigrated and settled in Paris. His political ideal was the revival of the former Cossack Ukraine as an autonomous part within the restored independent Poland. Tchaikovsky Cossack Ukraine considered the best form of statehood, the embodiment of the Slavic spirit and humanistic ideals. Restoration of the nineteenth century. he imagined possible and pertinent, believed that this is the right pan weight.

Ability to implement their plans he ubachav in collaboration with Adam Czartoryski, who was the initiator of the joint armed national liberation struggle of oppressed peoples Russia. Tchaikovsky was trying to prepare for his support of anti-Russian uprising, to participation in which would attract Polish immigrants in the Caucasian highlanders by Shamil, the descendants of Cossacks zadunaytsiv, Don and Kuban Cossacks.

In 1841 on behalf of Czartoryski, he headed east agency in Istanbul and began preparations for uprising. In Dobrogea, populated mostly descendants of the Cossacks, he created ad hoc basis for political propaganda among the population and its share Naddnepryanschine. Activities displeased Tchaikovsky Russian government, which sought his deportation. To avoid this, he took Turkish nationality and came to Islam. Since Tchaikovsky performed by recovery Hetman under the protection of the Ottoman Empire in the spirit of tradition Doroshenko. He imagined himself a future Ukrainian hetman.

When the Crimean War began, Tchaikovsky saw in it an opportunity to exercise their imaginations. In his proposal Sultan allowed to form a Cossack regiment under Turkish command. Headed This regiment of Cossacks in 1400 under the name Mirmiram-Pasha himself Tchaikovsky. The composition regiment of Cossacks, descendants zarahovuvaly zadunaytsiv, deserters from the Russian Army, Bulgarians. Officers were mostly Poles, members rebellion 1830-1831 biennium At the insistence of Tchaikovsky as the official language used in his regiment exclusively Ukrainian.

The regiment played a prominent Tchaikovsky role in the Danube Campaign 1854 Cossacks Mirmiram-pasha took an active participated in the liberation of the Russians surrounded the fortress on the Danube Sylystriya, the first came to Bucharest after it left the Russian army. End 1854 Tchaikovsky's regiment went to the border of the Russian Empire on the Prut River. He planned to go to the area and raise there Naddniprianshchyna anti-Russian uprising, but far not materialized. Turkish command and Allies ignored the intentions of Tchaikovsky considered as important struggle for mastery of Sevastopol. So when the Austrian troops occupied Danubian principalities, the regiment Tchaikovsky brought to Bulgaria, where he remained to end the war.

Cossack project Michal Tchaikovsky restore Hetmanate was ambiguous phenomenon. Lump consider his whimsical tales should not be. During the Crimean War turned peasant movement called "Kiev Cossacks. The desire to return to Ukrainian peasants Cossack state and become free testified to the existence in the Dnieper Ukraine the force, which could support the appeal to raise Tchaikovsky national liberation uprising against imperial domination. It is worth to mention that he later claimed, allegedly received a message from Dnieper from secret anti-Russian organization "Committee of Ukraine and Bessarabia. They opposed by the Ukrainian nobility treated Sultan's request to restore the autonomous Ukrainian Cossack state under protectorate of the Ottoman Empire. Declaring that they wanted her in those borders, that existed during the hetman Petro Doroshenko, with the amount of rights they had under sultanate Danubian principalities (Wallachia, Moldavia).

Yet the draft recovery Hetman in the nineteenth century. had several significant flaws. First, the historical realities Nineteenth century. and level of development of European civilization significant differences from those that existed in the XVII-XVIII centuries. Secondly, the project Tchaikovsky curve in a deep internal contradiction, because trying to combine the restoration of the Ukrainian and the Polish state with a single national liberation uprising. Looking back on previous historical events, it is difficult to imagine that the Ukrainian peasants fought for the restoration of the Commonwealth.

Michal Czajkowski Cossack project in history example persistent search for the best representatives of the peoples oppressed by the Russian Empire, the way of national liberation.

 

6. The peasant movement during the Crimean War

At the end of the war in Dnieper Ukraine have been numerous statements of villagers.

The reason for peasant unrest was the announcement of the imperial manifesto of January 29, 1855 the formation "Terrestrial mobile militia, and received Kiev Governor-General of the War Minister orders to organize four equestrian Cossack regiments. For Ukrainian peasants words "homeguardsman" and "Cossacks" were Distinct from the "free man". Among peasants rumors that those who be written in the Cossacks, released from serfdom.

Especially widespread movement came in Kiev province, where there was also its name - "Kiev Cossacks. It cause in Kiev region centered in the largest Naddniprianska Ukraine number of serfs - more than 1 million lives. The movement encompassed counties in which lived about 180 thousand peasant serfs. To suppress the Kiev Cossacks "the Russian government had to use a large number of regular troops.

The last stage is connected with war movement was the peasant farmers march "in Tavria for freedom". Led it rumors that the settlement is desolate because of the Crimean Tatar Russian expulsions Government calls on everyone to move there. They said that every peasant migrant becomes free, the land, and significant financial assistance to build up our economy or the employee can work at camp follower good pay to the Treasury papers.

Spring and Summer 1856 began a massive spontaneous migration of farmers, with all his treasure journeyed to Perekopa. In the fight against the settlers government has directed several divisions and regular army regiments, made curtains and blocked the way through Perekop. But villagers did not believe the Russian government who explained that "all the unfounded distributed false rumors about freedom and resisted those who tried to force return them home. Summer 1856 Perekopa concentrated near dozens thousands of peasants. Only by bloody executions with a large number of deaths and wounded military command in late 1856 suppressed the peasant movement.

The Crimean War has greatly impact on socio-economic situation in Dnieper Ukraine. Once again Ukrainian people felt all the "charms" stay under the imperial authority "Orthodox brothers".

 

Questions and Tasks

1. Expand the role and place Ukrainian issues in European international politics of the second half Nineteenth century.

2. What led to another war The Russian empire against Turkey?

3. As major events occur Crimean War?

4. Describe the impact of war on situation in Dnieper Ukraine.

5. What Cossack project Michal Tchaikovsky? What was its significance?

6. What were the features peasant movement "Kiev Cossacks?

7. Compare the place and role Dnieper Ukraine in the international relations of the first and second half Nineteenth century. Identify common features.