§ 17. Ukrainian literature, theater, music (textbook)

§ 17. Ukrainian literature, theater, music

Remember: 1. With the advent of each work associated beginning of the new Ukrainian literature? Why give it such importance? 2. What were the characteristics of Ukrainian Literature in the XVIII century.? Name the famous literary heritage this period. 3. As developed Ukrainian musical art in the XVIII century.? 4. What classicism and romanticism?

 

1. Features of literature theatrical and musical art in the first half of the nineteenth century.

The main artistic trends that reflected in Ukrainian literature and art of this period were classicism and romanticism. Development of classical tradition has been associated with creativity Kotlyarevskyi, P.Hulaka-Artemovsky H.Kvitky-Osnovianenko. In the spirit Romanticism, wrote his works were preoccupied Kharkiv romantics (Borovikovskiy, A. Metlynsky, M. Kostomarov, etc.). Galician and romance, members of the Ruthenian Triad " (Holovatsky, I. Vahylevych, M. Shashkevych) in Transcarpathia - O. Dukhnovych. The height of romanticism in literature was the work of the Kiev Dnieper area Romantics - Shevchenko, P. Kulish. Outside the ancient literary groups was E. Hrebinka whose works are written both in classical and in romantic styles.

 

E. Hrebinka. Portrait of Mokritskiy. 1840

 

One of the main achievements Ukrainian Romantic writers was that they looked like Ukrainian equal to other people and tried to create a complete literature. They introduced to Ukrainian literature two important thematic units: folk cultural and historical past (mainly Cossack) of Ukraine. Art Ukrainian Romantics meet the then European tradition of romanticism. As a result, their creativity romance promoted recognition of the new Ukrainian Literature in European circles.

Nineteenth century. was the continuation of those events that occurred in the theatrical life of the XVIII century. Main content processes that unfolded in the first half of the century the development of Ukrainian theater, was the formation of professional theater. In content and style of Ukrainian theater belonged to the family of European theater, while maintaining bright national character.

Visit the theater was in this a commonplace, so performances were constantly. Appeared and a new type artist - a professional actor. In theatrical performances on stage were women that did not. Remarkable diversity of repertory theaters, plays treated Ukrainian, Polish and Russian.

The development of musical culture processes influenced the Ukrainian national revival. Simultaneously with changes in sense of musical culture and its varied forms. Amateur and home inferior place of professional music performance, there were regular bands musicians.

 

2. Literature Development

An interesting phenomenon of classical poetry were works written in the genre of burlesque (comic poetry) and travesty (humorous poetry close to parody). Master burlesque and travesty of the genre and a founder new Ukrainian literature written vernacular, became John Kotlyarevsky (1769-1838). In 1798 it was published Famous poem "Aeneid". For its travesties Kotlyarevsky chose the same name poem by the Roman poet Virgil. The author, however, not only translated the vernacular poem. Contents poem he suffered on Ukrainian soil, so that Aeneas and his companions turned to Zaporozhye Cossacks with their kosh. All of this series with brilliant humor inherent creative manner Kotlyarevskogo. Nevertheless, the next with funny lines and he found a place for serious topics. Sharply condemned by serfdom, stverdyvshy the place for landlords, owners are only in hell. Yearningly Kotlyarevsky recalled the glorious historical past, times Hetman, called love their native land, living sacrifice­for the good souls of Homeland.

 

I. Kotliarevsky

 

Poem Kotlyarevskogo had huge success in Dnieper Ukraine. All read it with admiration. Even Napoleon, returning from an unsuccessful trip to London, moved to its copy France. They knew and read a poem descendants of Cossacks Cossacks Danubian Sich. Her work Kotlyarevsky convincingly proved the existence of the Ukrainian language and hence the people for which it is native. Gain the necessary conditions for its decent life, was to those awakened from deep sleep, his poem author. Thanks to the "Aeneid" Ukrainian elite, which is increasingly rusyfikuvalasya, found native language not only as a peasant, but as literary.

In the work Peter Gulak-Artemovsky (1790-1865) satire and humor removed form of criticism of social injustice. The most notable was the fable "Mr. and dog, where the author described the horrible picture of life of Ukrainian peasant serfs. Made Gulak-Artemovsky also travesty and ordinary translations works of other authors. However, most famous for his tales.

 

P.Hulak-Artemovsky

 

Peruvian writer G. Flower-Osnovyanenko(1778-1843) belonged to the story "Mr. Khalyavsky", "Ukrainian diplomats", "Mary" play "matchmaking on Honcharivka"  "Shelmenko - parish clerk" and other works. The nature of his works different. There were those in which the writer ridiculed, but without malice, with the shortcomings of human nature, and those where he immersed himself in the hills realities of the Ukrainian village. Among past - the story "unfortunate Oksana", which he described the fate of rural girl, corrupted by a Russian captain. Highly valued creativity writer Shevchenko, who dedicated the poem to him, "By Osnovyanenko.

The peak of development of Ukrainian creativity literature has T. Shevchenko (1814-1861). With its unmatched talent, he became not only a classic of Ukrainian literature, but national pride of the Ukrainian people. Shevchenko started writing poetry in second half of the 30's In 1840 St. Petersburg got its collection poetry Kobzar, and 1841 - the biggest historical poem "Gajdamaki. Written in the 1843-1845 biennium collection of poems "Three years" contained works that meant the most to the Ukrainian national life. They also strongly Shevchenko strongly opposed the social and national oppression of the people, chastised his fiery word all offenders people - landlords, kings, tyrants, "Rozpynateliv people. This protest was the main reason the Russian massacre Tsars of the poet. Poetry for those three years was the pinnacle Shevchenko as the Ukrainian national poet. Among the works written in subsequent years are not only poems but prose (story "Musician", "artist", "Gemini", "Kapitansha" etc.). And drama Nazar Stodolia. At the end of life Shevchenko created a series of poems that have become examples of love and high landscape lyrics.

 

Taras Shevchenko. Self-portrait. 1845

 

Important place in Ukrainian literature takes creativity Panteleimon Kulish (1819-1897). With the invention of the alphabet, which the Ukrainian and enjoy now, as the "father of Ukrainian spelling. However, this cultural contribution Kulish did not stop, leaving behind a trace and as political actors and writer. His pen is the first Ukrainian historical novel "The Black Council ". Keen was also his poetic talent, as demonstrated, the first collection of poems "dawn." A special place is occupied poem "Ukraine", from which the author wanted to make Ukrainian epic like "Iliad" of Homer, events since the Prince Vladimir, Hetman Bohdan Khmelnytsky. Great importance was Kulish made Ukrainian translation of the Bible. He also worked on translations of world literary classics, including poems and Dzh.Bayrona dramas of Shakespeare.

 

Kulish

 

In Western Ukraine appearance new Ukrainian literature associated with a member "Ruthenian Triad". The most talented poet among triychan recognized Shashkevych. Track it Works ("Tosca", "calamity", "Vesnivka", "Podlasie"), is mostly melancholic color, which partly combined with national appeals.

One of the most talented Western poets thought Nicholas Ustyyanovycha (1811-1885). His works are poems, ballads, and songs. Style poet characterized the use of aphoristic phrases, vivid expressions. Romantic paintings Carpathian life unfolding before the reader of his novels "Revenge Verkhovyntsya", "Holy Thursday".

 

3. Development of Theatre Arts

Changes in Ukrainian society under imperial rule had led to new forms of theatrical life. Because of introduction of serfdom in Dnieper Ukraine Russian nobles manner began to impose themselves in what has been characteristic of Russian life landlords. They have adopted, among others, and capture bond theater. Race for big money hyzuyuchys one another, they hired foreign directors, choirmaster, choreographers, conductors and assigned to them create from their talented serfs theater companies, choirs, orchestras. Repertory theaters bond was varied: treated opera, ballet, drama. Particularly popular ballets. It dictated how contemporary fashion, and that due to the prevalence of foreign repertoire uneducated actor-serfs were sutuzhno speak with tongues. In addition, staged ballet performances gave the hosts an opportunity to impress guests the luxury estates of scenery. Cast-serfs played in theaters with coercion. To many music performances also wrote composers-serfs.

In the bank Ukraine was bond many theaters located in the landlords' estates. Among were the most famous theaters in s.Kybyntsi 'sitting in the estate and D. Troschynsky s.Kachanivka in Chernihiv in landlord G. Tar­Navier­sity. To the estate of the performances Tarnawsky came Nikolai Gogol, M. Markevitch, M. Maksimovich. In the story "Mu­зи­Chant "Theatre described by Shevchenko, who was well acquainted with the owner of the theater and its actors. Theatre landowner D. Shira s.Spyrydonova of Buda in Chernihiv repeatedly toured in Kiev and other cities Naddniprianshchyna.

Bond character and theater entertainment content remained closed circle of people, lords whim. But Despite this he trained staff of professional actors, created a foundation for further development of dramatic art. Made, and also that some landlords, wanting to earn money for their talents serfs sent theater troupe to tour the cities. But the actors were quite talented deprived of their rights "baptized property" owners. When the show did not like owner, he could stop it or just give the actress on the stage slap and enact vysikty beaten.

The next stage of development professional theater became an amateur theater. Arts groups of amateur actors in there universities and high schools. Well-known amateur troupe worked in Poltava, Kharkiv, Nizhyn Kremenchug and other cities. For language and repertoire as bond and amateur theaters were not Ukrainian.

The path from amateur to professional theater in Kharkiv began in 1791 with the creation of special facilities, equipped to conduct regular theatrical performances. At first played in performances young-provincial office of the clerk, who spoke on their own without any remuneration. Later, young amateur troupe formed continuous actors, who received from the local administration permission to his theater on maintenance. Since then his work by professional actors get paid.

Another Theatre Center Dnieper area, where there was a professional theater, has Poltava. In 1815 here is an amateur theater, whose soul was I. Kotliarevsky, often performed on stage. Little later, at the initiative of Governor-General Nikolai Repnin was established professional theater. Poltava Theatre Performances began in 1818 It is for this theater Kotljarevs'kyj, annoyed Russian domination of the plays in his repertoire, wrote Natalka Poltavka and "Moskal the Wonder," which debuted with great success on the scene 1819 Simultaneously with formation of professional theater, new Ukrainian actors.

According to contemporaries, the best among contemporary theater actors were Michael Schepkin (1788-1863) and Carp Solenyk(1811-1851). Schepkin started his career as an actor serf theater. By initiative Kotlyarevskyi were collected a considerable amount of money to buy it free. Featured given Shchepkina on stage comedic insults, sometimes with dramatic coloring. Deeply and clearly able to transfer features of the Ukrainian Solenyk character on stage. Attending a performance with his participation in Romny, Shevchenko genuinely admired the talents of the actor. The fate of the two was different. Schepkin on some time left Naddniprianshchyna and became an imperial act small Theater in Moscow. Solenyk invitation to play on the stage of St. Petersburg Imperial Theatre replied categorically refused, explaining that loves Ukraine and never wants to leave. The value of these two outstanding actors was the fact that they abandoned the old classical style of the game and created a new standard of realism is combined with the Ukrainian national style.

Lands to the West 30's Nineteenth century. theater plays in the Ukrainian language was not. Immediately Galicia after accession to the Austrian Empire sent a theater here troupe in Vienna. Her performances were held exclusively in German and intended to entertain the new owners of the land. The first attempt shows vernacular made 1834 Lviv Theological Seminary, with the assistance of the Rector G. Yakhimovich. For a collection of songs Rusyn Lozynsky J. Ruska Wedding seminarians put on the stage of the peasant wedding rituals and songs. Production had great success with teachers and pupils of the seminary. The first public performances in the Ukrainian language was made in June 1848 in Lvov, Przemysl, Coloma. Was used Kotlyarevskogo plays Natalka Poltavka "and" Moskal the Wonder ", the plots are handled in accordance Ozarkevycha I. to local conditions. Performances were a success with visitors. In October 1848 I. Ozarkevycha showed spectacle "The girl in the publication" (based on "Natalka poltavka") before the Council of Russians in Ukraine and scientists won a great commitment of all present.

 

4. Formation of professional music Arts

Centres of vocational music in the Dnieper were mostly large cities - Kyiv, Kharkiv, Poltava, Odessa, etc.. In those cities focused theater life, there were touring opera ensembles, orchestras and individual performers. In high schools and high schools, where music is taught and dances for the occasion of different events arranged amateur concerts and music evenings. Sign of city life were the performances of military brass bands in urban gardens and theaters. There were talented pianists and composers who fortepyanni written works - variations on the theme of Ukrainian folk songs.

During the first half Nineteenth century. in Dnieper Ukraine, the first music company, who guide the concert: the Philharmonic Society in Odessa (1842), Symphonic music lovers and community singing in Kiev (1848).

However, in the whole musical culture Dnieper area in the first half of the nineteenth century. developed rather slowly. One reason was the lack of the conservatory, to which repeatedly drawn the attention of representatives of Ukrainian intelligentsia.

In Western Ukraine Falling under the power of the Habsburgs promoted the awakening of some music. On this influenced by the direct connections with Vienna, which was the center of contemporary European music. Main place in cultural and artistic took the life of the city known European musicians: a teacher of Polish composer Chopin, German theater director J. Elsner and German composer and A. nankeen conductor. Still, in their work they were far from understanding and perception of the local Ukrainian musical culture. Awakening Ukrainian music was associated with activity in 20-ies Greek Catholic clergy in Przemysl. With the support of Bishop I. Snihurskoho here in 1829 was established regular church choir. On the basis of the choir formed a new generation that founded the "Peremyshl school "- Ukrainian direction of the musical life Western Ukraine. The most famous of its representatives was Mikhail Verbitsky.

Achievements music first half of the nineteenth century. preconditions for the development of Ukrainian national trend in the second half of the century music.

 

Questions and tasks

1. What were the characteristics of literature, drama and music in the first half of the nineteenth century.?

2. Describe achievements Ukrainian literature of the first half century.

3. As there was the process of professional theater?

4. What role was played by Ukrainian folk music in the development of musical art?

5. Describe the process development of professional music.