Post andV

Culture of Ukraine at the end XVIII -  first half Nineteenth century.

 

Ukrainian culture of the first half of the nineteenth century.

 

§ 16. Development of education and science in the Ukrainian lands in first half of the nineteenth century.

Remember: 1. What was characteristic for national cultural policy of the Russian and Austrian empires on Ukrainian? 2. As developing education and science in Ukraine in the XVIII century.?

 

1. Features of development of Ukrainian Culture

The main substance of the processes in the culture of this period was the formation of modern Ukrainian culture. This process spivvidnosyvsya with the Ukrainian national revival. Lack of their own state, national oppression, the imperial borders ignored the ethnic Ukrainian territory, had a negative impact on development culture.

Cultural relations between Ukraine and Russian Empire in the nineteenth century. acquired otherwise than in previous times. High on the development of Ukrainian culture of XVI-XVIII centuries. positively influenced by the Russian state and helped her become European. As a result, higher for cultural and educational level of Ukrainian leaders were aware of themselves as representatives of another nationality, and the Russian state was considered following them. In the nineteenth century., loss of its independence, Ukraine and got rid of their cultural superiority over Russia. As the empire purposefully made a Naddniprianshchyna on average the province, many talented Ukrainian felt impossibility show their talents at home and had to seek the best opportunities in the imperial capitals. Many Ukrainian cultural figures imperial ideologues completely unreasonable to enrolled members Russian culture. However, most of them, even far from the homeland remain representatives of their people, continued their work and creativity serve Ukraine. Therefore, their achievements, though performed outside the country, belong to the Ukrainian culture.

Stay under the imperial government caused changes in the contents of Ukrainian culture. Most of the gains architecture, sculpture, fine art lost national characteristics and now somehow helped magnify the imperial power.

Positive impact on Ukraine cultural development in Russia representatives of the Russian great-power ideology tried to ignore. Embodiment of these views was the assertion of Russian public figure, Vissarion Belinsky that "ever merged with consanguineous her Russia Little Russia opened the door to civilization, education, art, science ... "These thoughts, despite their validity, the empire gradually advocated to explain the nature of the national cultural policy Ukrainian lands.

In very difficult conditions developed Culture in the Western lands under the Habsburgs, where Ukrainian suffered from onimechuvannya be combined with polonization in Galicia, Magarization in Transcarpathia and Rumanization in Bukovina.

Austrian Empire considered western land as a backward province and purposely kept their second fiddle on the center. As a result, Western cultural figures, like their brothers-Dnipro region, were forced to look for opportunities display their skills outside of their native land.

 

2. The development of education in the Dnieper Ukraine

Go Ukrainian lands under power of the Russian empire considerably worsened the educational level of the Ukrainian people. During Hetman one school accounted for an average of 700-800 people. Kept they are financed by the local population. During the imperial power of school en masse closed for the peasant-Cree­packs quite impoverished, and the government they are not cared for.

Since 1803 in the Dnieper began to distribute new to general education system. Determined the following types of secondary education: elementary parochial schools, county schools and high schools. Officially fitted nature of the right bower education. Parish schools were intended for children "lower orders" and they taught only to the law of God, arithmetic and literacy. County schools intended for children "merchants, artisans and other local inhabitants. In schools taught children of nobles, officials and rich merchants. With new content education system was aimed at raising the "loyalist" in the pro-empirial style. In 1850 in all elementary schools enrolled only 67 Naddniprianshchyna thousands of students. The vast majority of the population remained illiterate.

 

The development of schooling in Dnieper Ukraine according to government data for 1856

 

Governorate

Schools of all types (high, medium,   below)

Number of students and pupils

Students per 100 persons of population

Volyn

76

3558

0,23

Podolsky

143

4432

0,25

Kiev

142

9114

0,50

Kherson

168

8704

0,80

Yecaterinoslav

161

9652

0,92

Tavria

169

8867

1,34

Kharkiv

128

7227

0,45

Poltava

160

7866

0,44

Chernihiv

173

8867

0,34

Judge: Analyze the figures. Draw conclusions as influenced imperial domination on the situation in education. (At the seven regiments in Hetmanate he was 17,401,747 866 schools.)

 

Secondary education gave school, studies in which it was paid. After graduating from high school four years graduates got the right to join a university or the public service. Special imperial order was forbidden to take to schools and universities natives of serfs. During the first half Nineteenth century. in the Dnieper was opened 19 schools from 4 thousand students.

The special character of the small system Education on the Right Bank. Avoiding discontent nobility, not the imperial government interfere in the activities of Polish schools were there. Training of Ukrainian peasants Poles not at all interested. Education in schools was carried out in pro- patriotic spirit. The situation changed in the land after suppression of Polish Uprising 1831 Russification of the education system was part of bringing Right Bank in line with other provinces of the empire.

In the early nineteenth century. in Dnieper Ukraine, the first professional school - crafts schools, medical schools, schools of Merchant Shipping, gardening, wine making, beekeeping and more. The appearance was caused by their economic needs development, but in general they lacked.

The only higher pozastanovym institution in the Ukrainian lands in the early nineteenth century. remained Kyiv Mohyla Academy. The imperial government in 1817 special solution scrapped it and instead created Theological Academy, where only winning Children, the clergy a theological education.

The Ukrainian elite for a long time struggling for the opening of Dnieper University. In 1805, as already noted, was opened in Kharkiv University, which consisted of a verbal (historical-philological), Law, mathematical and medical faculties. During the 1805-1851 biennium it graduated 2800 persons.

1834 opened Kyiv University, who had a philosophy and law. Contingent university students gradually changed: first the dominant Polish nobility, then - Ukrainian and Russian nobility, and the 60's - Ukrainian young people from different social classes.

Intermediate between medium and universities were grammar schools, which in its nine-year course combining high-school and university programs: Volyn in Kremenets Lyceum (1805), Rishelyevskaya Lyceum in Odessa (1818), the senior high school science in Nizhyn (1820). You create with the permission of the Russian government in Dnieper middle and high schools were preparing for his design staff to replenish the imperial administration at various levels. Ability to obtain education depended on the prosperity of people, but because it was available came from privileged classes. Ukrainian language use in schools was forbidden.

 

3. Education at Western

Changes in the education system in place period of reforms of Maria Theresa. In 1774 have laws that require primary education for children 5-12 years. After some time is the law of entering a new school system. For his secondary education institutions divided into:

·   elementary: in villages - parish one year, in towns and cities - trivial, or tryklasni. Education in these schools had maintained native "parent" language;

·   chotyryklasni main, and normal schools were created in large cities;

·   gymnasium with two years of training. The end of school made it possible to enter higher education institutions - academies and universities.

In all schools, except elementary and trivial, teach­nnya been prepared German. State schools are not funded, and they should refrain banking needs. Revitalization of the Polish movement led attempts polonizuvaty education system. When the Austrian government agreed that language learning should and be held by most students, the Poles tried by any means sabotage the decision. It came to that teacher-student-Poles released Faith­children from school in the days when people came to the commission, or those convinced that the majority of Polish children. You enter a wrong, Austrian Government 1805 decree under which all elementary schools in Galicia and folk Bukovina transferred control of the Roman Catholic Church. This decision caused aggravation "of the struggle for school" between Poles and Ukrainian, which continued during the first half of the nineteenth century.

On top Romanian Bukovina not wanted help in getting education Ukrainian peasantry. Ukrainian language in schools not was enabled, there was Rumanization education system. Submission System Schooling the Roman Catholic Church led that study was driven, along with Romanian, German and Polish.

Wrestling Greco-Catholic clergy for the education of Transcarpathian Rusyns owed existence in the land of good among all Ukrainian lands national system of primary education. At the end of XVIII - early XIX century. in Transcarpathia were about 300 primary schools, traditional language teaching held by the church communities. In other schools it was mandatory Transcarpathia studying the Hungarian language. Despite the ongoing protests and resistance Greek Catholic clergy, the Hungarian government has consistently led Magyarization Transcarpathia. Step towards the ultimate elimination of Rusyn elementary schools was Act 1844, so in all kinds of schools zatverdzhuvalasya Hungarian language.

Compulsory education (which, to things were never introduced) abolished in 1812 Miserable peasantry was simply unable to maintain the school. The main merit is that Rusyn elementary schools do not disappear, belonged to the Greek Catholic Church. In 1847 in Galicia there were 741 and 459 Rusyn Ruthenian Polish schools.

During the "spring of nations" in Eastern Galicia and Transcarpathia occurred Sunday school for adults, where learning been prepared in Ukrainian.

High school education gave gymnasium. In 40-50-ies Eastern Galicia there were eight schools in Northern Bukovina - one in Transcarpathia - nine.

Institutions of higher education Western Ukraine was founded in 1661 Lviv University, real (gambling­ral) Academy (1817) Tech Academy (1844). Ukrainian language in these schools do not was enabled.

 

 

4. The development of science

At the end of XVIII - the first half of the nineteenth century. always rich in talent, a huge number of scientists Ukraine world level. Start the Ukrainian national revival caused growing interest in history and popular culture. Therefore appeared many historical, linguistic, ethnographic works. Besides its importance as Ukrainian foundations sense formation of nation, they also became the impetus for further research research.

The development of science needed the Centers are organized to research activities have contributed implementation of the achievements of scientists in the life and disseminate their ideas.

The first research center Dnieper Ukraine was founded on the Karazin Kharkiv Filotehnichne Company (1811-1818 biennium). Although limited by the absence of any government support capabilities, the company has made quite a lot. Its members popularized advanced farming methods, new equipment contributed to the establishment of enterprises processing agricultural products. Activities Filotehnichnoho Society initiated the emergence of other societies.

Significant role in the scientific Research Society of Sciences has played at Kharkov University (1812-1829 biennium). Popularization of the views of its members contributed to periodic publication of special collections. Against the oppression of the local administration forced the company to stop its activity.

Archaeological research was the main focus of the Interim Committee for the Investigation of Antiquities (1835-1845 biennium), established in Kyiv. The need for the emergence of such institutions resulted in important archaeological discoveries made by amateur archaeologists, Kiev. During excavations here found foundations of church tithes and openly the ruins of the Golden Gate. Provisional Committee took under his protection, these and other monuments, established control over the conduct of excavations in the city, initiated the establishment Museum of Antiquities at the University of Kiev. After the liquidation committee his powers were transferred to the official establishment - Ad-hoc Committee for the Study of Ancient Documents (Kyiv archeographical Commission) at Governor-General (1843). As conceived by the founders, the purpose of its activities eradicate Polish influences were in evidence across the land bezpidstavnosti Polish claims the facts of the historical past of these lands. Objectively the commission contributed to the study of many previously unknown pages of history Ukraine. In the commission were M. Maksimovich, M. Kostomarov, O. Lazarevsky other famous scientists. In his role as artist of 1845 worked in the Commission Shevchenko, who found zamalovuvav archaeological sites. The result the commission was the publication of a unique collection of multi "Semi Archive­den­no-West Russia.

Archaeological research and historic sites Northern Black Sea and Crimea conducted established 1839 Odessa Society of History and Antiquities. Its members organized archaeological excavations of ancient cities, ancient forts and burial mounds. Thanks a bunch members of the association with scientists from other countries, knowledge about the old Ukrainian lands are known in the scientific centers of Europe.

The greatest cultural and educational institution at Western was founded in 1817 Poles Ossolineum (People named institution. Ossolinskis). It consisted library, museum and printing. Ossolineumi stored in numerous archives Polish magnates, a collection of archaeological sites, weapons, paintings, sculptures etc.. Contained in its collections unique documents on the history of Ukraine, in particular Archives of Ukrainian cities, the original universal Ukrainian hetman and other documents. Studying these materials, historians learn about little known pages past of Ukraine.

 

5. Scientific discovery

The first half of the nineteenth century. was period of significant achievements of Ukrainian scientists in the natural sciences. Caused development needs as a society and a lack of interference by imperial officials who saw no danger in the work of scientists.

The development of astronomy helped establishing astronomical observatories in Kharkov (1808), Nikolaev (1821) and Kiev (1845). Interesting observation of celestial phenomena made professor at the Kharkiv University T. Osypovskyi (1765-1832). He also was an accomplished mathematician and created three volumes "Mathematics Course", which remained for several decades basic textbook for the discipline.

Outstanding role in the development of chemical Science professors have played the University of Kharkiv and O. Hodnyeyeva Beketov. Many publications on botany published by M. Maksimovich. Among them were textbooks for students of "Principles of Biology" and "Principles of Zoology" work "Reflections about nature, "Systematics of Plants". In his first works of scientists in the world formed a picture not only of the evolutionary theory of the organic world, and and on cellular organism. However, the opening of the Ukrainian scientist were not properly marked by the Russian Empire.

Maksimovich came from Poltava, with old Cossack Hetman kind. From little boy admired botany, folklore and Ukrainian history. Youth preferences identified range of future research. Graduated from Moscow won Maksimovich University. The first two years he studied philology and two following - the Natural separation. During the 1823-1834 biennium Maksimovich worked in Moscow, led the scientific and educational activities. During this period he published about 100 scientific papers, which received high grades from the European scientific world. Capture natural sciences did not prevent Maksimovich views dive to his native land. Evidence of his longing for the homeland is the emergence 1827 book "Little Russian songs. After opening in Kyiv University Maximovich appeared for a real opportunity to return to Ukraine. "Establishment new university - he wrote later - drew me irresistible force there ... Homeland where my family ". In September 1834 approved by the scientist as rector of the university.

In less than eighteen years of principalship scientist has managed to do a lot of training. But the activity Maximovich caused dissatisfaction imperial officials and scientists on established petty care. It made Maximovich abandon rector.

The next decade of his life scientist dedicated culture and history of the Ukrainian people. He was initiated by the Interim Commission for the Study of Ancient Documents prepared and its charter. Maksimovich opposed intentions Russian officials to of the Commission's pro-empirial character and use the materials to justify oppression of the Ukrainian national empire.

After retiring Maksimovich always worked in archives and libraries. The result of this work were research the history of Kyiv, jail, Poltava and other Ukrainian Pereiaslav cities. Many materials have been donated scholars on the history of National Liberation War of the Ukrainian people against Poland in XVII., haidamak movement of the Cossacks. Maksimovich translated into Ukrainian "Tale Igor. He strongly advocated the Ukrainian language, stressing: "To Science zridnylysya smart people should develop their own language ... "

Do not abandon this position Maksimovich and during the Ukrainian language in the 60-70's He strongly advocated against those who denied the existence of the Ukrainian language. His love for Homeland Maksimovich expressed in poetry: "Do not leave until the bend, my Ukraine: "This oath outstanding Ukrainian scientist not violated. Died Maksimovich 1873 in Kiev. During his life scientist wrote and published over 260 papers and works. Respect for the memory worthy devotee of Ukrainian science was the publication fans of his works Maximovich in three volumes.

On the initiative for Karazin 1812-1830 biennium first meteorological station was opened in Kharkiv, Kyiv, Nikolaev, Poltava. According to their observations, he believed it possible provide cold, storms, droughts and so on.

Significant role in the botany, horticulture and agronomy played research work in botanical gardens. Botanical gardens were founded at universities. In 1804 was laid oldest botanic garden Kharkiv University. In addition to university gardens, great work carried out based 1812 s.Nikita near Yalta in the Nikita Botanical Gardens. On Western Ukraine botanical garden attached to the University there. In the gardens of plants investigated, solved the practical problem of their acclimatization, breeding new varieties and more.

Successfully developed medical science. Founder of the Ukrainian surgical ophthalmology became professor of the Kiev University, one of the founders of its medical faculty Mr. Loaf (1811-1892). Professor of Kharkov University N. Yellinskyy wrote a two-volume textbook on the fundamentals of surgery, so long studied at universities and medical academies across the Russian Empire.

 

6. Transcarpathian contributions of scientists in the development of culture

The national and cultural revival, that began in the late XVIII century Transcarpathia. has become a powerful impetus disclosure to the talents of Carpatho-Rusyns. While many Ukrainian-Rusyns were able to get an education. So this group is highly intellectuals who through their skills and hard work have acquired in education Western universities. However, opportunities for research activities in Motherland, which was then not a single university, lacked so they had to seek work in foreign lands. Through scientific ability and thorough education of all scientists managed to make significant Transcarpathians contribution to the development of the country, where he worked. Working in a foreign land, they never forget their native land and were sort of cultural ambassadors of Transcarpathia far beyond.

Great merit in establishing Contact between young people and talented zakarpatskoy of Western scientists belonged to the world John Forhashi(1786-1834). After receiving his theological education in Uzhgorod, he moved to Vienna, where he became a priest of St.. Barbara. It was added to the group Slavic people like ideas of national revival. Forhashi worked study of the history of Transcarpathia and popular language. However, he contributed their efforts to organization of education and scientific and educational work in the European Transcarpathians countries. With his request, for example, received an invitation to work in Italy scholar, linguist, historian M. Luchkaya.

Research Transcarpathians John Zemanchyka, a distinguished physicist and mathematician, was associated with Lviv and Krakow University. He was a professor, dean and rector of Lviv university institute in Ruska taught at the University of vernacular Ukrainian students, physics and mathematics.

Many scientists have gone Transcarpathians work to the Russian Empire. John came here first eagle. In the Russian Eagle Empire held high positions, many made for improving medical education. When there began to reform the education system and seek teachers to work in the newly established educational institutions, an eagle advised to invite young Transcarpathian scientists.

The invitation to work in the Russian Empire received three Subcarpathian Professors: Michael Baludyanskyy (1769–1847), Peter Lodi (1764–1829), Puppeteer Basil (1765-1821). All they played a significant role in the cultural life of the empire. Selected Director Chief Pedagogical Institute in St. Petersburg, Puppeteer taught courses law, physics, chemistry, agriculture. His lectures and listen to other educational Petersburg schools. Combined the teaching of logic, moral philosophy and law directorship of the commercial college in St. Petersburg Mr. Lodi. Taught Political Science established the first rector in 1819 Petersburg M. Baludyanskyy University. New Western ideas, which spread Subcarpathian scholars in imperial institutions, significantly influenced views of young Russians.

 

М.Baludyanskyy

 

Michael Baludyanskyy in their lectures repeatedly condemned the feudal order, recommended "restore natural liberty and natural order in society. " He considered it necessary to free the peasants and give them the land in perpetual lease. There was unpublished a four scientific work on ways to liberation of serfs in the Russian Empire.

When imperial ideologues vtoropaly, that "seditious ideas" promoting invited scientists, they were terrified. In 20-ies began the prosecution of "catholicity." Baludyanskyy on protest against the ban freely proclaim their views in 1821 filed resigned as rector of the university.

In St. Petersburg University, "Case of catholicity" among teachers and students have also Kharkov University and high school science Nezhinsky. All these "Cases" were directly involved Subcarpathian scientists. They are accused of because they "vkorinyuyut destructive ideas" among students. Youth and Baludyanskoho called "creatures of the revolution and fraudsters. However Transcarpathia kept throughout the trial with dignity and courage. The result was his removal Transcarpathian scientists from all positions.

Transcarpathia brought to the Russian Empire ideas that inspired the best head of contemporary Western society. They tried to keep a free education, exchange, research creativity while lowbrow, brutal imperial bureaucracy in every way suppressed that could weaken its power. As a result, these people European culture have come in conflict with the imperial reality. But this is not belittle the importance of Transcarpathian scientists for spreading European ideas in Russia.

Also worth noting activities George Hutsa-Venelina (1802-1839). During his short life he managed to do very much. Having decided to devote himself to the study life of the Eastern Slavs, in 1825 he arrived in Moscow. In love with Transcarpathian history combined with a child receiving medical education. At the same time graduating from university, he published two-volume work on the history of the Bulgarian people "Ancient and modern Bulgarians. Through this work Hutsa-Venelin gained recognition in that time the scientific world. Labor Transcarpathians young, according to historians launched the Bulgarian national culture­no recovery. As a sign of respect for merit-Hutsy Venelina in the capital Bulgaria Sofia him a monument.

 

Questions and Tasks

1. Describe features development of Ukrainian culture in the first half of the nineteenth century.

2. Make a comparative table development of education in Dnieper Ukraine and West Ukrainian lands. Criteria define the comparison yourself.

3. As new research centers of influence the development of scientific research?

4. Describe opening Ukrainian scientists first half of the nineteenth century.

5. Make a generalized imperial domination, the influence on the development of education and science in the Ukrainian lands in the first half of the nineteenth century.