§ 15. Revolution 1848-1849 biennium in the Austrian Empire and the Ukrainian national liberation movement

Remember: 1. What were the main achievements of the first and second stages of the Ukrainian national movement in the Western lands? 2. What are the features of third phase of the national movement? 3. What is rutenstvo?

 

1. Features of the Ukrainian National movement in the Revolution 1848-1849 biennium

In February, 1848 France Revolution broke out that quickly spread to the German and Italian state, the Austrian Empire. "Spring of Nations", as contemporaries called it, had as common features and peculiarities of each country. In multinational Austrian Empire, this feature was the combination of anti- absolutism of national-liberation movements.

Lands in the West the "spring people" acquire a Ukrainian movement characteristics that appear in the third, sense formation of nation's political stage. The main issues that they tried to solve during the events of the western Ukrainian, were peasants and the national. Need rid of the remnants of serfdom, serfdom first became imperative socio-economic development of the region. However, in view of the awakening national consciousness of Polish and Ukrainian had to solve the problem streamlining the legal status of both nations in terms of coexistence within one imperial province. Awakening of national feelings Western Ukrainian caused requiring territorial demarcation and providing human self.

Ukrainian Competition for their rights under the "spring people" headed the Greek Catholic clergy. Persuasion clergy of the need to maintain the Habsburgs, since only this gives opportunity to gain an advantage over the Poles and Hungarians, caused conservative nature of the Ukrainian national liberation movement during the revolutionary events.

 

Revolutionary Event 40-ies. Nineteenth century. at Western

 

2. The beginning of the revolutionary events in Eastern Galicia

As a result of the March uprising 1848 Vienna government go in the strength of the Chancellor Metterniha was retired. Under the pressure of the revolutionary government has announced new requirements of democratic freedoms, allowed to separate the edges of the empire to form their own groups "National Guard" for their protection and announced to general elections to the first Reichstag which was to adopt new laws.

When the news of Vienna event Received Galicia, first to act Poles. They appealed to Emperor to demand restoration of the empire of Polish statehood. Galicia Poles considered exclusively Polish land, ignoring the presence of the Ukrainian majority of the population in its eastern part. It is from Galicia they planned start restoring its statehood.

In order to attract to their side Ukrainian peasantry Poles, trained experience revolt of 1846, nominated demand the abolition of serfdom. Join their claims, they suggested leaders of the Galician Ruthenians. But when the last proposal put forward to include petition requirement that schools in Galicia near the Polish should use Ukrainian, Poles rebelled. "There is no Russia, there is Poland, - they mourned - and Ruthenian language is only a dialect of Polish language! "In this way, Galician Rusyns expounded what it means for them Poles proclaimed motto "Equality and brotherhood for all nations."

April 13 in Lviv Poles announced the founding peoples of the Central Council, which was to become the future Polish government. Along with this they polish zahodylysya create county Council and to form the National Guard. Unpleasant surprise to the Poles was that they ignored Rusyns created May 2, 1848 Home Ruthenian Council - a body of public self Galician Ruthenians. Its appearance denied claims Poles represent all the people of Galicia.

The emergence of the Supreme Ruthenian Council was Finally the development Ukrainian national movement in the Western lands. First Ukrainian created their own representative body that put forward a political program.

 

3. Addressing the peasant question

The revolutionary wave of 1848 forced the Austrian government close approach to solving problems and peasant eliminate remnants of feudal relations. The first farmers will have received Transcarpathia. In Hungary, part of which included the land, it happened before in other parts of the empire. March 18, three days after the beginning of the revolution Hungarian Diet passed a law on agrarian reform. Skasovuvalasya boon to peasants who were land owners, was to go third of the treated land. Thus it was to be carried out free of charge, as compensation for landowners paid by the state. These events had a significant impact on farmers in other regions Empire.

Governor Earl Galicia Franz Stadium (1806-1853) decided take the initiative in the liberation of the peasants. This resulted in his desire nullify settlements Poles to support the Ukrainian peasants and attract them to the side of the Habsburgs. April 22, one day before the publication of the adopted the Vienna Polish project, the Governor announced the cancellation serfs and peasants ownership of the land they cultivated. Changes in position Galician peasants took place five months earlier than in other parts Empire. Actions Stadion were subsequently approved by the emperor, because with this increased confidence Galician peasants to the Habsburgs.

In the summer of 1848 when peasant unrest roiling Bukowina, the Viennese government decision of August 9 extended to these lands to the laws adopted on the peasants of Galicia. At the same time decisions about the peasants, in order to appease landowners were announced that they will receive compensation for loss of labor and land. Size portions, which are now owned, were so meager that Most could barely feed a small family. Of the total cultivated land farmers in Eastern Galicia were 56%, Transcarpathia - 30% Bucovina - 46%. Insolvable problem remaining easements - forests and pastures that were previously jointly owned by farmers and landowners. Of­Now farmers can use them only if paying landowners for a right under the "voluntary" agreements. Actually easements are the property of their landlords. The fight for the return of villagers continued servitude up to 1914

However, in general, even these relatively inconsistent, changes had a positive impact on farmers. As a result of imperial peasant reform was eliminated remnants of old ties between peasant and landowner. Farmers have civil rights (moving from one location elect and be elected), won the land. Now with free the peasant had to be considered because there was a significant factor social and political life.

 

4. Supreme Ruthenian Council Activities

Supreme Ruthenian Council consisted of 30 members, among whom one half were representatives of the Greek Catholic clergy, another - the secular intelligentsia. On her initiative in Eastern Galicia was established 12 regional and 50 local councils. Have installed contacts Ukrainian Bukovina and Transcarpathia. By decision of the board was organized by Ukrainian National Guard, and to fight against Subcarpathian Hungarian rebels - People's Self-Defense troops and battalions of mountain shooters. The first chairman of the Council was elected bishop Gregory Yakhimovich (1792–1863).

Ukrainian church and social and political activist Gregory Yakhimovich played a prominent role in Ukrainian national revival in eastern Galicia. He, in the words of historians, was "Spiritual ruler of the Ukrainian state."

Theological education received Yakhimovich in Vienna, while the priest of St.. Barbara in Vienna, continuing training. He obtained the degree of doctor of theology, philosophy and free Art. After returning to Galicia worked as a professor and rector Lviv National University. In 1841-1848 he was a bishop - Assistant Metropolitan of Lviv M. Levitsky. During the 1848 Revolution gathered those who initiated the creation of a separate Ukrainian local authority government to deal with Polish influences in Galicia - Main Ruthenian Council. Yakhimovich participated in the Council of Russians scientists. He sought introduction of teaching in schools in Eastern Galicia the Ukrainian language, speaking for using the Ukrainian language during church sermons. Yakhimovich, Selected one of the MPs from Galicia to the first General- constitutional Reichstag, has consistently defended the right of the Ukrainian population Galicia, the defense became the mother tongue, demanded preservation of the Orthodox Church rite.

Since 1848 Yakhimovich was Peremyshl bishop since 1860 - Metropolitan of Lviv. Author of numerous sermons, theological works, speeches on the plight of the Ukrainian population in Galicia.

Basic requirements Galician Rusyns that they tried to implement the Supreme Ruthenian Council, was first formulated in petition addressed to the emperor, representatives handed the Greek Catholic clergy Governor Stadium. It, inter alia, proclaimed the necessity of such measures:

·   introduction Ukrainian language in schools and office land;

·   software Ukrainian, as well as for the Poles, equal opportunities to hold government posts;

·   in equation rights of the Greek Catholic clergy and representatives of other religions;

·   appointment government positions in eastern Galicia only those officials who have Ukrainian.

Along with these requirements quite contained assurances of loyalty Galician Ukrainian Habsburgs.

In the first issue of organ Supreme Ruthenian Council newspaper "Dawn Galician", released May 15, contained appeal to the Galician Ruthenians.

 

On appeal the Supreme Ruthenian Council to the Ruthenian people, published May 15, 1846 In early newspaper Dawn Galician "

"We, the Galician Ruthenians belong to great Rus people, one who speaks the language, makes 15 million, with which pivtretya million Galician land dwellers. He was once an independent nation, rivnyavs in the glory of the mightiest nations of Europe, had a literary language, their own statutes, its own princes, in a word: he was in prosperity and power. Because of adverse conditions and different political calamity slowly disintegrated our great people lose their independence, and his princes came under alien domination.

Such misfortune sklonyly with time many can be masters of the Ruthenian rite err from their fathers, and with them vyrektysya Ruthenian language and vidtsuratysya of their people, and changing the ordinance but not could change nationality but not stopped Ruthenian blood in their veins to swim ...

But like everything in the world with time expiring, as annoying in winter spring is coming, yes, brothers, and this sad state of change through the constitution. It is a great law, it is a great benefit - is sun as all Rusyns and risen to a full life and roused us. Budyatsya under those sun-educated people, far and neighboring rises before our eyes on Polish nationality of our country ... Is awakened and our beautiful lion and Ruthenian we pryshlist witchcraft. Get up, brethren, rise from your sleep long because is time. Stand up, not to disagree, shall remove together to raise the nation and ensure our freedom given to us ... that we did not disgrace himself before the world and not dragged over the generations these complaints. Coming from other nations in love and harmony. Let us be what we can and should be. Cheers people. Perepoyeni feelings of nationality in this intention and we will work together in such follows:

1. Our first task will be keep the faith and put our ceremony ... along with the rights of other ceremonies.

2. Develop our nationality in all directions: perfection of our language, its introduction in schools of higher and lower, publishing magazines ... competition to have our language in all public institutions etc..

3. We will keep our constitutional rights to know the needs of our people and seek ways to correct his life on the constitution ... "

Judge: 1. As specified in the proclamation of national Galician Ruthenians belong? 2. That shows the desire of the Supreme Ruthenian Council to act, keeping loyalty Habsburgs and the only constitutional means. 3. Describe the tasks set for a Home Ruthenian Council.

 

Moderate character requirements Supreme Ruthenian Council hosted Austrians. Galician officers from the Governor Council contacts, hoping to use it as opposed to Polish influences. Later, the Poles said that Stadion "invented Rusyns" in order to prevent them. Among the demands of the Ukrainian Galician gained widespread support.

Supreme Ruthenian Council in the first Nineteenth century. updated the traditional Ukrainian symbols. His honors she made the emblem of princes Romanovich - picture golden lion on blue background, as in the Galicia-Volyn principality at the time of Prince Danilo Galician and his son Leo. Thanks to the efforts of the Council in July 1848 was founded Galician-Ruthenian dam. This community cared about the publication of cheap books for the people of Ukrainian. In October of that year in Lviv was convened congress men of science - scientists Ruthenian Church, which was attended by about 100 participants. Among the most important results of this authoritative collection was decisions based Ukrainian language should be the national language, and need to use Slavic Cyrillic, not Latin alphabet. Then in Lviv National started building the house with a large library and museum. During the 1848-1849 biennium weekly the first newspaper "Dawn Galician. The Council of 1849 University of L'viv was opened chair Ukrainian language and literature, led Holovatsky.

To weaken the activity of the Main Ruthenian Council Poles tried to find supporters among the Ruthenians. The initiative Peoples of the Central Council was held May 23 meeting of the Polish gentry Rusyn origin (Rusyn Polish nation "), which formed the Ruthenian Church. Its purpose was to direct the Ukrainian national liberation movement in Galicia for Poles. The right to self-Ukrainian members of the national development organizations objected. Council published the newspaper "Rus' Diary" Latin type, which was to become a counterweight to "Dawn Galician. Among the Galician Ukrainian Ruthenian church activity had no success.

Enhancing national controversy and blatant disregard for human Ukrainian Poles led to changes in requirements Supreme Ruthenian Council. June 9 Council first addressed the emperor with a request the division of Galicia into Polish and Ukrainian parts of two separate administrations. This idea of delegation advocated for the first Slavic Congress, which then met in Prague.

 

5. Ukrainian issues in Slavic Congress in Prague

Arena convergence Slavic nations, which first appeared as independent and equal nation with its requirements, was the first Slavic Congress held in June 1848 in Prague.

Initiated the convening of Congress became leaders of the Czech national movement. They sought to unite the Slavic nations around the Habsburg Empire restructuring its program to federation of free and equal Slavic peoples. From their Galicia Congress sent representatives to the Supreme Ruthenian Council, Central Council of the peoples and Ruthenian Church. Representatives in Congress last vidrekomenduvalysya as unique Ukrainian Galician plenipotentiaries. It was one of the reasons sharp dispute between the three delegations about who has the right to represent Galicia. Only mediation helped to unite the owners of Congress representatives of these three organizations into one Galician-Ruthenian section.

Nevertheless, the discussion Ukraine-Polish relations in Galicia immediately aroused among the members section new disputes. Representatives of the Supreme Ruthenian Council demanded separation Galicia to the Polish and Rusyn province. Against this were the delegates from Central Council and the peoples of Rus Cathedral. It took another intervention owners to reach a compromise. The result was concluded June 7 agreement between the Ukrainian and Polish delegations called Ukrainian demands in Galicia, which proclaimed:

·   equal rights to use of Ukrainian and Polish-language schools and institutions of Galicia formation of separate schools for Ukrainian and Polish, teaching in higher edge education in both languages;

·   in equation Rights of representatives of all nationalities and religions;

·   formation Joint National Guard, a joint managing authority and the joint Diet;

·   national and political equality was to be guaranteed by the constitution to general;

·   question division Galicia into two provinces, which caused the most acute controversy had to be transferred to the General-address the Reichstag.

All provisions of the agreement packaged for joint request of the Congress delegates to the emperor. On behalf of Ukrainian and Polish it expressed a requirement common in Galicia Regional Government, before convening to elect a local constitutional zahalnoavstriyskoho Diet and adopt the electoral law that would guarantee equitable representation two people of Galicia. In this document the first time since the beginning of the revolutionary events requirement was revised combined Polish and Ukrainian formed on the basis of mutual respect for national rights.

Sorry to put life in general had. Congress stopped working when the Austrians started shelling Prague. In Galicia, Austrian officials have made efforts to udaremnyty achieved understanding between the Ukrainian and Polish. Prague agreement remained only in Nineteenth century. evidence of the feasibility of the Polish-Ukrainian compromise on an equal footing.

 

6. The first experience of parliamentary activity Ukrainian

Elections to the Reichstag (lower General-new Chamber of Parliament) in Galicia and Bukovina were during June 1848 For most Rusyns elections were a matter of a new and incomprehensible. Polish nobility, trying to prevent the Ukrainian representatives in parliament, resorted to threats, fraud, forgery bulletins, etc.. Have made great efforts and by promoting their candidates, Austrian officials.

As a result, with 100 seats to Reichstag, set in Galicia, Ruthenians took only 39 and from 8 places Bucovina - 5. Among all five members Bukovynian were peasants, among the Galician - 27 farmers and 9 representatives of the Greek Catholic clergy.

Despite the lack of experience and unfavorable conditions (lack of knowledge of German, which were conducted meeting forced to use the services of interpreters, the disdain of the wealthy strata) peasant deputies adequately represent the interests of Ukrainian meetings. During the negotiation of the abolition of serfdom, they categorically rejected possibility of recovery of compensation for it from the peasants.

The real sensation in the Reichstag became the first ever Ukrainian parliamentary speech, which made farmer John Kapuschak. Strongly condemning the centuries-old oppression of the peasants, he stated that landowners have no right to seek redemption obligations, as there were farmers from all that could. Instead of 100 days set serfdom they forced farmers practicing 300 days a year. For this, consider Kapuschak must pay landowners to peasants, and not vice versa. "Carrot and lash that obvyvalysya around our heads and our weary body - finished he his remarks - that they have enough, let it be for them and for our redemption! " This passionate speeches delivered in German, raised in Parliament wave applause. But Conservative MPs gained majority decision that farmers must pay landowners compensation for the emancipation of serfs.

Sharp disagreements caused entered to the Reichstag deputies Rusyn September 3 issue of administrative Galicia division. Consideration of his prior reports, made four Ukrainian notes on features of the national situation in the province. Poles strongly opposed this, declaring that the Ukrainian - is "an artificial nation. Ukrainian assistance received from the Czechs. "Respect the national aspirations of the people - rejected applications Polish Czech Franciszek Rieger - still persecuted as Poles and Russians, and called for an independent existence. "

To demonstrate support of their claims in the land, the Supreme Ruthenian Council initiated assembly 200 thousand signatures for the division of Galicia into two separate provinces. Parliamentary debate this issue lasted several months. Finally, a compromise was reached decision on which belonged to redistribute the province into two ethnic created principle samoupravni Districts. However, realizing these plans was not.

 

The first experience of parliamentary activity Ukrainian

 

7. Vasily Podolynsky and his "Word warning "

Development of Ukrainian national liberation movement during the revolutionary events of 1848-1849 biennium induced many think it over the long run. During this time, Galician Rusyns were able to prove that right to their own independent existence. But as it will in the future, consensus was not. Supreme Ruthenian Council repeatedly proves his loyalty to the Habsburgs, however, rely on their support of the Ukrainian movement in the future was not worth it. Rusyns were interested Vienna as a means of countering the Polish claims. But those who knew it could not find common language with the Poles, who saw the Ruthenian obstacle created Austrians towards the restoration of the Commonwealth.

New landmarks in Ukrainian national liberation movement of Galician rural lands tried to draw priest Vasily Podolynsky(1815-1876). He became the first spokesman at Western ideas gained political independence of Ukraine as a unified democratic republic.

His thoughts expressed in Podolynsky Labour "A word of caution," published in Polish in 1848 Author analyzed four possible directions of the Ukrainian movement (Polish, Austrian, Galician and Moscow) and concluded that none of them create opportunities for full development of Galician Ruthenians, and therefore Ukrainian Galician save from death can only national association with Dnipro Ukrainian cathedral in a single sovereign state. Political ideal became independent by Ukraine in connection Slavic federal democratic republic.The value of the appearance of this idea in the mid-nineteenth century. prospects for further Ukrainian movement can not be overstated. It was further evidence Ukrainians in the advancement towards a modern Ukrainian statehood.

 

8. Eastern Galicia in the closing stages "Spring of Peoples

Spring 1848 in the Empire Habsburg again intensified the revolutionary movement. It became the center of Hungary, which proclaimed its independence, actually took a course on the separation of Empire. October 6 in Vienna also erupted in support of the Hungarian uprising revolutionaries. The news of October the battles in the capital of the empire led to growth tensions in. Zalunaty appeals follow the example of revolutionary Vienna. Preparations for the uprising in Ukraine began figures Polish Central Council peoples. They would, following the example of Hungarian Revolutionaries make a rebellion, backed by Polish troops trytysyachni National Guard. But the unanimous support of this idea is not received even in the Polish community. Supreme Ruthenian Council categorically rejected the joint action with the Poles.

The situation in Ukraine in the meantime escalating. In late October day is passed without further trouble Polish troops National Guard of Austria. When November 1st Austrian troops occupied all important points in the city and during the next battle opened fire, rebellion broke out. Poland contributed to the brave radical students and Ruthenian burghers. In Lviv, the streets were erecting barricades.

Austrian forces placed on surrounding hills and 2 November guns began shelling center. As a result of this barbaric action destroyed the Town Hall, University and its library, theater, Polytechnic Academy. Human loss were over 100 dead and wounded. There was a fire. Inside day rebels cease their resistance. Figures of the peoples of the Central Council have signed the certificate capitulation. Austrians declared in a state of siege. Several hundred rebels were seized and given to the field courts. Polish National Guard dissolved, all newspapers (except government) closed. The activity of all political organizations, including the Supreme Ruthenian Council and Central Council of the peoples, banned. November 14 edition of the activities of the first and "Dawn Galician was allowed, albeit with some restrictions.

Heads of the Supreme Ruthenian Council approved the "restore order" in the city. Position Rusyn leaders during Lviv Uprising demonstrated their support of Vienna's traditional government and conservative in their views. But to understand the positions of need know the historical realities of Eastern Galicia. Galicians felt his weakness and feared that cause the absorption of Poles support their last. Because of This orientation to support the Austrians, whose power during the "spring people" in Galicia moved and are looking for new allies to give perspective to the Ukrainian movement.

Suppression of Lviv and Vienna rebellions was evidence of conversion to the offensive return of the old fans orders of the empire. Most bitter opponent of Rusyns became the new governor of Galicia Count Agenor Honuhovskyy, who led the province in the 1849-1859 biennium Exactly his opposition to attempts to finally udaremnyla Galician Ukrainian redistribute province and unite it with the Ukrainian part of Transcarpathia.

 

Pismo Galician Governor A. Goluchowski Vienna regarding the possibility of unification of Transcarpathia from Eastern Galicia

"It (the Supreme Ruthenian Council .- Auto.) adding the request of the clergy and people of Rus comitates Northern Hungary requests to join from Ruthenian comitates this part of Galicia in one piece, with the sole Constitutional formation, the only legislation, and the only government authorities ... Penetrated the desire to unite with similar people, and if it request would be granted and Ruthenians as a result of its national development current hierarchical relationships would become stronger, in this case unless present, and certainly, future generations would be applied to related peoples who live under the scepter of Russia, to create a single strong public body. Then Galicia Ruthenian part of education and material progress culture would be a focus of deceptions and measures aimed at breaking hierarchical power clergy, and the above-mentioned association of nations. Shorter speaking, could begin the same struggle for Russia, which for many years intermittently, but with iron perseverance is for the revival of free and independent Poland. "

Judge: 1. What are the implications of combining land, Ukrainian-inhabited, provided the Governor? 2. Can I assume, based on this document Goluchowski far-sighted politician?

 

On his initiative in 1851 Main Rus Council was dissolved. All of provincial governor handed over to the Poles, who took the Germans on the higher civil service positions. But any attempts to restore Polish independence or autonomy within Empire One could not say. Actions Austrian authorities in Galicia have confirmed fears those who did not trust them before.

 

9. Peasant movement

Revolutionary events 1848-1849 biennium caused activation of the peasant movement Western lands. Contributed to this limited peasant reform 1848 Refusal to pay farmers compensation for former owners serfdom and the struggle for Servitude forests and pastures have acquired while mass character. To suppress these statements the government used military force.

The changes contributed to the situation of peasants increase their political awareness. Natural performances were not the only form resistance to tyranny peasants landowners. Evidence of increasing authority in Galicia Supreme Ruthenian Council and its local branches has been continued growth number of peasant appeals to her. The Council is concerned about these appeals urged farmers through Zorya Galician "to be patient, repeatedly applied the Reichstag and the Viennese government's violations of peasant rights. Servitude case Council proposed to solve the transfer of forest and pasture in rural property. But All these proposals remain unanswered. Evidence of growing political activity of the peasantry was also elected 32 members from rural Eastern Galicia and Bukovina to the Austrian Reichstag. It was the largest peasant representation from all provinces of the empire.

Summer 1848 increased peasant movement in Transcarpathia. Although the peasant reform began in these lands earlier than other regions, peasants were dissatisfied with its implementation. Landowners actually sabotaged the law on the abolition of serfdom, took forests and pastures. In many places outraged villagers refused to perform serfdom. "You know - said villagers - what happened in Poland (discussed rebellion 1846 Galicia .- Auto.)? There interrupted all gentlemen, and there is a need to do. "

The largest scale peasant movement acquired in late 1848 - early 1849 North Bukovina. Organizers of peasant protests were elected from these constituencies MPs Reichstag. At the request of villagers, they arranged meetings where he reported on his fight for their rights in the Reichstag. Popular among farmers enjoyed leader gutsulskih riots 1843-1844 biennium, the Reichstag deputy Lukyan Kobylytsya.

About this legendary leader Bukovynian peasants survived many transfers, but very little reliable information. We know that in 27 years of age he already had its authority in farmers, for which they chose filly authorized representative of their interests to the landowner. In 1843 some unrest grew into a revolt among leaders whose name was first mentioned Lukian filly. The materials of the investigation appearance remained description insurgent leader. Lukyan as an investigator wrote, "was intelligent man with a facial expression ... Big black swift eyes, aquiline good nose, black and beautiful Spanish vusok beard gave him a notable Spanish grandee. He answered with great dignity and emphasized that "forests our ", and that Hutsuls Didych charge improper contribution. By participating in riots Filly was beaten with staves and jailed.

After the liberation of rebel guzul again attempted uprising. Attempt was unsuccessful, and the filly arrested. Start the 1848 Revolution he met in prison. After release, when elections to the Reichstag, the villagers elected their counsel Deputy.

In the Reichstag illiterate farmers who did not know German, it was difficult, however he did not dumb witnessed events. With the officers it was an appeal to government agencies, demanded the abolition of serfdom without any compensation. When the emperor dissolved the Reichstag, Kobylytsya returned home and continued to fight for rights peasants. He gathered the villagers showed them his deputy certificate with a seal (Its influence was almost magical) and said that his friend - the Emperor gave him all power over Bukovina. Now, say "governor" of Bukovina, all forests pasture, and land owned by farmers.

With his armed squads supporters went Kobylytsya Bukovynian villages and cast out thence Austrian officials and landowners, the land transferred to farmers. Rise quickly spread. Consequently, in autumn 1848 Austrians were forced to send to Bukovina significant military units. Over the head of the live or dead filly award was announced in one thousand gold, but it is not helped. Only in April 1850 leader of the rebels seized. After long investigation, accompanied by torture, he fell ill and heavily end of October 1851 died.

The image of the half from hero, who combined humor, good luck with the desire to protect people from offenders, will forever remain in legends and tales of Bukovina.

During appearances in rural Bukovina evidence began to appear natural awakening of national consciousness Ukrainian population in the province. In Investigators for gutsulskih riots mention is that the villagers demanded allow them to create their own expense to train school children in their native language. Landowner-Romanians attempted to achieve separation from Galicia and Bukovina its transformation into separate crown land with its own administration. Peasant deputies were against it. Petition was organized by farmers on Bukovynian leaving their country of Galicia as part of one province. Convened a November 1848 the initiative of the peasants - the Reichstag Deputies Meeting representatives of all the land of peasant communities also wished to Bukovina was with Galicia. However, the imperial government ignored the desire of the people. By Constitution 1849 Bukovina became a separate crown land. Because of that she actually came under Romanian boyars.

 

10. Ukrainian national liberation movement in our region during the period of "spring people"

During the 1848-1849 biennium revolution swept Transcarpathia. Initially welcomed Subcarpathian Ruthenians Hungarian revolution, laying the hope that it will help them gain their autonomy land within the new Hungary. However, after the overthrow of the Habsburg dynasty Revolution leaders denied the right of peoples to self neuhorskyh. It the main reason that the Subcarpathian Ruthenians did not support the Hungarian rebels and abide Habsburgs.

The evidence of a politicization Ukrainian national movement in Transcarpathia was promoting the idea of unification Transcarpathia from Eastern Galicia and Bukovina in a separate administrative autonomous unit empire. The first publicly spoke about the need to implement this priest Alexander Dukhnovych (1803–1865).

This Transcarpathin scientist worthy continued to fight their predecessors by national and cultural rights Ruthenians. In his creative works - literary, works with education, philosophy and history. The main business of his life he considered a Dukhnovych fundamental work on the history of Subcarpathian Rusyns, but was able to publish only its main provisions in separate articles. The reason for this interference were Austrian officials, as in the work of the scientist raised the issue that is not in the interests of the empire.

His view of history Transcarpathian Rusyns Dukhnovych expressed in the article "State of Rusyns in Hungary, published in 1849 in "Star Galicia. Much of the credit was a scientist that he not only dared to show the oppressed position of Rusyns, but expressed his vision of how it should be improved.

After the revolution Dukhnovych continued efforts to Rusyns "left a deep sleep. In 1850-1852 biennium he organized the release of three literary anthologies "Congratulations Rusyn, Galician in journals published many articles about life Transcarpathians, wrote textbooks and literary works. One had to really not only love his people, but also have personal courage to prosecution under Hungarian authorities in the 50-ies state:

 

I Rusin was, ECM and will,

I was born Rusin,

Chestnыy my rod not forget

Ostanus sыnom ego.

 

These words have found a path to the heart Transcarpathians and were a national anthem, which is known throughout the land; appeal to those who united all those who opposed Magyarization Ruthenians. The multi-faceted activities Duhnovicha promoted the inclusion of Transcarpathian Rusyns in single stream of national revival of the Slavic peoples.

First reunification Ruthenian lands Dukhnovych advanced in article "State of Rusyns in Hungary. The legitimacy of this act Dukhnovych pokriplyuvav that both sides of the Carpathian Rusyns Mountains belong to one nation. Scientists have warned that if further Rusyns remain disconnected, it can lead to their absorption of other nations.

The fight for National policies and cultural rights of their people also Transcarpathin led scholars, social, political and Culture and Education Worker Adolf Dobriansky (1817–1901).

Dobriansky acquired technical education and worked as an engineer in the Czech Republic, where he can see the political disempowerment Slavic peoples and closer with the Czech and Slovak "adherents." Of which he took over the idea of Slavic unity.

After the revolution Dobriansky returned to the Carpathians. At first he supported the Hungarian revolution, but it views differed significantly from the attitude towards the national issues leading Hungarian Revolution. Then Dobriansky, with DUHNOVICHA, established relationships with the Supreme Ruthenian Council and began the struggle for land in association Rusyn single administrative entity.

Dobriansky joined the fight Hungarian revolution against the Habsburgs. At a critical time for yourself Austrian emperor was forced to seek the assistance of the Russian emperor. In July 1849 Russian troops crossed the Carpathian Mountains. The Austrian government Dobriansky assigned to them as his representative. Hungarian revolution by Russian assistance was suppressed. Probably under the impression these events Dobriansky began to think that Russia is the force that can help Rusyns protect against Magyarization. Even the Habsburgs had to look it assistance. This was the pretext for future charges Dobriansky that he began a Russophile, or moskvofilskyy, the direction in policy- Transcarpathia life. However Dobriansky should evaluate the positions of the time historical reality. In the absence of Ukrainian statehood orientation Slavic Orthodox Russia it was considered the most realistic way to protect Magyarization and stick a catholic faith of Transcarpathian Rusyns.

After the "spring people" Dobriansky did not stop their struggle. For this he used his Transcarpathia's seat of the Hungarian Parliament. However, the Dobriansky repeated statements from the parliamentary rostrum Hungarian officials answered that there is no other nation, except Hungarian. Despite different evaluation Dobriansky, in the second half of the nineteenth century. its contribution to formation of national consciousness Transcarpathian Rusyns in years "spring people" is very significant.

In January 1849 led Dobriansky zakarpatska delegation handed over a petition demanding the emperor combine eastern Galicia and Transcarpathia in a single political and administrative whole. Shortly Transcarpathians sent to Vienna, another delegation. During meeting with her emperor promised to meet the demands of Rusyns, but not the words kept. Rusyn meager concession to the requirements of a permit for the Vienna create autonomous Ruses District (district) of Rusyn-inhabited lands Hungarian Centre in Uzhgorod. However, in 1860 it eliminated.

Although reunification and Transcarpathia Eastern Galicia realize no luck, it showed a new level western Ukrainian political consciousness. Was expressed for the first time during the spring of nations " she later found more and more supporters at Western.

In Northern Bukovina during the "spring Peoples Ukrainian national liberation movement had enough of their own base for development. In countries that are unfolding Romanian national revival, to which was to join Bukovina Romanian lands and the establishment of their state. Lack of the national elite vadyla growth of national consciousness Ukrainian Bukovina.

 

11. Results and historical significance revolutionary events of 1848-1849 biennium at Western

Spring in nature - short-term season. Events "spring people" took place in West lands as long, but the effects were significant. The most important achievements in social sphere are the abolition of serfdom and the implementation of the constitutional rule.

During the revolutionary events Western Ukrainian first gained recognition of their nationality. All political force, voluntarily or forced to acknowledged the existence in these lands Ukrainian people with its national aspirations. A decisive contribution in This was the first in the nineteenth century. Ukrainian political organization - Supreme Ruthenian Council. Her leadership adhered to, as noted above, conservative views. However, this did not prevent it to play its historical role - to unite Rusyns become a leader and advocate for their rights. What Western Ukrainian Ruthenian Council recognized the main Provincial authority showed that it meets the requirements of the time.

Evidence solution Ukrainian National Movement became the first Ukrainian attempts to put forward their own political program. The contents of these documents demonstrated their awareness of the only ethnic communities with Dnipro Ukrainian.

For a short historical period "Spring people" Western Ukrainian became one of the peoples who had most significant achievements in its national liberation movement. Despite the fact that Western Ukraine after the events of 1848-1849 biennium reaction prevailed, Ukrainian has never been as before. Feeling a part of the Ukrainian people they added a strength and inspiration for further struggle for national and social liberation.

The influence of revolutionary events in Europe also felt in the Ukrainian lands within the Russian Empire. They caused aggravation of the problems that exist in society. It was Polish national liberation movement on the Right Bank (the Poles attempted to organize a national uprising) and the fight against the Ukrainian peasantry by abolition of serfdom. For Ukrainian leaders have become the next European event cause think about how to improve the fate of his people.

 

Questions and Tasks

1. What were the features Ukrainian movement during the revolution of 18481849 years?

2. As revolution began Eastern Galicia?

3. As at Western was eliminated remnants of feudal relations?

4. Make a plan for item "Activity Supreme Ruthenian Council "and prepare a story behind it. (In preparation, use Document 1.)

5. Describe Ukrainian participation in the First Slavic Congress.

6. Give facts that show effective participation in the Ukrainian General-Reichstag.

7. Explain why Mr. Podolynsky see figure who tried to draw new benchmarks in the Ukrainian national liberation movement?

8. What events happened in Eastern Galicia at the final stage of the revolution?

9. What are the facts confirm the natural growth of national consciousness of Ukrainian peasants in the Revolution?

10. As Ukrainian rozhortavsya national liberation movement in our region

11. Identify the results and historical significance of the events of 18481849 years in West lands.

12. Make a chronological chain events that took place at Western during the years 18481849

 

 

  

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