Remember: 1. As Ukrainian started national revival in the Dnieper? 2. What social groups played a leading role in the Ukrainian national movement in the Dnieper? 3. As Western ideas influenced the Ukrainian national movement in the Dnieper Ukraine?
During the first half of the nineteenth century. at Western, as in the Dnieper, rozhortavsya Ukrainian national movement. The conditions under which the Ukrainian was to sense formation of nation Western lands were much more complex than the Left Bank, where growth of national consciousness contributed to the memory of the Hetman state.
During long stays in composition of various Western Ukrainian, or as they called themselves during Nineteenth century., Ruthenians, actually lost a national elite and the vast constituted the majority of them peasants. The only social class, capable of play the role of religious leaders to the people of Eastern Galicia and Transcarpathia were Greek Catholic clergy.
In Western Ukraine, in Unlike the Dnieper Ukrainian, but the imperial power, suffered from oppression of Poles, Romanians and Hungarians, who were before in different regions. Relations between the authorities of the empire and the Ukrainian national movement was quite peculiar. Imperial reform at the end of XVIII century. had The result improved the situation some of the Ukrainian population. Thus the Habsburgs could count on support Ukrainian, when the Polish and unfolded Hungarian national movements. However, the imperial authorities tlumyla Ukrainian national movement, did not want him to strengthen and considered only as a means weakening of other movements.
Important for Western cultural influences have revival in Dnieper. Chee Rusyns would be very difficult to survive in the struggle for their national rights without assistance from the east - poems of Taras Shevchenko, the achievements of history, linguistics, Ethnography of the Ukrainian people.
The process of Ukrainian national and cultural revival originated in late XVIII century. in Transcarpathia. Transcarpathian scientists educator first started to learn history, language and culture, people puzzled over its historical origin. In the first decades of the nineteenth century. Ukrainian renaissance ideas spread among acquired Galician Ruthenians. In Northern Bukovina Ukrainian national revival began only in the second half of the nineteenth century.
First Ukrainian movement proceeded very slowly but the years of revolutionary events of 1848-1849 biennium in Austrian Empire, western lands were outrun Naddniprianshchyna The pace of development of Ukrainian national movement. Causing it, first, disadvantage and oppression Dnieper Ukrainians in the Russian authorities. But the fact of the primacy of transition from east to west Ukrainian lands had important historical significance. It was evidence that one of achievements Ukrainian movement was understanding that the Ukrainian people, delimited imperial borders, has shared past and future.
The first generation of "adherents" (so called the then leaders of the Slavic revival) Transcarpathia and Galicia came from the Greek Catholic clergy. Most of them got educated in Vienna, the "Barbareum. This institution has become a European center of the Slavic revival, which came with a lot of future Slavic educators.
In Transcarpathia as a center Rusyn national and cultural revival was played Mukachivs'ka Greek Catholic Diocese. Such a role it has gained in years of the most prominent of Mukachevo bishops Andrew Bachynsky (1732–1809).
Bishop Andrew led Bachinsky Mukachevo diocese over 37 years. It was at that time fell on top Ukrainian revival in Transcarpathia. The decisive role played in this position of the higher hierarchy of the local Greek Catholic church, led by its Bishop. In a policy of denationalization and stick a catholic faith of the local population, he opened the defense of national culture, trying to awaken creative forces of the people. It Bachinsky managed to get from Maria Theresa consent opening of Barbareumu "for training young Ruthenian from Transcarpathia. One of Bishop first realized that guarantee the existence of the people is the preservation and development his native language, spiritual life in general, and was able to do this very much.
In his message Bachinsky demanded that local priests first direct effort to organize schools at churches. At the request of his parents were forced into compulsory send their children to school.
Bachinsky moved his residence to Uzhgorod, where he established a seminary and founded the great library. It was There are about 9 thousand ancient manuscripts, prints, rare books many European countries and from Dnieper. He ordered to establish diocesan archives, whose future became a unique source for many researchers history. It was initiated by Bachinsky first work on the history of the Carpatho-Rusyn I. Bazylovycha.
Unlike other members Senior clergy, he always spoke only their native language. Strongly speaking stick a catholic faith against the population of Transcarpathia, Bachinsky loved to repeat: "Dokl be Az, Buki, Veda - Hence no" and always pidpysuvavsya ABC (First letter of the Slavic alphabet), meaning "Andrei Ermakov, Bishop.
Bishop Andrew Ermakov the role of language in developing nations (an extract from episcopal letter to priests)
"Historical experience, many examples show, for the consolidation of any nationality or nation does levers tryvkishoyi and stronger than the preservation of specific maternal and paternal language, writing and faith. Once any nation begins to hesitate and shun their native language, literature and religion, and thus does not forget them, immediately begin to irreversible changes occur and thus this people, as showed us the famous example of the Czech and Moravian people who received the eastern Christian faith from the Holy Fathers Cyril and Methodius, had slov'yanorusku language writing and faith, but zhubyvshy it all and very profound change. Look also to their fellow neighbors: Do not be like them and with the same reasons to care about that and not suffer the fate of rebirth. But only other people we need to see? Do not lose vigilance and properly take care of power Mukachevo Finno-Ruthenian diocese, for the same evil fate awaits thee, if you ignore the homeland and maternal language and literacy: because of their loss lose our trusted friend and ally of our nation. "
Judge: 1. What author ubachav Home danger to the existence of any nationality? 2. A. As defined Bachinsky role in preserving the national language consciousness? 3. Look for the text confirmation that the bishop defined ethnicity Transcarpathian Rusyns as part of the eastern people.
The long struggle for Bishop preservation of national culture, promoting education, Carpatho-Rusyns had benefits.
At the end of XVIII century. in the walls Mukachevo Seminary Ioanykiy Bazylovych (1742-1821) wrote a short essay Fedora Foundation Uzhgorod - first work on the history of Transcarpathia. One of the first of its author announced the existence of Transcarpathian Rusyns as part of the Eastern Slavs and showed that they have their own scientists, cultural and educational leaders, who during century laid the foundations of national culture. For this fair Bazylovycha I. called the first "adherents" in our region.
The special merit was his that the end of the XVIII century. he understood the process of forming the eastern separate ethnic Slavs. Bazylovych, including vyriznyv Muscovy, Belarus and Ukraine. This he wrote when were widespread allegations of Austrian and Russian historians, who generally deny the existence of Ukrainian people. Bazylovych first reminded Transcarpathians there by Carpathians - Ukraine and Transcarpathia is its integral part. The very posture of these problems historian in denatsionalizatorskoyi policy Habsburg and Hungarian ruling circles was essential for the formation of national consciousness Transcarpathians.
Manifestations of national awakening Transcarpathia was growing thirst for knowledge. While in the country by the church communities created around 300 primary schools. Talented Carpathian youth representatives have been educated in the leading European universities and became known scientists. Among them were Peter Lodi, John Eagle, Yuri Hutsa-Venelin, Michael Baludyanskyy, Michael Pop Luchkaya et al. The emergence of this galaxy was evidence of the potential of Carpathian Rusyns who due to relatively favorable conditions of national cultural revival gave so much talent.
In Eastern Galicia positions Greek Catholic Church, especially after a stronger recovery in 1808 Metropolis centered in Lviv. Activities higher hierarchy Greek Catholic clergy in Przemysl and Lviv launched a national-cultural revival of Galician Ruthenians. Center of the first wave of Ukrainian national revival in Eastern Galicia was Przemysl - cell Greek Catholic Diocese. Here there large library, operated seminary, focused most educated representatives clergy - John Mohylnytskyy, Joseph Levitsky, Ivan Snihurskyy, Joseph Lozinski et al. Inspired this group of patriots Peremyshl Ruthenian Bishop Michael Levitsky.
In 1816, with the support Bishop John Mohylnytskyy created the "Society of Galician Greek Catholic priests to spread education and writing culture among the faithful. " This group sought to publish books for people, understood by him in Ruthenian, and establish national schools.
Activities Peremyshl Patriots caused discontent among the Poles who fought before in eastern Galicia. They demanded from the Austrian authorities to ban the teaching in primary schools Ruthenian language, because they claimed that only the Russian language version. But imperial officials have been slow to meet these requirements because understood that this would strengthen the Polish influence in the region. Therefore the decision little compromise. Greek Catholics, the Roman Catholics had the right teach children their own language. In mixed schools taught both languages, but religious classes were held separately, according to the religion of children. Both church separately acquired the right to oversee their schools.
Activity of the Company ... " gradually assuming proportions. To train teachers in Przemysl was dyako open-Teacher Training Institute (1817). In 1832 in Przemysl diocese there were 400 schools. It was also issued several textbooks and prayer book.
John and his Mohylnytskyy supporters defended the view that russka language is distinct from the Polish and Russian Slavonic. However, they felt it necessary to do folk refined language, combining it with the old Church Slavonic. Mohylnytskyy created the grammar of this "SLAvyenoruskoyi " language, but it had real character and distribution has not acquired.
In the first, folklore-ethnographic phase of the national movement, as you already know, thanks knowledge of the history, language and folk culture laid the foundations of national identity of the people.
Historical research sat in this process the crucial place. The possibility of relying on past achievements adding "adherents" of forces in the race for the future of his people.
The history of Galicia and its indigenous population examined Denis Zubritsky(1777-1862). Among his major works were "Description of the history of the people of Rus" and "The History of Galician-Ruthenian principality" in three volumes. In these and other works contrary to the assertion of Polish historians researcher proved convincingly that it is Rusyns are the native population of Eastern Galicia, part of the Ukrainian people, most of which lives on the east. Prominent role in the study of history Transcarpathia played historian Michael Pop Luchkaya (1789-1843). The main scientific work was the six-volume "History Carpatho-Rusyns. In it he proved the autochthonous (local origination) nature of the Ruthenian population of Transcarpathia who inhabited this land long before arrival of Hungarians. For language and culture of Carpatho-Rusyns are identical with their Ukrainian brothers the Carpathians.
The first attempt to create a grammar Ruthenian language made at the end of XVIII century. Transcarpathian scientist and linguist, a representative of the Greek Catholic clergy Arseniy Kotsak. But give her he could not. The struggle for change in the status of national language Galician Rusyns also been severe and prolonged. Added Mohylnytskym I. 1820 "Grammar tongue slavyenoruskoho" imperial censors banned two print. However, it is 1829 work published in Polish, proving that the Galician language Rusyn is a separate Slavic language other than Polish and Russian.
First at Western "Grammar theologyno-Ruthenian "was issued in 1830 Its author was M.Pop-Luchkaya. Contemporaries praised the work of the scientist. Members Galician group "Ruska Trinity Holovatsky, M. and I. Shashkevych Vahylevych deeply respected by his grammar and considered the best work among all created at Western.
Influence of European Ideas Romanticism led to the increasing interest of Western states folk culture. The first expressed interest Rusyn folk Polish ethnographers. During his travels lands of Poland, Galicia, Belarus and researcher Naddniprianshchyna Zorian Dolenha-Khodakovskiy collected over 2 thousand people songs. Without the ability to publish the materials he sold them Mr. Zaleski and Maksymovych. In 1833 Pole Vaclav Detroit gave much collection of "Polish and Ruthenian songs Galician people. With the emergence of this work interested readers initially could potsinuvaty unique beauty of Rusyn folk songs.
Example B. Zaleski led to work of other collectors of folklore. In 1835 Western Collection wedding songs "Ruske Wedding issued Greek-Catholic priest Joseph Lozinski.
Folk songs Galician Rusyns added to its collection of "Little Russian Songs" M. Maximovich. This fact demonstrated understanding of the Ukrainian intelligentsia and artistic affinity for organic Lyrics unity of the Ukrainian people throughout the his residence.
The above phenomena are evidence that the end of XVIII - the first half of the nineteenth century. on Western lands was folklore-ethnographic stage of the Ukrainian sense formation of nation.
In 30 years of the nineteenth century. Ukrainian national movement in Western Ukraine became gradually move in the next, a cultural stage. He became the embodiment formed in Lviv Ruska trinity "- the social-democratic cultural groups direction of the seminary and university students. Exactly activity caused triychan that the national language rusynivpostupovo Rice gained literary Ukrainian language and was implemented in everyday consumption.
In the early 30's Ukrainian national movement intensified in eastern Galicia. The main reasons this effect were Ukrainian revival in Dnieper and deployment edge of Polish liberation movement in connection with the insurrection 1830-1831 biennium Complete disregard for indigenous rights Poles of Galicia led Galician Ukrainian struggle for their rights.
Within the walls of Lviv Greek Catholic seminary focused many patriotic Ruthenian young people who wanted to devote themselves to the people. The most popular seminarians enjoyed "Rus nightingale" Markian Shashkevych (1811-1843). He came from a rural family Greek Catholic priest. Studying in the Lviv Seminary, M. Shashkevych had opportunity to see her in the library with the works as "adherents" Western Slavic and Ukrainian brothers from Dnieper. Reading the "Aeneid" Kotlyarevskyi and collections of folk songs by M. and M. Tserteleva Maksymovych young seminarian was able to experience the unique beauty of the Ukrainian language. He later began to write literary Ukrainian.
In the second year of training Shashkevych zapryyatelyuvav with John Vahylevych(1811-1866) and James Golovatsky(1814-1888). Seminarians called three friends united by common views, Ruska three ". Gradually they merged around 20 associates. This happened, probably, 1832 Special attention was paid to the creation of triychany basis of Ruthenian folk literary language. To do this, they tried release it from all artificial enhancements and make close to the popular language.
The purpose of the activity of group members saw also is to introduce Ukrainian language in all spheres of life. Rubizhne in this event was the presentation by M. Shashkevych 1836 To prove that Ukrainian can proclaim the philosophical and religious ideas, he first in the history of Eastern Galicia declared mother tongue speech at the Museum Seminary before the representatives of spiritual authority and guests. Address all invited liked it. Since then the use of Ukrainian language derive increasingly supporters among the Galician Ruthenians.
In order to promote Ukrainian Galician language among members of the group prepared in 1833 collection of his own poetry Reading "Son of Russia", but it could not deliver.
In conservative circles Greek Catholic clergy activity of young seminarians disapproved. This attitude provoked fears that the activity may exacerbate triychan relationship with the Vienna. Indeed, the local Austrian authorities accepted the activity triychan without capture. She and thus lacked enough problems with the Polish national movement. Besides the Austrians feared that the Ukrainian movement support the Russian empire, to use it as a pretext for seizing Eastern Galicia.
Your attempt to first edition collection of the Ukrainian language has not stopped hurtkivtsiv. The next step was Training 1834 a new collection called "Dawn". Almanac included folk songs, the works themselves hurtkivtsiv, historical and journalistic materials. The main ideas inherent in the collection of works were:
· conviction Ukrainian foreign oppressors and celebration of the heroic liberation struggle people;
· praise national leaders - the fighters for national and social liberation of the people;
· recognition existence of a unique Ukrainian people through enslavement empires was uncommon state boundaries;
· call for Ukrainian patriots compete for the association and the Galician Ruthenians Dnipro Ukrainian.
These ideas are showing high triychan level of national consciousness, which in a short historical period realized the need to move from promoting the Ukrainian language in attempts to create new benchmarks in the struggle for national liberation Galician Ruthenians. His political ideal of group members saw the creation of the federation Slavic peoples, which should include the state that will unite eastern and western Ukrainian.
Trying to publish again Almanac narazylysya resistance to imperial officials and conservative circles of the Greek Catholic clergy. Publication of the book was banned as Vienna and Lviv censorship. Representatives of the Greek Catholic clergy claimed that "sad reminder historical events related to religious and political oppression, would cause bitter feeling ... "The reasons for refusing permission to publish the Austrian authorities released later, police director of Lviv: "Enough to cause us trouble Poles, and those trying to revive shalentsi put the tomb Rusyn nation.
Against the compilers of the Almanac ensuing campaign of persecution, accusations of unreliability, intimidation. However triychany not stop their activities. In 1836 And M. I. Vahylevych Shashkevych first translated the sights of the Old Rus Literature - "The Tale of Igor" in Ukrainian. M. Shashkevych prepared a textbook for elementary school students "Chitanka for kids" in Ukrainian language. But both print these works, the author again not allowed.
Despite the obstacles, triychany continued their noble cause and searched for other opportunities for publication Works. They removed from the collection of "Dawn" those works that are most annoyed with their content censors, and has changed its name to "Mermaid Dnistrovaia. Then Holovatsky agreed with their friends, supporters of the Slavic revival of publishing a collection of Pest (the then capital of Hungary) edition 1 thousand copies.
Almanac Rusalka Dnistrovaia " was published in 1836 It was the first book in Ukrainian language Western lands. Her appearance sparked discontent in Vienna and Lviv. All copies "Mermaids Dnistrova was confiscated and destroyed. Saving lucky only 200 copies that they had triychany sell, donate or friends keep for themselves.
Yet the emergence of "Mermaids Dnistrova" speech material was the event in solving the Ukrainian national movement in East Galicia. The book showed the difference Galician Ruthenians of Poles and Russians their unity with Dnipro Ukrainian. However, it ushered in the new Ukrainian national literature at Western.
Cover Rusalka Dnistrovaia "
Jacob Holovatsky the impact the emergence of "Mermaids Dnistrova" in Galician
"It lit a fire that his only the grave can extinguish the finger, saved people from death and opened the eyes every literate man, whose left more rustic Ukrainian heart, showed him his position, responsibilities for people and the way how they must fulfill the obligations ... "
Judge: What impact appearance "Dnistrova Mermaids" at the Ukrainian national movement in Galicia?
Publication of "Mermaids Dnistrova became peculiar result of the "Ruthenian Triad". Because of constant harassment and Prosecution circle disintegrated. But group members have not stopped their activities.
Important for implementation daily consumption in the native language of former job was to create triychan Ukrainian grammar. During the 40-ies have two "grammar" by Vahylevych I. (1845) and Holovatsky (1849). The essential feature of triychan literary works was that they were written on the folk national basis. In the spirit of Romanticism, they attached great importance research and popularization of history. In his historical works triychany proudly wrote about the glory days of Kievan Rus, Galicia-Volyn Principality and the Ukrainian Cossack state.
The outcome of Galician Patriots have become programmatic foundations of the Ukrainian national movement, formulated in Article Holovatsky "State of Ruthenians in Galicia" (1846). Home Ruthenian Council, which appeared in 1848, put them in the opinion of modern historians, the basis of its activity.
The activity of members of the Rus three "considered as part of the process that took place in the field Literature and Science in Dnieper Ukraine. They warmly welcomed the publication research on the history of Ukraine and collections of folk songs in Ukrainian almanacs Kharkov, Kiev and St. Petersburg, works by Kotlyarevskogo H.Kvitky-Osnovianenko, Taras Shevchenko. Friendly contacts supported triychany of famous scientists M. Maksymovyc Sreznevsky, O. Bodyanskiy.
Following the example of Ukrainian Patriots from Dnieper and the leaders of the Slavic revival, they sought to assist in raising the educational level and the national awakening consciousness Galician Ruthenians. This, they believed would be their contribution Ukrainian national revival and Ukrainian entry into the circle of free cultural nations of Europe, especially Slavic.
An important step along the way was supposed to release the almanac Dnistrovaia Mermaid. " He had, as M. Shashkevych said, help "raise a new force Rus glory, Ruthenian Power! "Collection was under embargo until 1848 Ideas prohibited censorship almanacs "Dawn" and "RuSalka Dnistrovaia "told to the readers of published during the 1845-1847 biennium Vienna almanac Garland Rusyns in obzhynky " Holovatsky.
Work group members had comprehensive in nature. They cared linguistic, ethnographic, ethnology, literary studies, translation, journalistic, artistic creativity, journalism, pedagogy and more. Its multifaceted nature significantly affected the Galician national consciousness.
Through the activities of members of the circle for 30-40-ies Ukrainian national movement in Galicia did significant step forward.
1. Specify characteristics of the Ukrainian National Movement at Western.
2. How started national-cultural revival of Rusyns in Transcarpathia?
3. What role was played in the struggle for preservation of national rights Transcarpathians Andrew Bachinsky? (Preparing a response use the document 1.)
4. Describe the beginning Ukrainian national revival in Galicia.
5. Give facts that reveal role of the Greek Catholic church in the Ukrainian national movement in Transcarpathia and Galicia.
6. Describe the First stage of the Ukrainian national revival in the Western lands.
7. How has the activity "Ruthenian Triad" in the formation of Galician Ukrainian national consciousness?
8. On the emergence of "Mermaids Dnistrova" Franko said that she "was at one time through a revolutionary phenomenon. Explain this characteristic, based on the text paragraph.
9. The motto to "Mermaids Dnistrova" the authors have chosen the words Kollar J. "Not when his eyes were sad, and when the hand bution, Hope blooms. Explain to what they called readers.