As a result of entering Western lands of the Habsburg Empire there gradually began to spread German. She was considered the national language and was used in government, although there was inexplicable to the Ukrainian population.
Sad inheritance from previous time was that the Ukrainian elite in this region actually existed. Apparently, Because of this, the Austrian government initially believed that inhabit Polish Galicia, Transcarpathia - Hungarians, and Bukovina - Romania. It was only later realized the Habsburgs, the vast the population of these lands - Ukrainian, but they do not have a elite. Then, by the usual imperial principle of "divide and conquer", the Habsburgs began to enlist the ruling Polish, Hungarian and Romanian circle with to strengthen position in the land. Their status for the language gradually became the second by value (after German) at Western. Therefore Ukrainian increasingly felt, along with strengthening onimechuvannyam started polonization earlier processes in Eastern Galicia, Magyarization in Transcarpathia Rumanization in North Bukovina. Before the Ukrainian population arose threat denationalization- loss of national identity of its own rice and other crops absorption. Why the struggle for preservation of folk culture and unity of all Ukrainian people become the issue here importance.
West-land ditalysya Habsburgs in pretty bad shape. Go to the collapse of Eastern Galicia led the Polish domination. Worn under the yoke of bond peasantry, fell into decay urban crafts and trade. A similar situation has been exhausted in a long Turkish domination and slave Bukovina Hungarians in Transcarpathia.
Ukrainian peasants, serfs in Galicia zhyvotily barely under the authority of the Polish gentry, who accounted for only 3-5% country's population but owned most land. Is able to live normal villager except if the payment was to perform handling serfdom p`Five or six days a week? The average allotment in the early nineteenth century. of 6 hectares, about half the cost of living and noble estates larger than 400 hectares. Ration the western half of Western European peasants was. Because of that the average life expectancy of 30-40 years, hunger became commonplace
The situation in the new estates not happy with the Habsburgs: they were not going to feed the new provinces by old account, and counted on them as a source of military and renovation resources of the state treasury. The necessity of these tasks caused steps Austrian government to restore order at Western.
In the history of the Habsburg 70-80's XVIII century. included as a era of reform Empress Maria Theresa and her son Joseph II. These reforms in the spirit of enlightened policy absolutism carried out throughout the empire, but they are particularly significant impact had at Western. The purpose of reform here was:
· improvement financial situation of the population, as this objective the stabilization of socio-economic situation of the land and thus - to strengthen the empire;
· elimination the old system of government under which belonged to the local dominant nobility. and replace it with disciplined, which led a policy of the empire would Center officials.
Reforms were distributed mainly in administration, relations in agriculture, education and church life.
In the administrative field during Joseph II the entire province - Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria peredilyly to individual districts (with a separate county in 1786 was Bukovina). Action all Polish laws of 1786 stopped, their zastupaly to general. Thus, administrative reforms have caused a decline in power of Poles in the province and its concentration in the imperial officials.
Significant changes have occurred in the agricultural area. By order of Maria Theresa in the linked states were derived "Inventory", which recorded the number of land owned by the nobility, and defined duties peasants. This imperial government could not really imagine the taxes on these lands, while demand from landlords that they peasants did not have more than the "Inventariyem. Also limited physical punishment, prohibited boon to Sunday and holidays, forced without the consent of farmers and others.
Emperor Joseph II for 1780-1782 biennium has issued several laws under which farmers were exempted from personal dependence, and clearly stated the size of serfdom (not more than three days per week). However, farmers were provided minimal social rights - marry without the permission of the landowner, to send their children to learn urban schools; likviduvalosya law judge Mr peasants and more. Peasant communities were also given the right government. In 1789 emperor passed a law on elimination of serfdom, but after his death, the law abolished, but all other changes there.
Church life Western Ukraine has also become a sphere, where a significant change. Constant petition the Greek Catholic clergy of Galicia and Transcarpathia to Vienna government for protection from harassment by local Catholics Rusyn-Ukrainian and recognition their distinct people had a good effect. Maria Theresa forbade use Greek Catholics on the phrase "Uniates" and acknowledged that the Roman Catholic and Greek Catholic Church in Western Ukraine have absolutely equal law. Roman Catholics were strictly forbidden to force the Greek-Catholics change faith. Emperor Joseph II in 1781 passed a law in accordance with which all Christian churches in his possession got equal rights. Non-Catholics now gained equal rights with Catholics in public service. Part religious reform became emperor in equalizing the rights of other nations of the Jews (Note that in the Russian Empire, the Pale of Settlement and other restrictions existed until 1917). The net effect of these reforms for Greek Catholic Church - the only organization with which ototozhnyuvalosya Ukrainian religious life in Galicia and Transcarpathia became significantly increasing its position.
With changes in church life were Related changes also in education, which then adhere to the church. To enable the Greek Catholic clergy to gain higher spiritual education initiative of Maria Theresa in Vienna in 1774 at the Church of St. Barbara opened a general Greek Catholic seminary (Barbareum). In during the reign of Joseph II "Barbareum was closed, but instead created seminary directly at Western - and in Lviv Uzhgorod. They also recovered (from 1784), the Lviv University. In his four faculties enrolled 250 students. As lectures were read in Latin and German, for Rusyn-Ukrainian at University was established "Studium rutenium" (Ruses Institute), where science taught Church Slavonic. "Ruses Institute existed for 1787-1809 biennium
Far-reaching consequences for Ukrainian population of the area had a school reform Maria Theresa, held 1777, which in elementary (primary) schools of teaching native parent language.
Thus, reforms of Maria Theresa and Joseph II contributed to the political modernization of the Western lands, but not envisage measures to change the economic situation. Yet they contributed spread among the peasants and the Greek Catholic clergy of this land salutary attitude to the Habsburgs. It is through this they gained fame faithful Empire "Tiroltsiv East.
In terms of economic development Western lands far inferior to other regions of the Habsburg Empire. Western Ukraine in the economic system assigned the role of the empire Agricultural and raw appendage - a provider of food and raw materials for industrialized regions and markets made there goods. Consequently, the economic status among Western Ukraine other provinces came to the colonial empire.
% Owned by landlords from the whole earth
The basis of the regional economy was agriculture. In Eastern Galicia dominated agriculture. Characteristic feature of the agricultural land of the first half of the nineteenth century. was obezzemelennya growing peasants. During this time the average size of peasant holdings decreased from 6 to 4 ha magnates and land holdings have increased from 400 to almost 600 hectares. Recurrent spontaneous disasters and crop failures resulted in the first half of the nineteenth century. seven mass famines. However, grain from the landlords' estates taken out to other provinces Empire.
In most of Transcarpathia arable land used for industrial development of viticulture, horticulture and agriculture. The vast majority of land is owned by Hungarian and German landowners and monasteries. Small peasant holdings could not provide farmers enough food. This forced them go to work to other parts of the empire. The farm mountain Transcarpathia political role played by farming and logging. Transcarpathian wool and wood arrived in industrialized provinces of the empire. The situation of the majority of peasants was very hard. In some comitates almost half of the peasants had no land at all. As a result, most farmers led half-starved existence. Almost every year thousands of peasants died of starvation.
In most parts of North Bukovina leading role in the economy played agriculture, and in mountain areas - farming, cutting wood and rafting, hunting. Much of products exported to the western provinces of the empire. Actual owners of land were large landowners, who owned two thirds of cultivated land and most villages. Onerous burden on the peasants of Bukovina, as in other regions Western lands were state duties (construction of roads, bridges, etc.) and 14-year military service.
Industry West land has been under prolonged stagnation. Traditional local area industries - leather, salt, textiles, timber, tobacco, of iron - almost not evolved. Only 30-40-ies under the influence Industrial Revolution, which swept the Western provinces of the empire, began some recovery in the industry of Eastern Galicia. Even then, industrial company kept its edge-manufactury handicraft level. In the middle Nineteenth century. Eastern Galicia there were 200 manufactories, which made 41% of their total number in the Empire. Most manufactories there was in villages and was owned by nobility. Labor camp follower workers almost is used, working farmers, related to agriculture. A machine barely used. The first two cars at Western appeared only in 1843 in Galicia (then in the western provinces Empire's industrial enterprises have operated over 200 steam engines).
Demand for industrial products in Western Ukraine satisfied with mainly by the supply of Western industrialized provinces. As a result, much cheaper than local products factory goods were causing the decline of craft-manufactury business edge.
Terrible living conditions, constant landowners had increased oppression against Western The result peasantry, which lasted throughout the first half of the nineteenth century.
At the end of XVIII century. In period of agrarian reforms of Joseph II, farmers increased their performances. They understand the meaning of reform in its own way: finally free themselves from the yoke of the hated Masters, do cease all feudal obligations. Resistance to farmers in Eastern Galicia was so strong that in some villages was to curb the recalcitrant sent troops. Fight broke out and farmers in our region and Northern Bukovina. Especially zapanikuvaly Hungarian magnates, who requested to send to land troops and the Rusyns of Transcarpathia prevent association with their relative Eastern Galicia and North Bukovina.
In the early nineteenth century. imperial government eliminated some of the earlier reforms, including the right of landowners resumed use corporal punishment on villagers. Mansion was not arbitrary limits. "Many of us from beatings with fists lost teeth - the villagers complained to the court a village in Eastern Galicia - many because of inhuman treatment are buried, and half fled to Bessarabia. This situation was typical.
Caused endless growth resistance. The farmers have committed massacres of lords, estates and businesses burned their masters. Submission of collective complaints to the imperial masters of government (in Russian Empire villagers were forbidden to complain to their landlords) had The result protracted litigation peasant communities against owners. By mid- Nineteenth century. Eastern Galicia there remained any village which was not destined to be his master.
In mountainous areas of East Galicia, Northern Bukovina and Transcarpathia still rozhortavsya movement Robin. The villagers fled to the mountains and forests, created and conducted Guerillas armed struggle against their oppressors. Special swing movement gained Robin in the 1810-1825 biennium Its popularity took a detachment of 30 led by Robin Shtolyukom with Myron. Thanks to support peasants Bukovina long his unit remained elusive. Only in 1830 Shtolyuka squad defeated, and himself leader and seven odchayduhiv executed.
In 40-ies Nineteenth century. movement farmers in Northern Bukovina again increased. Among the largest peasant leaders Fame earned Lukyan Kobylytsya(1812-1851). He, along with authorized representatives of 22 rural communities written complaint to the boundary Galician administration on violence and harassment lords. When the complaint did not give any results, the villagers began to smash and estates refuse to perform duties. To suppress the rebels used troops. From risen severely crack: more than 230 villagers were beaten with staves, filly and peasants and other leaders were imprisoned.
From the interrogation protocol investigating Lukian filly speech about why farmers in 1844
"... As for incitement subjects ... then it must be attributed to ... mainly Lukyan filly who distributed among the servants of the idea that they are free and must deprive Didych forests. To substantiate this assertion Kobylytsya telling subjects that he has imperial patent, printed with golden letters, which provides public Rus-Kympulunzkoyi districts all freedom. But during the detailed examination it said he had a patent that he just bought a book about the rights and duties Mountain subjects, which was gilded seal, and through that came to the conclusion that she painted gold letters. With this patent he said, make many copies for local nationals. When questioned after his arrest and charged with rebelliousness, it appears that this book is not found in it, there is nothing cameral work as adviser on patents Drdatskoho serfdom in Galicia and Bukovina ... "
Judge: 1. What did Lukyan Kobylytsya order to raise the peasants revolt? 2. What characteristics of peasant psychology he used? 3. What is your relationship to the performance of L. filly?
In 1846 Eastern Galicia embraced the new wave of performances associated with the Polish national liberation rebellion in Western Galicia. Polish patriots launched an uprising against Austrian domination. However, Ukrainian farmers have seen the Poles only their Masters-oppressors. They supported the actions of the Austrian army against the Poles, were noble disarm rebel groups, en masse smash landlords and estates kill lords. Gradually reprisals against the rebels turned to the fight against their oppressors. Distribution of the peasant uprising led imperial power after suppressing the Polish uprising of troops to use "comfort" Ukrainian peasants.
Nevschuhayuchi wave of peasant speeches made imperial administration look attempts to resolve burning problems. In 1836 Hungarian Diet abolished the duties of the peasant. In 40-ies agrarian reform projects initiated by local administration were discussed in the provincial Diet of Galicia.
1. What was the situation Western population under the rule of the Habsburgs?
2. Analyze the impact of reforms Maria Theresa and Joseph II in the development of Western lands.
3. Identify features economic development of western lands in the first half Nineteenth century.
4. What caused Speeches Ukrainian population during the first half of the nineteenth century.? (Preparing response, use the document)
5. Describe the most peasants rebellions that took place at Western.