Theme III

Western EARTH IN THE FIRST HALF nineteenth century.

 

§ 12. The inclusion of the Western Lands Austrian Empire

Remember: 1. How and when Western land were within the Habsburg Empire? 2. What was the policy of the Austrian Government lands in the West end XVIII in the first half of the nineteenth century.?

 

1. Administrative division and regional division

Austrian Empire, to the which included western lands, was a multinational state. Unlike from the Russian Empire, the "patchy" Habsburg Empire was no single unified management, resulting in the earth, inhabited by Ukrainian, belonged to different administrative units of the monarchy.

First under the Austrian Habsburg appeared Zakarpattya.U 1699 it together with eastern Hungary came under Austrian Habsburg rule. But in fact, here dominated Hungarians. Ukrainian settlement Transcarpathia was redistributed into four administrative regions - comitates that subject Pozhonskomu (Bratislava) namisnytskomu Administration of the Kingdom of Hungary. The entire administrative judicial, military and financial power concentrated in comitates intended King of the group of large landowners and administrators. Convened periodically komitatski meeting nobility. The population of Transcarpathia comitates end Eighteenth century. consisted of about 250 thousand souls, of which 40% were Ruthenians. The vast majority of the population were peasants, enslaved Hungarian landowners. Most of the Ruthenian elite belonged to the Catholic zmadyaryzuvalasya faith and received, thus the same privileges as the Hungarian gentry. However, remained and those who remained faithful to traditions of its people. Basically they were representatives of the Greek Catholic clergy. It is for them came the first "adherents" in Transcarpathia.

As the first division of Ritchie Commonwealth (1772) of the Austrian Empire entered Galicia. Been connected the land, Empress Maria Theresa of Austria took the title Queen of Galicia and Lodomeriya.

On these lands were established crown region (province) "Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria" centered in Lviv, composed of Ukrainian (Eastern Galicia), and Polish (West Galicia) land. Province divided into 18 districts (district), with which 12 were Ukrainian part of the province.

This division existed until the mid- century when, after repeated changes and he was finally eliminated peredilyly Province by 74 counties (of which 50 were in eastern Galicia).

In the attached land was distributed General-management system. All administrative authorities in the province belonged to the governor (later - the governor), appointed by the emperor. In districts (counties later in) power belonged to the elder, in the villages - fixable age, but migrants with landowners mandatoram (Supervisors). In the second half of the century replaced their public offices. Cities ruled the magistrates, nominated by appointed imperial administration then - the city council, which served as the local authorities.

 

Galician commoners. Nineteenth century.

 

The highest representative body in Province was the Diet, the leading position in which the occupied Polish nobility. But Diet powers were limited, and its activity is controlled by the imperial administration. Since 1861 created two separate boundary Diet - in Galicia and Bukovina, which operated before the First World War.

At the end of XVIII century. with almost 2.2 million Ukrainian population of Eastern Galicia were 71%, Poles - 22% Jews - 6%. But the Poles in the realm of politics and economics were before, then as peasants, and the Ukrainian Greek Catholic clergy were extremely serious.

Greek Catholic clergy was actually, the only representative of educated among the Galician Ukrainian, and that it started in the land of Ukrainian national revival.

Before 1861 separate county belonged to the Kingdom of Galicia and Bukovina Lodomeria. Administrative Centre this covered with beech forest land was Chernivtsi. At the end of XVIII century. lived here about 75 thousand souls, among whom were Ukrainian 69, Romanians - 26%. Ukrainian populated mainly Northern Bukovina.

Romanian boyars, landowners occupied the land in the dominant position. Most Ukrainian or, if said of the Ruthenian population were peasants. Ruthenian nobility zrumunizuvalas yet in the previous century. Deploying Rumanization resisted only a small layer Ukrainian Orthodox clergy. During the first half of the nineteenth century. Bukovina was considered one of the regions nayspokiynishyh Habsburg Empire. Active role in the process of awakening of the Ukrainian national life when she not played, but in the second half of the century the situation is significantly changed.

 

2. Rutenstvo

Long time Polish rule caused that Western Ukrainian lost his social elite and turned into the people who made it, they laughed as Poles, peasants and priests. After switching the power of the Habsburgs situation of the western Ukrainian significantly improved as a result of imperial reforms of Maria Theresa and Joseph II. This Greek-Catholic clergy, which started in the new conditions play the role of the Ukrainian elite, became committed supporters of the dynasty Habsburg. They advocated that the government strongly support the Viennese, with thanks perceived all that presented a imperial power, and for a long time not trying to impose their own requirements. This historical phenomenon was called "Rutenstva. The content of it was very difficult. On the one hand, "rutenstvo" impeded the development of the western Ukrainian national consciousness and helped imperial officials to strengthen their power in the land of the other - was historically caused by the real situation because the interests of Ukrainian match with the wishes of the Austrians to weaken the influence of Poland and Hungary in Galicia, Transcarpathia.

 

3. Greek Catholic Church in Galicia

Greek Catholic Church has long played an important role in Ukrainian Galician. During the Commonwealth Greek Catholic clergy undergone all sorts of oppression from the Catholic church. The Greek Catholic Church did not decline, but driven out of the social group of wealthy strata, was closer to the people. Greek Catholic priests lived in villages. OS-sprat them, unlike Roman Catholics were allowed to marry, their lives often resembled a peasant. They were forced to combine their spiritual duties with common peasant labor, earning the maintenance of their families. Their sons continued to deal mostly parents. The priests were well aware of people's language talking with people, because Latin and Polish-Ukrainian peasants not understood. Consequently, the Greek Catholic clergy was at that time historical conditions for the Galician Ukrainian the only possible social elite.

Go into the power of Galicia Austrian Empire led to positive developments in the situation of the Greek Catholic church. Due to open in Vienna and Lviv theological training institutions there were opportunities for believers getting a good education. The implications of this appeared very quickly. That work enlightened Greek Catholic Ukrainian clergy launched a process of revival in Galicia.

In 1808 by order of the Austrian Emperor restored the Galician Greek Catholic metropolis. First Metropolitan Antin Anhelovych (1808-1814 biennium) and Michael Levitsky(1816-1858 biennium) have done a great national awakening Galician Ukrainian.

Multi-activity Mikhail Levitsky coincided with the period of deployment in Galicia the Ukrainian national movement. Together with his supporters, he took care to establish public schools and training manuals for them.

For a long time Metropolitan demanded the introduction of teaching in the Ukrainian language in schools in Eastern Galicia. Anyway Levitsky was quite conservative in their views, not supported European supporters of new ideas. When members of the group "Ruska trinity" prepared for publication Almanac "Dawn" and "Mermaid Dnistrova, namely Metropolitan became one of the initiators of their censorship ban. When the Russian government forcibly abolished the Greek Catholic Church on the Right Bank, it strongly condemn this action. Metropolitan supported the creation of the Supreme Ruthenian Council during revolutionary events of 1848-1849 years, encouraged the Greek Catholic clergy efforts to work on the education of the people. In 1856 pope Levitsky awarded the first time in history the Greek Catholic church Cardinal title.

 

4. Greek Catholic church in Transcarpathia

The contribution of Greek-Catholic Church protection of Transcarpathian Rusyns Magyarization stick a catholic faith and hard exaggerated. The long and exhausting struggle forced the clergy Transcarpatian seek assistance from the Empress Maria Theresa. The result was Output in 1771 Transcarpathia from the subordination of the Catholic Hungarian archbishop and distinguishing themselves in the Greek Catholic Mukachivs'ka diocese. The first bishop of Transcarpathia became independent John Bradach (1771-1772 biennium).

The most prominent figure of the Church Life Transcarpathia was Bishop Andrew Bachinsky (1772-1809 biennium).

Excerpted from the addresses and appeals to the faithful Bishop Andrew Bachynsky

"At soderzhaniye svoyem in the composition koyeho libo-Rod and not people and yes bolshaho kripchaysheho union nyezheli soderzhaniye Natural and otyecheskoho matyernyaho svoyeho tongue, writing and nabozhenstva.

... KIND same porohiyi in such and all branches of their children, boys and girls from six to fourteen rock on science hrystyyanskuyu sposobnyh, names and pryzvyska da ispishet and the village kazhdoy nedyeli in church ... through the winter in the same house ... lovingly and with all the children krotostiyu vynauchaty ... Kotor science to children of parents will miss out, takovyh challenge potrebno will.

(No) otecheskiya pryrodniya Science ruskiya ... impossible to be found in the priesthood to serve his people.

... Otnyud not vozbranyav Latin yli other language of science to their tokmo ruskoye ... nayperviye ostavlyayuchy not, but in Otomi vnauchyty and establish themselves.

Judge: 1. What problems interrupted the bishop? 2. What are the sayings Andrew Bachynsky recall the famous words of Taras Shevchenko: "And nauchaytes strange, and not his tsuraytes? 3. What steps expressions shows foresight, care about the future of the people Mukachevo Bishop?

 

Mukachivs'ka Greek Catholic Diocese has become a mainstay Rusynism Transcarpathia, initiated not only update religious, but also people's life. It is public Greek Catholics got a number of intellectuals who have become leaders of national and cultural revival.

The situation of the Greek Catholic Church Transcarpathia in after the revolutionary events of 1848-1849 biennium worse. During the Hungarian uprising supported Subcarpathian Ruthenians Habsburgs, through which the Hungarians, which remained under the rule in Transcarpathia after the revolution time, began a persecution of Greek Catholics and increased Magyarization edge. Part of the Greek Catholic clergy believed that better submit to the Hungarians, the other is sought outside help. The result was spread in Transcarpathia sympathy for Russia, which saw the strength that help counteract stick a catholic faith Rusyns Hungarians.

 

5. The Orthodox Church in Bukovina

Until such time as the Austrian invaded Bukovina, orthodox church, which belonged to the majority Ukrainian population of the region, was subordinated to the Moldovan Metropolitan. Emperor Joseph II has made denial of the metropolitan church authorities over Bukovyna created here separate from the Orthodox diocese center in Chernivtsi.

In 1873 the will of the Emperor Bukovina church was subordinate to the Serbian Orthodox karlovatskomu Metropolitan. After crossing under Austrian rule in 1931 there was Bukovina monastery, where about 550 monks. The church was the largest landowner in the land. In Ukrainian, the indigenous population of Bukovina, the Orthodox professed faith as Romanians.

Emperor Joseph II made reform of the church property in the province. Its purpose was to limit the church land and land use in this church subordinate Vienna government. Of all movable and immovable estates of monasteries and churches of Bukovina was established only diocesan religious foundation. It included 14 monasteries, hermitages and 11 with all their land holdings. All other monasteries were closed, and their land sold. Money from the sale of land was a religious foundation. After the reform in possession of the Orthodox Church remained quarter of total land area Bukovina. At the diocesan fund was entrusted the duty to maintain the monastery, churches, schools, theological schools, build churches and more.

The number of clergy under imperial reforms reduced. Yet the situation of parish priests was much better than in neighboring Galicia. They each received a substantial land inheritance, which the villagers had pocherezhno year process. Main duty that relied on priests were faithful obedience training emperor and dependent on his authorities and laws.

Bukovina Orthodox Church was strongly influenced by the Romanians, who, together with Ukrainian rumunizovanymy the majority of the clergy. Because of this, Orthodox clergy did not play the role of "adherents" Bukovynian Ukrainian national revival in the period Slavic peoples.

The most prominent figure among Church hierarchy was the bishop, and eventually formed the first Metropolitan 1873 Bukovinskoy Orthodox Church Eugene Hakman (1835-1873 biennium).

His efforts directed at Bishop struggle against the terrible ignorance of local clergy and attempts udaremnennya Romanian Bukovina lure of metropolitan diocese.

To prove his friendly attitude to the Romanians, he initiated the creation of diocesan expense fund Romanian school and real schools and the introduction of teaching in Romanian language in the theological institute in Chernivtsi. Simultaneously, Hakman was forced to fight for something to supervision Bukovynian schools is carried Polish Catholic Church in Lviv, a local Orthodox church. This situation caused an attempt to stick a catholic faith of the Orthodox population, which caused numerous protests.

In 1849 leadership Bukovinskoy Orthodox Diocese domohlosya separation of Galicia Bukovina. The local education system is free of the subordination of city and came under control Bukovinskoy Orthodox Church. However, this step only worsened position of the Ukrainian population. Did you stick a catholic faith Released threat, Ukrainian Orthodox find themselves under a new threat - Rumanization.

Thus, the terms of the Austrian Empire were quite favorable to the western Ukrainian church life. Empire Habsburg was a character and riznovirnoyu multinational. No religions which professed its population, had no national status. Because of This attitude of the Viennese government as to the Greek Catholics and the Orthodox was tolerable.

 

Questions and Tasks

1. What were the features of management of Western lands in the Habsburg Empire?

2. What role was played Greek Catholic Church in the life of Galician Ukrainian?

3. What rutenstvo?

4. What role was played Greek Catholic Church in the life of Galician Ukrainian?

5. What was the contribution of the Greek Catholic church in the national-cultural revival of Transcarpathian Rusyns?

6. How different the situation and Bukovinskoy activities of the Orthodox Church of the Greek Catholic Church in Galicia and Transcarpathia?

7. Identify the features of the church Life in Dnieper Ukraine and West Ukrainian lands.