Remember: 1. What is the National Recovery? 2. What events started Ukrainian revival in bank Ukraine? 3. What was his contribution to the national revival of Cossack descendants?
Ukrainian national revival, as noted above, began after the Left abolition of the autonomy of Ukraine. It was a time when some enthusiasts, wishing to save monuments for future generations of Ukrainian culture, began to collect historical documents folk songs and translations. Based on the collected first work created with Ukraine's history, researched traditions of Ukrainian people. Patriotic combined with a sense that the ideas of European romanticism, which led interest in popular culture.
In the enthusiasm of young folk culture intellectuals launched the struggle for language. "Philological rebels, "as they called them later historians, the first realized that the national language is one of the main factors of the new nation. The struggle for improvement social status of the peasant dialect was important because it led to affirmation of the fact that a person who uses their language has the same rights, as one who broadcasts "lordly."
Late 30's in Ukrainian national movement is Taras Shevchenko. The value of its activities the borders of literature and the creation of a new Ukrainian. Public Shevchenko looks showed that he is much ahead of his time. First in Nineteenth century. He expressed the desire to see Ukraine's independence from democratic state parade.
In general, during the 20-30's Nineteenth century. was quite favorable for the development of Ukrainian revival, since no imperial ideologues saw the activities of Ukrainian patriots great danger. Creating works of Ukraine's history and linguistics, capture Their folklore is often combined with the civil service. Russian government even tried to use this research to their advantage. When after suppressing the Polish uprising of 1830-1831 biennium began converting Right Bank to the "true Ruthenian land", the imperial officials began to promote historical research to prove unfounded claims of the Poles in these land. However, promotion of research and discovery of Kiev University had an unexpected outcome. Over the years, formed a new generation of Ukrainian intelligentsia, which launched operations in 40-ies She became the embodiment Cyril and Methodius.
Repression against Cyril-Methodians showed changes in the historical situation. Imperial government began to severely suppress Ukrainian national movement. Consequently, in the Dnieper Next, cultural stage of national revival existed. The third stage, political, Ukrainian movement in the Dnieper went just before First Russian Democratic Revolution of 1905-1907, although attempts politicize it was before.
It is worth paying attention to what the vast majority of Ukrainian society was at that time quite passive.
Reflections Alexander Potebnia about the lost opportunities of the Ukrainian national movement in the first half Nineteenth century. (By memories D.Ovsyannyko-Kulikovsky)
"Passed talking about possible prospects of Ukrainian nationality ... Alexander Opanasovych with some sharpness noted that Ukrainian society is educated missed the opportune moment and now probably too late ... The moment that he had in his mind, as I understood - the era of the XVIII century and half, when the local nobility and urban society in Ukraine has not lost the knowledge and lively sense of the Ukrainian language, and the government has not yet reached the wild invention ban literature and the language itself: you can write and print disarms in Ukrainian, you can create and national schools. If then Ukrainian Society has revealed at least a small part of the national initiative and energy which found, for example, the Czechs and Serbs, the Ukrainian nationality strengthened to such an extent that any ban would not stop its further development. But Ukrainian society was not at the height of the national task - and now it came to what is the existence Ukrainian nationality is put into question ... "
Judge: 1. What are the disadvantages saw Ukrainian movement in the first half of the nineteenth century. Potebnya? 2. Exchanging views on whether the author was right, criticizing the passivity of the Ukrainian society first half of the nineteenth century.?
The first time, folk and ethnographic, phase occurred, the study and publication of Ukrainian intelligentsia materials that serve Ukrainian national identity confirmation. Components this phase were:
· collection historical records and play them on the basis of the history of Ukrainian people;
· research Folklore and spread understanding of what the Ukrainian people are a distinct people with their own culture and traditions;
· research popular language as one of the important aspects of Ukrainian national identity and its appearance on the basis of literary language.
Values of the first works on history Ukraine very first consisted in the fact that their authors were able to identify its history people and bring it to general Separate from nature. Imperial ideologues who do not understand most of the European changes, did not notice that at the origins of most new European nations were historians, and therefore not achieved far-reaching consequences of the origin of the Ukrainian national history.
Among the first works of Ukrainian amateur historians were works of V. Ruban "Little Short Chronicle" (1777), Theodore Tumanskiy "topograph Hetmanate (1779), Alexander Rihelmana Chronicles the story of Little Russia " (1786), James Markovic Writings on Little Russia, its people and works " (1798). The appearance of those first written in Russian, work was impetus to the emergence of detailed research in Ukrainian history.
"The first historian of Ukraine" contemporaries called Dmitry Bantysh-Kamensky (1788-1850). With material support Little Russian governor-general M. Repnin wrote a four Istoriia Malaya Russia "and published it in Moscow. Nevertheless, the author considered the Ukrainian people part of Russia and this is actually justified the right to conquer the Empire Ukraine. Nevertheless, the work Bantysh-initiated research Kamensky Study of Ukrainian history and its popularization in society.
Further study history was the publication Mikola Markevich(1804-1860) in Moscow Istoriia Malorossii "(1842-1843 biennium). Unlike predecessors, the author did not belong to the Ukrainian nobility and one of the first favorably treated Cossacks fighting for the autonomy of Ukraine. Indignant Markiewicz imperial patriots condemned for it, seeing in his work autonomists renaissance aspirations and attempts to separate the history of Ukraine Russian history.
Research Popular Culture Another area for grabs was the Ukrainian intelligentsia. In ethnographic expeditions to villages Naddniprianshchyna they heard and recorded stories songs, gems of folk wisdom.
The first collection of Ukrainian historical doom issued in 1819 Duke in St. Petersburg Nicholas Tsertelev (1790-1869), who, as Georgians, it was very sympathized with the Ukrainian people, among whom he lived. Explaining the purpose of publication Ukrainian songs, Prince said that "they can see the poetic genius of the people, its spirit and traditions of old times and, finally, that pure morality, which always Ukrainian marked and ... that saved them from the greed of neighboring nations.
The next significant step in Ukrainian folklore studies was the publication of three collections of folk songs first Rector of the University of Kiev Michael Maksymovyc (1804-1873). This book, published in 1827, 1834 and 1849, made a great impression on contemporaries. Representatives of the new generation Ukrainian national movement and Panteleimon Kulish, Mykola Kostomarov mentioned During his stay in different places, independently of each other they accidentally came across a collection of songs Maximovich and by reading them one day become ardent Ukrainian patriots.
It was one of the common people Parts of the common culture, which built the new European nation. According to the Romantics, it reflected the true character and spirit of the people. Events of the second half of XVIII century. made problematic existence of the Ukrainian people and their language.
The question "whether or not to be?" settled for the Ukrainian language in 1798, when John Kotliarevsky published poem "Aeneid". He first ventured to write a literary work vernacular. Talent caused by the popularity of his work among the nobility Left Bank. Accordingly it is thought that the emergence of "Aeneid" has launched a new Ukrainian literature.
"Aeneid" VI Kotlyarevsky
The next step in learning Ukrainian language was the work of Alex Pavlovsky (bl.1770-1822) "Little Russian Grammar narechyya ... "(1818). Pavlovsky first developed a grammatical construction Ukrainian language, the principles of literary and colloquial usage.
Important for development Ukrainian language had activity Ishmael Sreznevsky (1812-1880). He was one of those scholars who believed Ukrainian language original and an equal among other Slavic languages. In his book "Thoughts about the history russkoho language" (1850) he defined fundamental difference between Russian and Ukrainian and last counteth to the most ancient languages of the Slavic world.
For 20-40-ies there was a gradual transition from the period of collection of materials about the existence Ukrainian people to transform individual studies in a system of ideas. The important place occupied in it language, fighting for the extension of the scope of which use launched the Ukrainian intelligentsia.
Ukrainian Center for a new phase revival has been Kiev. Here, around the university concentrates those their creativity helped expand the sphere of literary and scientific use Ukrainian language. Late 20 - early 30's graduate University Sreznevsky Ismail founded the literary circle of Kharkov Romantics, as they were then called. It consisted of O. Spyhoc'kyj, A. Yevetskyy, I. Rozkovshenko et al. History of Ukrainian lands, they believed, is inexhaustible source for the writing of historical essays and poems in the spirit of Walter Scott. At the same time they helped popularize the works Kotlyarevskyi, H.Kvitky-Osnovianenko, collections of Ukrainian folk songs and M. Tserteleva Maksymovych. That call is the last date of die and save for posterity the glorious sights Ukrainian folk urged to exercise hurtkivtsiv ethnographic expeditions Ukrainian lands.
One of the results of Kharkiv romantics was issued Sreznevsky "Ukrainian Almanac" (1831). It contained the songs and works by Kharkiv poets. Huge capacity, considerable organizational skills in coupled with a sincere enthusiasm for the subject of research helped 20 years Sreznevsky in the future. During the 1833-1838 biennium he hath Kharkiv six issues of folklore and ethnographic collections "Zaporozhskaya antiquity. Kharkiv romantics praised the work Sreznevsky. "How sweet dream soul of the glory of our Ukraine, mother of my mother! "- O. wrote Spyhoc'kyj to Sreznevsky .- O friend, works for the revival of Ukrainian genius: Believe me: your labors will be appreciated.
The publication of literary anthologies and distributions, extended to Kharkiv in 30-40's, became a kind of literary forum for young Ukrainian literature. Caused is that publication own periodical magazines in the Dnieper was banned by Nicholas I. This ban operated from the late 20-ies to 1861 Activities of the Kharkiv romantics facilitated the acquisition of Ukrainian language literary features. Kharkov University Professor Peter Gulak-Artemovsky he wrote fiction and did translations from Ukrainian other European languages. Beginning Ukrainian prose works of contemporary thought G. Flower-Osnovyanenko on topics of national life. Poets Leo Borovykovsky and Ambrose Metlynsky gained fame "last Bandura" by his romantic ballad about a glorious past, written in Ukrainian.
Ukrainian literary circles appearing in the 30's and in the imperial capitals - Moscow and St. Petersburg. On the Edge 20-30-ies Petersburg became one of the centers of Ukrainian literary life. Here lived and worked Nikolai Gogol. Under the influence of his famous "Evenings on a Farm near Dikanka" Ukrainian folk Song won many supporters among the local elite. Lived here a long time as Taras Shevchenko (1831-1845 biennium). In St. Petersburg was published first edition of "Poet" (1840). In imperial Salon Ukraine imagined earthly paradise, where "Dnepr chuden in quiet weather, until it sounded passionate word Shevchenko: "That I've seen a hell of heaven - there is slavery." Great importance was appearance in St. Petersburg Almanac "Swallow" (1841), published writer E. Hrebinka. For the first time all the works were written in Ukrainian.
The new center Ukrainian literary and scientific life Naddniprianshchyna gradually turned Kyiv University. Plans for the imperial government to make it the center of the edge of Russification encounter with the realities of life. Around the University focused youth Ukrainian patriots, among whom were Mr. Belozersky, M. Kostomarov, Kulish, M. Gulak et al. In 1845 readership got Shevchenko. Unlike his predecessors, among whom prevailed nobles, new waves of Ukrainian national movement belonged to different social groups.
The family moved to Sreznevsky Ukraine in 1812, two months after the birth of a son. Here on earth Slobodian Kharkiv passed childhood Ishmael. Later became a student Kharkov University. During these years he decided to devote himself to scientific activity.
Sreznevsky was actually organized group Kharkiv romantics. With delight he read collections Ukrainian songs and M. Tserteleva Maksymovych. It also prompted him devote himself to the study of Ukraine and its past glory - Zaporozhye Cossacks. This Sreznevsky did in his own words, "to make at least a small contribution in favor of the country where I am obliged to all. He believed and felt that the Zaporozhye Cossacks was the "soul of the whole of Ukraine XVI-XVII century. "Sought to understand himself and explain terminating. To this aim was devoted to "old, Zaporizhia - first, in fact, er of Ukraine's history.
Later, when for three years Sreznevsky Slavic states traveled, he saw, as I said, all Slavic world, which then experienced national revival. This helped him better understand the life of western Ukrainian. Along with scientists Transcarpathian O. Dukhnovych He concluded that Ukrainian is the native population of Transcarpathia and Western Ukraine, not Hungarians and Poles, as claimed others. They are part Moreover, people living in the Dnieper.
One of the first expressed in the first half of the nineteenth century. Sreznevsky that Ukrainian is the original and an equal among other Slavic languages. Even when in the 60's Nineteenth century. Russian Empire deployed Ukrainophobic campaign Sreznevsky not afraid to have their own, different from the official opinion. When it turned asking about appropriate translation of the Gospel in Ukrainian Sreznevsky invited to ask more. In his opinion, the Ukrainian language was to be provide all facilities and rights to free development. Such a position of authoritative scientist (under the conditions of the notorious Valuev Circular 1863) was genuine public and scientific feat.
Sreznevsky was a man moderate views are far from radicalism, and was able to do for their Life is a lot of land for national revival, which became his homeland.
Embodiment of a new generation Ukrainian figures 40-ies was Cyril and Methodius (Brotherhood).
History of the Brotherhood is connected with appearance in Kiev University Kostomarov Nicholas, who began teaching here after the end of Kharkov University. How Sreznevsky in Kharkiv, he rallied around a young, enthusiastic ideas of Romanticism. Among the new friends and associates Kostomarov late 1845 originated the idea transformation of their circle of a secret society to promote ideas Slavic unity. Organizational design company took place in early next year. Initiators of the fraternity was Poltava teacher V. Belozersky, public servant P. Gulak, M. Kostomarov historian, writer Kulish, ethnographer O. Markovic. Society was named in honor of preachers Christianity among the Slavic peoples, brothers Cyril and Methodius. Member Badge Brotherhood was a ring with the inscription "St. Cyril and Methodius, in January 1846.
In April 1846 after moving from St. Petersburg to Kyiv to the Brotherhood, allegedly joined Taras Shevchenko. However establish whether or not the poet belonged to the company, not able even during the investigation were arrested on bratchanamy. Perhaps participants Company specifically hide this fact to protect Shevchenko. Number Brotherhood members in 1846 was 12 persons. Members belonging to the Brotherhood various social groups. Good understanding of feelings and needs of the people son neif Kostomarov and former slave Shevchenko. This awareness of people's life combined in brothers with extensive knowledge of the history of Ukraine. Therefore the new European ideas are perceived through the prism of personal experience as a result of observations of past and modern life. This pidmurivku brothers formed worldview.
Cyril Methodians guide the research activities were lectures at educational establishments of Kyiv, spreading thus his ideas. Much attention they paid educational activities, collecting funds for the opening of public schools, wrote textbooks. In particular, Kulish wrote the first textbook on the history of Ukraine "A Tale of Ukrainian people "(1846).
Activities Cyril and Methodius Brotherhood lasted 14 months and stopped because of arrests of its members. Next investigation of the company in damage not revealed, but the most disturbed the imperial Company officials program goals set out in its documents. For this, in fact, brothers and punished.
In the heated debate between fraternity brothers born software company documents. insisted on the priority elimination of serfdom and the liberation from the Russian authorities. Kostomarov considered the main Christian ideals and a union of Slavic peoples. Kulish gave priority to national liberation. All these views were reflected in "Genesis of the Ukrainian people" and "Slavic Charter St. Cyril and Methodius ", written by the leader of the Brotherhood Nicholas Kostomarov (1817–1885).
Man extraordinary fate writer and journalist, historian and ethnographer, social and political activist and poet, Notes on Nicholas was born in Voronezh family and landlord-peasant neif. Since childhood, was ailing, vulnerable, inflammatory, but worrisome and smart. Acquainting themselves with the works of French in childhood educator, after end entered the gymnasium of the Kharkov University. In this cultural cell Slobozhanshchina, speaking with such brilliant personalities as A. Beketov, P.Hulak-Artemovsky, Sreznevsky, formed outlook M. Kostomarov. Ten years after graduation, he devoted scientific work, wrote his first work of fiction - drama "Sava Chaly, and 1846 became professor of Russian history Kiev University.
Notes on the role played by ideological leader Cyril and Methodius, who also paid for the detention and seven-year exile. Arrest destroyed his personal life as a bride therefore left Kostomarov, and he lived all his life loner, devoted a scientific activity. Basic research devoted Kostomarov Ukrainian history XVI-XVIII centuries. The most famous of them is the work of Bogdan Khmelnitsky, "Desolation", "Mazeppa", "Mazepintsy", "Last year the Commonwealth", "Hetmanship Vyhovsky "," Paul Polubotok and others. Created on the basis of documentary sources, they were written a fascinating, interesting and read with delight the audience. Academic advocated independence of Ukrainian history from the Russian and implementation It's democratic traditions of freedom-loving Ukrainian people.
Described in the company by program restructuring of public life was an attempt to combine national, Christian and social ideas.
Realization national idea associated with the creation of the Slavic Union Christian republics. Ukrainian people for its traditional love of freedom should play a decisive role in this union. It should was to help other Slavic peoples freed from the power of monarchs and priests. Ukraine, according Kostomarov could be free only in the "Union Slavic.
In believing in the possibility and necessity reconstruct all social life based on Christian ideals found display of the Christian idea. Forms of government legislation, ownership and education for all Slavs - was noted in the "Charter should ...»,- based on the holy religion of our Lord Jesus Christ. " With Christian content associated the idea Ukrainian messiahship: liberating Slavic peoples, Ukrainian carry out the will of God.
Implementation social ideas associated primarily with the elimination of serfdom and amounts to inequality. The "Charter ..." put forward the requirement for full equality of all citizens, regardless of their 'birth, Christian religion and economic status. Also treated demands for democratic freedoms - of speech, press, freedom of conscience, education and replacement of permanent people's militia army.
The main means for achieving its goal the brothers believed the spread of education among the people and preaching peace. Immoral means to carry out their plans, such as liberation war and social revolution, they strongly condemned. "PraвиLuo same "end justifies the means", - mentioned in the "Hundredтуthose ...»,- Society recognizes the wicked. " In the short program ideas Brotherhood was outlined in the proclamations "to Ukrainian brothers" and "Brothers to the Russians and Poles. Their purpose was propaganda and spread their ideas among other Slavic peoples.
In March 1847 by Donoso provocateur Petrova members of the association were arrested. Investigation of the case brothers continued in St. Petersburg for three months. His chief results gendarmes Count Orlov emperor is reported: "The St. Cyril and Methodius was not more than three young scientists mayachinnyam. Its founders Gulak, Belozersky and Kostomarov were not able to involve the community military or the people, not become the cause of rebellion. "
Most difficult of all the brothers were Shevchenko penalty, which sent soldiers in a separate building Orenburg banned from writing and drawing. However, the severity of punishment is not determined by the poet belonging to the company, Count Orlov noted, but that "for the rebellious spirit and rage that have no boundaries, it must be recognized as one of the main criminals ".
Contribution Shevchenko in the report of Nicholas I, prepared by the Third Division
"... Shevchenko came between friends his considerable fame Little writer, but because his poetry double harmful and dangerous. With your favorite verses in Little Russia and could posiyatys subsequently ukorenytysya thoughts about imaginary bliss back Hetmanate of happiness return the time and the possibility of Ukraine to exist as a separate state. "
Judge: 1. What utter gravity acts Shevchenko imperial officials? 2. It is true, in your opinion, was to assess the value of the defenders of the empire Shevchenko's creativity? 3. Based on text document, explain what caused the severe punishment of the poet?
Identity of many talents Taras Shevchenko (1814-1861) combined a brilliant poet, author world renowned "Poet", a talented artist - by more than a thousand fine art and, without exaggeration, the creator of the new Ukrainian ideology which played an important role in the formation of national consciousness Ukrainian. What exactly Shevchenko became the symbol of man-days of awakening Ukrainian people, indeed.
Life way Shevchenko personified the fate of his people. He felt the yoke of serfdom and the experience understood the feelings of people who groan in chains. In his collection of poems, Kobzar He not only showed that painful, but also made important contributions to the formation literary Ukrainian. Because the poet has managed to combine the first a whole variety of folk dialects, Ukrainian shone bright colors. Shevchenko's works with the same passion you have read from various??? Ukrainian society. In this way they gradually overcome contradictions, which would divide them into individual states and increasingly feel that they belong to a new spiritual community - a single Ukrainian nation.
The defining feature of belief Shevchenko was not accepting any form of social oppression. Former slave mercilessly exposing all the shameful product of serfdom: trade "baptized property, rural, domestic, abuse of their masters. He did not believe in gradual reforms and called for the orders to destroy the evil force.
Social oppression of the Ukrainian poet of the people linked with imperial domination over their homeland, where the eagle black fly keeper. He repeatedly addressed in his poetry to the image heroic past Cossack Ukraine. However, unlike other Ukrainian Poetry-Palmmanufacturers, Shevchenko not only longing for past, but found it in force against the cursed modern reality. Crime of his people he thought that the descendants of once glorious Cossack families petty zrikalysya its role of national elites and went imperiyi.Vazhlyve serve little value that the poet proclaimed the need for combination of the struggle for national and social liberation. This idea was great perspective, as could interconnectionvalue had a single rains, these two streams of social life.
Of great importance that Shevchenko was able to see the Ukrainian national movement as a component of the liberation struggle of all Slavic peoples. He wanted "to all Slavs become good brothers ". The poet passed his poetry, calls for unity in common struggle leaders of national movements Slavs Pavel Safarik and Adam Mickiewicz. This Ukrainian people and their national liberation struggle became known in Europe.
It is difficult to overstate the value Shevchenko and his poetry for the development of the Ukrainian sense formation of nation in XIX century. Ukrainian civic and political activist Julian Ohrimovych, representative generation leaders, whose views were formed under the influence Shevchenko, wrote: "Poetry Shevchenko has landmark significance for us: it made of the dark mass of ethnographic nation, it smashed forever the possibility existence of the Ukrainian movement as "South russkaho" localism ". Indeed, Shevchenko's creativity became a watershed in the development of Ukrainian national consciousness. Agonizing personal fate of the poet has become a source for creation of a strong national myth that has inspired the next generation of fighters for Ukrainian business.
Cyril and Methodius Brotherhood lasted long, however, had a significant impact on the further development Ukrainian national movement. In the papers of the company was first an attempt of combining the Ukrainian national idea of universal Christian ideals and the idea of Slavic unity. According to their religion Company characteristics were similar to those of the time European nationalist organizations as the "Young Italy, Young Ireland and so on. As they Cyrill and Methodius Brotherhood combined with the idea of national liberation implementation of general reforms. But unlike them Brotherhood was the only organization that categorically rejected violence as a means to an end.
Strict penalties are not brothers pushed their successors from the struggle for Ukrainian business. Instead, halo martyrdom, which is entrenched in them, made this struggle more attractive to Ukrainian patriots. The next generation of fighters for liberation of the Ukrainian People continued to deal Cyril-Methodians.
Offers Count Orlov emperor on the nature of imperial policy in the Dnieper after Elimination of Cyril and Methodius
"Government ... could not allow ... ukraynofylov and thoughts about their nationality restoration defense, ybo this is povedёt malorossyyan, and behind them and others desire podvlastnыe narodы k samobыtno exist.
Warnings for harm in doing so case, nadlezhyt act obschymy mayors, not otыskyvaya who would obvynyt or orders ... Being more than Eschё nadlezhyt ostorozhnыmy on relations k Malorossii. Although there from young ukraynofylov, podobnыh Shevchenko and Kulyshu, Being maybe obraschayutsya Separate existence of ideas about even between people more than stepennыmy, nezhely themselves ukraynofylы, but do the strohye merы eschё for them and cherish zapreschёnnыe Thoughts Submissions may be malorossyyan, dosele pokornыh, put it in against of our razdrazhёnnoe the situation of the government, is located in koem, especially after myatezha, the kingdom Polish. Poleznee spravedlyvee and will not pokazыvat malorossyyanam kinds and that the government's had reason somnevatsya not poseyanы ly between them vrednыe ideas ... "
Judge: 1. What measures are proposed to apply Ukrainian movement to count Orlov? 2. Why empire as a desire to rebuild their nation Ukrainophiles dangerous? 3. Imperial tip officially declared that the Little Russians are part of Great Russian people. Or She understood that a separate, subdued by the power people? If yes, give this testimony.
1. Identify the features of Ukrainian national movement.
2. Describe the First stage of the Ukrainian national revival in bank Ukraine.
3. What was the main content Ukrainian national movement in 2030-ies? Give facts confirm your thoughts.
4. How formed Cyril and Methodius?
5. Expand the content of ideas formed in the position papers of the company.
6. Describe the contribution of Shevchenko the development of Ukrainian national movement.
7. What was the historical significance of Cyril and Methodius?