§ 10. Russian and Polish liberation movements in Ukrainian zemlyahu 20-30's of the nineteenth century. (textbook)

§ 10. Russian and Polish liberation movements in the Ukrainian lands in

20-30's Nineteenth century.

Remember: 1. What were the features of social Right Bank population structure? 2. What policies led the imperial government on the Right Bank? 3. What are the new European ideas met Russian officers Army while he was overseas trip 18131814?

 

1. The emergence of organizations in the Decembrist Ukraine

Opposition sentiment that distributed to the Russian imperial elite, found expression in the emergence of secret organizations among army officers. Members of these organizations called the "Decembrists" by the Russian name of the month, which was their attempted coup of December 14, 1825 in St. Petersburg. On distribution of these attitudes influenced acquaintance with inhabitants of European ideas and social and political life of Europe during overseas trip 1813-1814 biennium Autocratic, feudal empire in order contrasted with what they saw and encouraged the nobility, who, after victory in the war felt own importance, decisive action.

Among the officers located at Right Bank after the withdrawal from Europe, 2 nd Army in Kamenetz-Podolsk there was a secret organization "Iron Rings" (1815). Company, a leader which was W. Rajewski, elimination of feudal united supporters procedures and the introduction of the republican form of government. After a year under threat detection company samorozpustylosya. Secret of Officers occurred while in other cities of the empire: in St. Petersburg - the Union Rescue "(1816), in Moscow -" Union welfare "(1818). Sharp disagreements that erupted between supporters of the republican form government and constitutional monarchy led to the collapse of these organizations.

In 1821 Right Bank, in Tulchin created a new secret organization of "Southern Company". Among its members were many members of Masonic lodges. The leader began a Colonel Pavel Pestel. A year later, in St. Petersburg, was formed "North Company, headed by Nikita Muravyov. In the ranks of both companies for 1821-1825 biennium there were over 200 members. Managers of both companies annually during the Contract Fair in Kiev, have held meetings at which discussed programming questions. Along with "Southern Society" in Volhynia acted "Society of United Slavs", formed in 1823 in Novograd-Volyn officers brothers Andrew and Peter Borisov.

 

P. Pestel

 

All secret society Decembrists developed a political program, which was outlined their vision of the principles of restructuring Russian Empire.

 

2. Ukraine in the policy documents Decembrist

The program of future reforms "Southern Company" - "Ruska Pravda" produced Pavel Pestel. He project of empire had become a unitary republic with a unicameral parliament. However, for an unlimited period to implement these changes in the country military dictatorship introduced the "Provisional government" headed by Pestel. The people guaranteed basic civil liberties, abolished serfdom.

At the same time refused Pestel recognize the people to live in the empire, the right to separate existence as states. All nations were to merge with the Russian people, that is losing its national features. Future Power, in his opinion, should be centralized country because the federal system Pestel considered harmful. For Ukraine, which for it was only "Little Russia", no public rights is not recognized. Through its weakness - he said - "Little" can never become a separate state, and It must give up those dreams. The right to own statehood recognized Pestel only in Poland, and then only on condition that its close alliance with Russia.

Another vision for the future leader of the empire "Northern Society" M. Vorobyev. In its "Constitution" as he considered Russia federal constitutional monarchy with a march on the U.S. model. Serfdom abolished, carried out democratic reforms. Country divided into 14 federal states, two of which - the Black Sea with the capital Kiev and Ukrainian with its capital in Kharkiv created the Left and Slobozhanschine. All issues of domestic life Ukrainian states have the right to decide independently. In the center kept the right of a common foreign policy issue of money and creation of unified armed forces. Project M. Muravyova gave more rights to people, captive empire, however, the present state independence none of them received. States that they planned to create in Ukrainian lands were artificial in nature, since not all covered territories inhabited by Ukrainian, and tore it into several pieces of land.

In policy documents "Society of United Slavs" ("Rules" and "sacramental promise") proclaimed the abolition of serfdom and the democratic republican system. Unlike other Decembrist organizations Company put forward the idea of liberation of the Slavic peoples of the monarch autocracy and combining them into a federation of Slavic republics.

 

Excerpt from "Records Horbachevskyi program bases on "Society of United Slavs"

"Society was the main objective dismissal of all Slavic tribes of autocracy, the destruction of existing between some of them hate and national reunification of all the lands inhabited by them in the federal union.

Supposed to pinpoint borders of each State to implement all the nations of the democratic form representative governance, forming the Congress to manage the affairs of the Union and to change, if necessary, the Basic Law, giving each state (right) elaborate internal structure and be independent in preparing some of its legality.

Judge: 1. What was the purpose "of the Company United Slavs "? 2. What were to be the state structure and future members of the Slavic union?

 

This alliance, as proclaimed in company documents, was to cover all the Slavic peoples who lived "The four seas - the Black, Baltic, Adriatic, and Arctic. To Slavic union republics were to enter Russia, Poland, Bohemia, Moravia, Serbia, Moldova, Dalmatia, Kroatsiya, Hungary and Transylvania. The supreme power in the federation had owned the General Meeting. Creation Ukrainian state as an individual member of the union members of society (ho­cha among them were Ukrainian) is not anticipated.

Programming documents Decembrists testified that although Ukrainian lands were the main arena of the activities of organizations Ukrainian issue, they actually ignored.

 

3. Speech Decembrists and its implications

December 14, 1825, the day new oath of Nicholas I, who ascended the throne after the death Alexander I, the Decembrists revolt organized in St. Petersburg. But conspired to refrain from action and would force the Government to accept their requirements only for the most of his act of civil disobedience. They brought on the Senate an area of 3 thousand soldiers with weapons and waited to meet their requirements. Evening of new Emperor gathered faithful troops executed rebels with guns.

Two weeks after these events raised a rebellion Chernigov Infantry Regiment, located in Kiev. Government Retaliation against the rebels cast parts, January 3, 1826 defeated rebels. Prydushyvshy performances, the government ruthlessly Decembrists.

Decembrist movement was primarily pro-nature and limited Army. He revealed that social movement to Ukrainian lands can not win unless supported Ukrainian. Political Decembrists indifference to the future of Ukrainian people (and other peoples oppressed Empire) led, among other reasons, to defeat Decembrists. Yet the Decembrist movement, despite its limited character, was the first in a new era attempt to eliminate autocracy, so influenced the development of Ukrainian national liberation movement.

 

4. Promoting freedom-loving ideas in education institutions

Late 20-ies Nineteenth century. opposition autocracy ideas spread in some training Naddniprianshchyna institutions. In their appearance influenced the events of the Decembrist movement and showdown with him. In combination with Western ideas, which spread among high-school students and progressive teachers, they led to the emergence of secret anti-government groups direction. Heated discussions that occurred in them, finding ways to release from imperial oppression, steel furnace, which shaped the views of representatives of the new Ukrainian intellectual elite - the intelligentsia.

In early 1826 secret circle appeared at Kharkiv University. Headed by his young students - Vladimir Rozalion nobleman and son-Soshalskyy Kiev merchant Peter Balabuha. The members of group included about 20 people, among whom were students, employees, officers. Hurtkivtsi read banned books distributed and the most written works against autocracy. V.Rozalion-Soshalskyy created several such works, the most famous of which was unimaginative pamphlet "Ryleev in prison." In it he form of confession Decembrist Ryleeva condemned "autocratic prymhlyvosti government "in the Empire, lawlessness oppressed people, advocated natural law every person to free life. Circle existed year: once he unsighted imperial officials and smashed it. As suggested Imperial Minister of Education A. Shishkov, "in schools should not spread wicked philosophising to the detriment of religion, government and public society.

Distribution center on the Left progressive ideas was founded in 1820 Nizhyns'ka senior high school science. A favorable situation for this occurred in school because of its Director John Eagle (1771–1829).

Physician, historian, teacher, educator, scientist-philologist, John Eagle was born in the Transcarpathian region and was representative days of commencement of the Ukrainian national cultural renaissance that began here at the end of XVIII century. Together with other Transcarpathian Rusyns it famous for those times that their reason called golden age in history.

Throughout his life he worked as an eagle and studied at the Lviv, Peshtskomu, Vienna, Kenyhsberhskomu, Derptskomu universities and the Medical Academy in St. Petersburg. Had scientific degrees Verbal Master of Science and Philosophy, Doctor of Medicine, was a member of many European scientific societies. Not rozmynuvsya he masonic lozhamy. Eagle II became one of the first to express the opinion that the province inhabited Naddniprianshchyna Ukrainian people, which has its own language, and the majority population of the Ukrainian lands outside the Russian Empire "also Malorossians essence" (Ukrainian) and not Hungarians or Poles. Carpathian scientist was the author of works on the history of medicine and the first Russian work on the history of Transcarpathia "History at Karpatorossah ...», in which revealed the history of his native land from IX to XVIII century. He was a champion idea of general education of all people, regardless of differences formed the. Constantly defended this position as a director of Eagle Rishelevskaya Lyceum in Odessa (1826-1829 biennium). Under his leadership in these schools prevailing conducive atmosphere for learning, discussions, dating from European ideas. For views that are incompatible with the imperial ideology, an eagle accused of a libertine and started investigation. From punishment Carpathian scientist rescued premature death.

In high school science Nezhinsky there was a secret "free reading library. Those were the works of authors forbidden by the imperial censors - Dzh.Bayrona, F. Wolter, S. Montesk 'is Jean-Zh.Russo more. Maintained these high-school student works Nikolai Gogol, the future writer. In Gymnasium secretly issued and distributed handwritten journals to which high-school students wrote their works critical of the imperial order. Very popular in their environment enjoyed the end of the French Revolution ideals XVIII century. The pupils often sing the anthem of revolutionary France "La Marseillaise" and sometimes sarcastic folk song - a parody of the king's anthem in which stressed the need to destroy the imperial Romanov dynasty. I. leadership headed eagle school belonged to invasions of their students very quiet, not punished and their "no notice" of their classes.

On the freedom-loving admiration high-school influenced progressive ideas that spread among them some professors of the gymnasium. In particular, Professor M. Belousov, a graduate of Kharkov University, has repeatedly criticized the autocratic-feudal order in Empire, supported the restructuring of society based on freedom, equality and brotherhood. Professor F. Singer discussed with students in their classroom revolutionary events in Europe.

 

In the case of catholicity of Professor Nizhinsk high school science M. Belousova

"May 29 Nikolay Kotlyarevsky confirmed the testimony of his brother Yegor about the words uttered by Professor Belousov in class, and he, Nicholas, heard a professor lectures on natural law talking about sovereignty, addressed to the disciples and said: "If representative of the people - the sovereign and not worthy of the evil aims of entrusted people power, what with it be done? ". And when the disciples were silent, the professor said that a sovereign can be reset, to kill. It had to hear all students ... "

Judge: 1. Why was the statement of Professor imperial officials regarded as a crime? 2. What was the danger in the teaching of natural law educational institutions of the empire?

 

Incompatible with the imperial ideology views that spread in Nezhinsky school, interested in police. First of its leadership has been eliminated Eagle II, and 1830, for order of Nicholas I, all professors accused of freethinking, released from office and exiled.

 

5. The Polish uprising of 1830-1831 biennium and Ukraine

In 1830 Ukrainian lands found themselves in a whirlwind of events connected with Polish nationalist uprising against Russian domination, which began in the Polish Kingdom.

Established in Warsaw as a result The national government uprising victory put the program revival Speeches Commonwealth's borders in 1772 In the Polish proposal to start negotiations Emperor Nicholas replied that the rebels may consider only two of his Summary: surrender or destruction. Then polish the rebels have put forward the famous slogan: "For Your Freedom and Ours!" They were counting on the union to fight against imperial oppression of all opposition forces from public Russian, Ukrainian, Belarusians, Lithuanians. On the Right Bank, they called on landowners at least promise to give land to peasants to engage them on their side, but most Polish nobility rejected this proposal.

In support of the insurgents were groups of Polish nobility of the Right Bank. Ukrainian peasantry believed their actions purely "business lords, and to persuade him to join Polish nobles, slogans alone was not enough.

The Russian government at first appeared in deep water, but very quickly created a way out. Chief of Russian forces, Field Marshal F.Osten-Saken addressed Ukrainian peasants Right Bank. "Do not believe them (ie Polish) - he called - and those who would persuade and compel an uproar, and try to grab dopravyty authorities. You never will belong to those landowners who stand up against legitimate authority. " Contents of this appeal, which was read in all churches Right Bank, farmers realized an opportunity to break free from the landlord's yoke. They gladly took the rebellious nobles, and handed them the Russian authorities. At the same time the imperial government decided, as in all previous battles, use military talents descendants of Ukrainian Cossacks. Appeared imperial order to establish the Little Russian Cossacks regiments in Chernihiv and Poltava provinces. Those wishing to join them turned out a lot, because it was stated that they will remain at the Cossack service. For six weeks Little Russian governor-general Nikolai Repnin (1778-1845) formed the eight regiments of 1 thousand persons in each. However, in suppressing insurrection Cossack regiments to take part did not have time.

Meanwhile, Russian troops in June 1831 suppressed the rebellious Polish nobility speeches on the Right Bank, and early September storm captured Warsaw.

 

6. Imperial Politics in the Dnieper after suppressing the Polish uprising

The revolutionary events that swept Europe, and Polish revolt 1830-1831 biennium Nicholas led and deployed struggle against the European plague. As aptly expressed about Nicolay he tried truncated all chairperson, who vyvyschuvalys above average level.

History of Cossack regiments, formed Little Russian governor-general, has ended. Part of the Cossack regiments transferred to the local parts of the Russian army, and most were sent to Caucasus to die in the war by conquering empire of freedom-loving mountain people. Of those who tried to protest, dozens died in shpitsrutenamy. Himself Repnin was dismissed.

Nicholas Repnin its Little activity as governor-general is very remarkable from among the other royal officials in the Dnieper. He was of the old princely family Chernigov Rurik dynasty. His whole life was devoted Repnin civil and military service, has reached very high positions, but also earned Fame and liberal supporter of Ukrainian interests. The origins of the many miracles Prince contemporaries associated with its romantic story of love and marriage with granddaughter of the last Ukrainian hetman Kirill Razumovsky. Repnin was not only highly educated man, but, as evidenced by his work, and courageous decent.

During the period of tenure Little Governor-General (1816-1834 biennium) he pretty much made for development of the land. Repeatedly Repninu had, on narazhayuchys irritation metropolitan bureaucracy defend Ukrainian interests before imperial government. He also maintained friendships with many nobles-autonomists and, as some claimed, was even a member of the Poltava Masonic Lodge "Love of Truth." Many did Repnin development Ukrainian culture. Suffice it to say his assistance Kotlyarevskyi, organization of the theater in Poltava, who were treated at the scene plays Kotlyarevskyi, written in Ukrainian. On the initiative of Little Governor-General were collected funds for the redemption of serfdom talented Ukrainian actor Schepkin. He is also interested in the history of Ukraine, made a proposal to its writing and helped historian D.Bantysh-Kamensky make his plan (even personally wrote the section on military history in his Istoriia Malaya Russia "). Repnin and saw the plight of the Ukrainian peasantry, which prompted him to apply with proposals to Nicholas I.

Repnin activity and its connections with the Decembrists displeased the emperor. When the "supporters" Governor-General wrote the denunciation and once accused him that he not dissolve established Cossack regiment, since becoming a hetman, suspicious Emperor decided to act. Under the pretext of financial abuse (it invested its own investment in building in Poltava Institute of Noble girls when state used to the end!) deposed him from office. In his final years he lived in his Repnin Yagotin estate, where many times visited Shevchenko. Prince treated the poet very sympathetic, and his daughter fell in love with Barbara T. for life.

Significant changes were made imperial government on the Right Bank. After the rebellion of the former tolerant attitude towards Poles language was not. Specially created in 1831 Commission for Western provinces had by order of Nicholas I "bring all western lands in line with the Great provinces in all fields.

Consequently, the unfolded large-scale campaign of forcible Russification of the region. The Russian language became the sole official language, and within a few months on her teaching was transferred Polish schools and all proceedings on the Right Bank. Kamenetsky Lyceum, which was center of Polish culture and higher education, eliminated. His library (50 thousand volumes) and most teachers had been transferred to the established in 1834 University of Kiev, which was conceived imperial ideologues had "Promote Russian culture and Russian nationality in the lands spolschenyh Western Russia.

Brutal repression subjected the Polish nobility. Although directly in the revolt of 100 thousand nobles Right Bank was attended by only 4 thousand warriors, deprived estates and removed Patrician of 64 thousand people. On the right bank were also closed significant number of Catholic and Greek Catholic churches and monasteries. Ukrainian farmers appreciated for their assistance Empire never succeeded. Though I do not blame was for that: just promised that they no longer belong to the landowners rebels. Indeed, instead of confiscated estates, new masters - therefore, words are not broken ...

Polish patriots attempted resistance to imperial policy. In 1835 Radical leader of the Polish "Young Poland" Shimon Konarskyy illegally moved to Volyn and started preparation of a new uprising. Over the next two years, he created the Right Bank developed a network of secret organization "Commonwealth Polish people. " However, a new attempt was unsuccessful uprising. In 1838 Konarskoho seized and executed the following year.

During the first half Nineteenth century. Right bank of the Ukrainian population was in a difficult position and, being under the hammer on anvil, navperemin suffered from polonization and Russification. Both sides tried to play the "Ukrainian map "to establish its authority in the land, completely ignoring the law indigenous Ukrainian population to self-development.

 

Questions and Tasks

1. Who are the Decembrists? What Decembrists organizations existed in the Ukrainian lands?

2. As defined the future of Ukraine Decembrists in policy documents?

3. What was the impact of the Decembrist movement in the Ukrainian society?

4. What caused the spread freedom-loving ideas in schools?

5. Confirm that the activities of secret societies in schools had oppositional character respect to the imperial policy.

6. What the facts show that during Polish uprising he 18301831 imperial government acted on principle "Divide and conquer" on the Ukrainian and Polish peoples?

7. Describe policy Russian government after the Dnieper suppressing the Polish uprising 1830-1831 biennium