Remember: 1. As the Cossack officers fought for restoration of civil rights of Ukraine in the XVIII century.? 2. What is Freemasonry? When it came to Europe and to what called? 3. What was the National the population Dnieper Ukraine? 4. What is the National Recovery? What are the stages of its share?
Features of the historical development and multinational composition of the population of the Ukrainian lands, which were under Russian empire rule blow caused the liberation movement and the opposition tsarist policy in which the central role played by the Ukrainian, Polish and Russian areas:
· Ukrainian direction people like the idea of linking the fight against imperial domination, for the rights of the Ukrainian people. During the first half century, this movement evolved from the struggle for generations Cossack Ukraine's autonomous recovery of a new intellectual elite - Ukrainian intelligentsia. The appearance of Cyril and Methodius became its first attempt to put forward the program of national liberation of the Ukrainian people;
· Russian direction identified with those representatives of the Russian nobility that sought liberalization of the imperial order. The vast majority of the secret political organizations established by them in the Ukrainian lands, officers were Russian army. However, among the officers-conspirators were many Ukrainian citizens entered into these societies, based on their national and patriotic feelings. Representatives of this trend is not recognized by the people who inhabit Empire State the right to separate existence;
· Polish direction was distributed mainly among the Polish nobility on the Right Bank. Polish patriots put forward demands restoration of the Commonwealth destroyed end of the XVIII century. in its historical borders - the Baltic Sea to the Black ("Did Broadband to Broadband"). It is clear that among the majority of Ukrainian Right Bank population increasingly popular these requirements were not. However, Polish direction had a significant positive impact on the Ukrainian movement. Struggle Poles for national rights was for the young Ukrainian intelligentsia, as for representatives of other nations that joined during the sense formation of nation, an example and model, subject, of course, its own peculiarities.
Social and political life Ukrainian lands in the first half of the nineteenth century.
The history of national movements in period of "awakening" of the nations of Europe, which had their own state, certifies there are some similarities in their development. One is that role at various stages of its development played by representatives of local social elite, who kept the lines of ethnic origin. Caused it that because of its high status in society, they had best opportunities to influence the majority of the same nationality.
On the Left Bank, where began national revival in bank Ukraine, this role was responsible Cossack officers. Elimination of imperial government autonomy in Ukraine 1781 was for the old Cossack elite "moment of truth." Everyone should was to decide what to do next. Much of the Cossack began express protests. The reason for their opposition was fear of losing old rights and privileges. Unlike the Russian nobility, the Ukrainian nobility was exempt from compulsory military service and state. Their estates are not subject to civil forfeiture and could only judge them the same nobles, as they. However, protecting their class privileges, the Cossack elite objectively assisted the struggle for the restoration of autonomy Free University.
Fervent protest against oppression Homeland Empire was an act come from Poltava Basil Kapnist (1758-1823), who in 1782 defiantly left public service to high office in St. Petersburg and returned to Ukraine. That year there was well-known "Ode to slavery, where he lamented the situation, being faced by Ukraine. In this work Kapnist united condemnation political oppression and serfdom of homeland, of which the yoke imposed on Ukrainian imperial government.
When in 1785 empress Catherine II issued a Cossack officers on the rights and privileges of the Russian nobility, opposition sentiments among the Ukrainian elite began to subside. But thereafter remained opposed many Little Russian nobles which called for their views autonomists.
In the last quarter of XVIII century. the former Hetman, there were several patriotic societies nobles-autonomists. The most famous was the circle of Novgorod-Seversky. Hurtkivtsi wanted to restore autonomy Hetmanate distributed antyimperski journalistic pieces (so-called speech and Polubotko P. Hetman Ivan Mazepa) materials provided to foreigners for their speeches in defense of the rights of enslaved Ukrainian people. Consider what Novgorod sivertsi provided materials for speeches 1795 Convention on the French position, which were Ukrainian by the Russian Empire.
Great work to guide the members circle to the revival of Ukrainian culture. They develop projects creation of Novgorod-Seversky University and the Ukrainian Academy of Sciences ("Academic gathering"), helped gather materials to the first works on Ukraine's history. Not all plans and projects have been undertaken, but still a circle one of the earliest known associations of people like the new Ukrainian renaissance.
Maintained probably contacts Novgorod-Seversk patriots and Kapnist. In 1788 he was "Cossack project, which provided the pretext of war against Turkey Recovery of Cossack troops. Then this project was not implemented, however, when the war the French and Russian empires, it is actually implemented.
In 1791 Kapnist likely on behalf of the Ukrainian patriotic forces, went to Berlin. The purpose of his mission was an attempt to find help and support from the Prussian king in case of rebellion Ukrainian provinces against the imperial power. Answers it in Berlin not received as Prussia did not want to start a war against Russia. It was without, literally, courageous act Kapnist. Under imperial reality it could impose under this head.
Documents on the mission Ukrainian nobleman Vasily Kapnist in Berlin
Appeal to the Minister Vasyl Kapnist court and the state of Prussia requesting a meeting
"Sir! I beseech your grace to forgive courage that I let (a) apply directly to you. Very important thing that brought me to distant lands to your mercy, requires the speedy establishment and excellent mystery ... "
Memorandum to the Minister to the King about the meeting with Kapnist
"I think my duty yaknaysmyrennishe report to your Majesty that I secretly came to courtier of Little Russian or Ukraine, who calls himself Kapnist ... He says that (it) sent the inhabitants of this country, driven to desperation, extreme tyranny, that the Russian government, namely, Prince Potemkin did on them, and that he wanted to know whether in case of war they can hope for your protection Majesty - in that case they try to overthrow the Russian yoke. He says it was the Zaporozhye Cossacks of old country from which they took all their privileges, throwing them under the feet of the Russians ...
... I said to him that I can not engage in deals of this kind: that Your Grace will not want it listen while you observe peace with Russia when war breaks out, then they have to think that we should do to seek and obtain the support of your Majesty ...
We must beware, if it was not emissary, pidislanyy Russian court ... "
A minister of King William
"... I fully agree with your opinion that we should not trust those who chanced to first that comes to plans similar to ones you mention ... You obviously answered it very well that if declaration of war will have to then see if his fellow citizens have the same intention to act, as they say about it ... "
Judge: 1. What was the position of the Prussian Minister and the King of assistance Ukrainian noblemen-autonomists? 2. How can I explain the position Prussian court? 3. Remember to are common with Austria and Russia participated in foreign stocks Prussia in 1772, 1793, 1795 Try to link participation in these actions with Kapnist response.
Attempts to find a noble-autonomists support abroad were unsuccessful. Ukraine it was their achievement awakening in the then Ukrainian society interest in history and culture his period.
The impetus for national revival of the Left has been to increase interest in the history of Ukraine. It was connected with the necessity of Cossack descendants potverdzhuvaty their claims to the Russian nobility historical documents.
At first the imperial government recognized that any former Ukrainian military and civil service entitles nobility. In 1790 "Noble parliamentary commission" that take rozbyraly statements, as recorded over 20 thousand nobles merchants, burghers, peasants and Cossacks. This many are not happy with the Russian government. According to the decision of 1797 issue of the Ukrainian gentry nobility was to decide highest in the Empire Senate Department "Heroldiya in St. Petersburg. Department refused to consider the case of granting titles of nobility without representation sufficient evidence.
Ukrainian nobles were indignant lodge appeals directly to the emperor, substantiating their claim documents from family archives - letters of Polish kings and Lithuanian princes, agreements with Moscow Ukrainian Hetman kings. On this ground in the Dnieper movement emerged, which led the nobles-autonomists. Ukrainian patriots A. Chepa, V. Poletyka, R. Markovic, M. Miloradovich, T. Kalyns'kyi, V. Chernish did not need to look for evidence of domestic origin, but "by and userdiyu love for the nation "willingly assisted in the others. "How nice - wrote Vasily Poletyka - work for the glory of the homeland and the goodness! Our own feeling, consciousness that we were indifferent to the affairs of the homeland, we are awarded. Success will see new people with the same enthusiasm protect rights freedom and freedom of their motherland.
The struggle for recognition of rights to nobility existed until 1835 While many of those about him care, have not desired, this movement had a profound effect. Through release of the first ethnographic and historical works written by amateur researchers, established the conditions that contributed to "the opening of Ukraine" future generations of fighters for a better future homeland.
At the end of XVIII century. - the early nineteenth century. among the gentry-autonomists created outstanding work of contemporary Ukrainian political thought - "History Rusov. The exact date creation and its author remains unknown. Written on it was probably on Novgorod-Siversky. Found the manuscript "History Rusov" 1828 in one family archives in Chernihiv. For a long time it covered in handwritten copies. It was first published in 1846 Moscow on the initiative Ukrainian historian Osip Bodyans'kogo. In the bright napivhudozhniy form unknown author of the work gives an overview of the whole Ukrainian history until the second half XVIII century. The basis of work - the idea of inherent natural and historic right of the Ukrainian nation to self-development. Contents of "History Rusov has a clear anti-Russian and anti-Polish direction because it shows against the Ukrainian people against Moscow and the Polish oppression. Unknown author on behalf of Bohdan Khmelnytsky declared their belief that all peoples of the world have always defended their freedom and property, and the desire for freedom assigned each to the people of God and human nature.
In "Stories Rusov" stressed the Russian Empire broke Pereiaslavs'ka Agreement of 1654 and destroyed Ukraine's autonomy. This was limited views of the nobility-autonomists, who did not question the right of the empire to manage Ukraine, did not attempt to gain national independence, but only require compliance with the terms Pereiaslav agreement. However, once this requirement to the level of political thought in Ukrainian environment. After a century when there were first ground Ukraine became independent, the authors also relied on the violation Empire Agreement of 1654 Perhaps the anticipation effects of its audacity led by "History Rusov" hide your name.
Further impetus Ukrainian national movement gave ideological and political trends that have emerged Western European society that time.
Have become very popular use the idea of romanticism. Their supporters rejected the attitude to folk culture as something inferior and, conversely, strongly promoted by folk traditions and customs. Especially celebrated romance Slavic peoples, predicting them great future as a result of their national and cultural awakening.
New European ideas gained many supporters in the then Ukrainian society. Support them nobles-autonomists Left Bank. Carefully paying attention to North American continent Vasily Kapnist. Sharing the right of Americans released from British rule and their own state, he probably pondered the fate of their country. Several times he was going resettle in the U.S., but love won and forced Ukraine to seek opportunities to improve its lot. The influence of the French educator who believed freedom of one of the natural rights of man, and felt in his History Rusov "by which also applies this principle to the Ukrainian people.
At the center Slobozhanschine dissemination of European ideas became the Kharkiv University. Teach in It invited the famous European professors.
Echo rise national liberation movements in European countries during the Napoleonic wars and reached Ukraine, causing a recovery hopes the Ukrainian people to return of lost rights. However, as you know, those hopes were not realized. The change in outlooks Ukrainian promoted their participation in foreign campaigns Russian Army 1813 As a result, they were able to see the updated Europe, understand the new content that vkladavsya since the notion of "nation" and, likely to compare his situation with his people, oppressed empire.
Spread of European ideas Dnieper Masonic organizations contributed to the activities to be discussed further. We note only that in the nineteenth century. Freemasonry in the Ukrainian lands deprived of his apolitical nature. Ukrainian nobles united European Masonic ideals with their own political aspirations.
Ukrainian National Home revival in Slobozhanschyna associated with the opening in 1805 Kharkiv University. It was the first higher educational and scientific institution of the European type on Ukrainian lands, which belonged to the Russian Empire.
To attempt to open your own University several times udavalasya Cossack officers in the second half XVIII century. But the imperial government that disagreed. Only at the beginning Nineteenth century. When the new emperor was liberal-minded Alexander I, permission to open the Dnieper in the modern university received Slobodskoy nobleman, social activist and educator Vasily Karasin (1773–1842).
Vasily N. Karasin - interesting, influential and somewhat forgotten figure in our history. He came from a wealthy family. Natural abilities boy developed by trained public learned in Kharkov private guest houses and Mining Institute in St. Petersburg. Through his talents, he made a successful career and has managed to attract the attention of the emperor. Alexander and included Karazin to a close circle of friends, the tips are for reform of the empire he has sought. Karasin developed imperial project of educational reform and was the spring of 1802 of Alexander and personal consent to the establishment of the university in Kharkov, which is "worthy would be called a center of education in South Russia. Open University was the main business of life Basil History.
Moreover, Ukrainian Lomonosov, "as contemporaries called Karazin was a remarkable scientist and inventor. He is the author of the design of social and economic reforms in the Russian Empire which included a restructuring of its constitutional monarchy and the abolition of serfdom. He has repeatedly criticized the humiliating situation when Ukraine was forced to export commodity, and got out of it produced products. Karasin defended the need to create their own industry in Ukraine, development of external trade.
Karasin written nearly 60 scientific works in agronomy, mining, meteorology and so on. He was the inventor various agricultural machinery, steam heating, drying vehicles, production technology and other nitrate. On his initiative was created Filotehnichne Society (1811-1818 biennium) to promote Ukrainian industry, the diffusion of science and technology.
Critics of imperial orders and proposals for their change of expression Karasin, quickly tired of imperial bureaucrats. By order of the emperor it was a year in prison Shlisselburzkiy fortress, and then sent dozhyvaty age under police surveillance in the family estate.
In contrast to the imperial government in Ukrainian society properly assess the activity of History. "Happiness appearance University in Kharkiv - wrote a letter to his contemporaries - Ukraine you single obligation. " In 1905 the money raised by grateful compatriots in Kharkiv, near the university building was opened monument of Vasil History.
Of the imperial bureaucracy was a lot of enemies idea of a university in the Ukrainian lands, and achieve implementation of the idea Karasin managed only by the support of wide sections population. Nobles, commoners, merchants Sloboda-Ukrainian and other provinces collected the necessary funds, and descendants of Cossacks simple - the military man in the street gave almost nothing to build university buildings 125 acres of land.
Teach in Kharkiv Karasin University invited the most famous European scientists. Constantly increasing the number of Ukrainian professors due to transfer of Moscow to Kharkov University. Among professors of Kharkov University in the first decade of its existence in 1929 were Western origin. Invited to University German professor brought the most advanced At that time, the ideas of German political philosophy. Germany experienced while period of national awakening and national rights were the focus of scientists. From Yenskoho University in Germany came to Kharkov Professor of Philosophy Johannes Shad (1758-1834), chair political economy took Ludwig Heinrich Jakob(1750-1827). J. Shad once ranked in the top spot among university teachers. At the University he taught a course entitled "Natural Law", which disclosed the nature and inalienable human right to freedom of thought and conscience, freedom of the university education, denied slavery, opposed the despotism of the monarch power. Shad drew attention to the fact that humanity consists of separate nations, and advocated the right people to create their own national states. He criticized the then European monarchy, because their existence hampered the emergence of national States.
Declared by the German professor views were attributed to heart many young Ukrainian. However, the imperial bureaucracy Activities J. Shada absolutely not happy, and 1815 he was forced to leave empire. Teaching of "Natureright foot in Kharkov University was forbidden.
And yet, almost ten years teaching of European ideas did not remain without consequences. End 20-ies Nineteenth century. in public and political life Naddniprianshchyna has launched a new generation, which took an important place graduates of Kharkov University. Under the influence of romantic ideals they enthusiastically "discovered" Ukrainian folk culture, which laid the foundation for the formation of modern Ukrainian national consciousness.
Conversion University new cradle of Ukrainian culture and contributed to its publishing activities. University Printing House for the first half century has produced 646 titles books, including scientific papers, books, works of fiction. In May 1812 here began printing the first Ukrainian newspaper "Kharkov Weekly. Originally Kharkiv periodicals were Ukrainian in themes but Russian. Gradually the situation changed. On pages established in 1816 at Kharkov University magazine "Ukrainian Journal "was first published in Ukrainian works P.Hulaka-Artemovsky and P.Kvitky-Axis' yanen-ka. Unfortunately, 1819 edition by order of the local imperial administration was terminated.
With the emergence of the University of Kharkiv became the "first capital of Ukrainian revival in Dnieper Ukraine. Cultural revival visualized the need for continued struggle for Ukrainian law as a nation. For meaning it was much more promising than nobility of the struggle for the restoration of the Left Bank Hetman lost autonomy.
In the second half of XVIII century. in Ukrainian lands began to spread directly from Western Europe and also through Poland and Russia Freemasonry. This Right Bank was the Polish sector impacts, and the Left Bank and the south - in Russian.
Masonry (From the English. mason - mason) appeared in England in the early XVIII century. It was supranational religious and ethical movement, whose supporters have called for moral improvement of people and unite them (despite the difference in religious and national origin) on the principles of brotherhood, equality, mutual fidelity. Although in theory the Freemasons proclaim their non-interference in political life, in fact, from the XVIII century. they played an important role in the revolutionary events and national liberation movements.
Because the Masonic movement was attended mainly by representatives of the social elite, the center of their activities were Cities, towns and the landlords' estates. At the end of XVIII - early Nineteenth century. Masonic Lodge (Masons so called their organizational association) acted in Kiev, Odessa, Dnipropetrovsk, Kharkiv, Kremenchug, Poltava, Nemiroff, Kamenetz-Podolsk, Lviv, Sambor and more.
Polish and Russian Freemasonry differed significantly in character. The activity of Polish Masonic lodges was saturated with political motives, because they were united by those who sought the means to fight of his captors homeland.
Russian Freemasonry is first intervened in the political life of the empire. Only after the Franco-Russian War 1812 gradually it was becoming opposed to rice power. His Russian Freemasons believed to improve the imperial orders on the principles of Masonic ideology.
For the Ukrainian part of the nobility Masonic lodges in the activity was a form of manifestation of their sentiments in opposition under imperial rule.
Since 1817 known masonic lozhamy in bank Ukraine were "Pontus Euxine" and "Three kingdom of nature "in Odessa," Minerva "in Butskivtsyah on the tail," conjoined Slavs in Kyiv, "Love of Truth" in Santiago, "Osiris to plomeniyuchoyi stars in Kamenetz-Podolsk. Then in the activities of individual lodges began to appear signs of attempts to mix the ideals of Freemasonry with the problems of the Ukrainian National movement.
In Kiev bed "conjoined Slavs "owned by Polish, Russian and Ukrainian. The majority were Poles, and Yet bed pan expressed desire of liberation Slavic peoples of the power of empires and their unification into a single union. Most Ukrainian Poltava was part of the bed "Love of Truth." Its members were I. Kotliarevsky, Kapnist, W. Tarnowski, V. Lukashevich. Outlook Poltava Masons display preferences nobles-autonomists Left Bank. Their interests primarily distributed in the previous study of Ukraine, on their plans for the future is virtually unknown. However, when rumors of even this relatively limited activity reached the imperial capital, Alexander and special Resolution 1819 banned its activities.
The next step, which indicated deepening of Ukrainian orientation of Freemasonry, was the establishment in the first half of the 20-ies Nineteenth century. the Left Bank "Little Russian secret Companies. Its organizer was the leader of the nobility Pereyaslavsky County Vasily Lukashevich (C. 1783-1866). Society cells existed in Kiev, Poltava, Chernihiv and other Chyhyryn cities.
Details about activities of the society is left for arrests began when members of the secret organizations, the Freemasons had destroyed most of the market. According to the arrested known that the company intended to disengaging from the Russian Empire, Ukraine and restoration of the Ukrainian autonomy in alliance with Poland. These ideas were presented in the strategy document "autonomist Catechism" written by V. Lukashevich. In its activities, "Little Russian secret society" away from the Masonic ideals, acquiring traits that are considered by some historians, let it be considered the first Ukrainian secret political organization in Dnieper.
Masonic lodges and activities secret organizations in the Russian Empire, Alexander was banned And in 1822 One of the main reasons for this decision was that Freemasonry increasingly become polityzuvatysya, acquire the character of opposition to the imperial policy.
1. Identify features social and political life Naddniprianshchyna first half of the nineteenth century.
2. As there were attempts nobles-autonomists restore autonomy to the Left Bank Ukraine in the end XVIII century.? (Preparing the response, use the document.)
3. What events launched Ukrainian revival of the Left?
4. What is positive value of "History Rusov" for the development of Ukrainian national consciousness? What defects in your view, inherent?
5. Give facts that indicate the Western ideas of importance to form the foundations of belief Ukrainian national movement.
6. Make a plan for the story "Start Ukrainian national cultural renaissance in Slobozhanschyna and prepare the story behind it.
7. Make a historical portrait V. History.
8. Expand the features of Freemasonry in Dnieper Ukraine.
9. Compare activities Novgorod-Seversky patriotic society and "Little Russian secret society". Explain why last considered the first Ukrainian political organization.