Remember: 1. What was the policy of the Russian Empire of Ukraine during the XVIII century.? 2. What were the shape and nature of protests in the Ukrainian population middle and second half of XVIII century.?
In the first half of the nineteenth century. general direction of Russian policy toward Ukraine was marked by proliferation on its territory to general orders, submission of its development interests of the Russian Empire Center.
The main features of imperial policy on the Dnieper Ukraine during the first half of the nineteenth century. were as follows:
· in the administrative area there was elimination of remnants of ancient administrative structure and transformation of these lands in nine ordinary provinces of the Russian Empire. However, along with civil authority amplified military. During the first half of the nineteenth century. there were three in the Dnieper of ten Generalgouvernement formed Russian government in Empire. The imperial government was holding Naddnepryanschine significant military forces, whose number in certain periods reached 100 thousand soldiers. Ukrainian lands were also places where the military settlements;
· in the politico-legal sphere imperial government has lifted the traditional Ukrainian law and justice: for 1827-1835 biennium in cities was Naddniprianshchyna suspended the use of collections of Magdeburg law, and in 1840-1842 he eliminated by the norms of justice Lithuanian Statute and distributed system law, the relevant Code, the Russian Empire;
· in the economic sphere applied policy aimed at satisfaction of needs imperial center. In the late nineteenth century. Dnieper gave more than 26% to general revenue, however half of this needs to vytrachalasya other parts of the Russian Empire;
· in the social sphere the vast majority of the imperial authorities caused need instead of original Ukrainian submit new orders imperial. The situation of social elites as a result received from the empire privileges was much better than the majority. At worst, were totally disfranchised position of serfs. With unconcealed indignation pain and wrote about it in his poem "The Dream" Taras Shevchenko:
On look - in that paradise, that you leave the
Patched svitynu of cripples filmed
With skin remove, because anything put on shoes
Princes minor, and on crucify
Widow for per capita, and son kuyut
Single son, only child,
One hope! In the army oddayut!
For him, Behold, a little! Behold, and under the fence
Swollen child holodneye, mre,
The mother reaps wheat to serfdom.
The frightful condition of serfs caused revolt that prydushuvalysya by with police and troops;
· in national-cultural sphere Russian government implemented the policy of transformation Ukrainian people in the Russian part. Considering the Ukrainian part of "Velykorusskoho" people and the Ukrainian language only "narechyem" Russian language Empire carried out the policy of forced Russification. In the 30's empire developed the ideological background of its chauvinist policies set forth in the "theory official nationality "Education Minister Count S. Uvarov. Its meaning lies in combination of Orthodoxy (the foundation of spiritual life) autocracy (the only possible form of Russian statehood) and nationality (recognizing the existence of a single Russian nation dedicated to Orthodoxy and autocracy).
Joint, which united policy Russian Empire in all areas of law was ignored the Ukrainian people, as well as other peoples to self-development. As a result, this exercise policy may be, it is natural, only force and was done.
Contemporaries were told that one Nicholas once asked his 15-year-old son, the future Emperor Alexander Second, what keeps multilingual family of peoples who inhabit empire. The successor of the throne said: "At autocracy and laws." Nicholas indignantly: "The law - not! Only on autocracy and why, why, here why! "- he shouted three times, air stryasayuchy pinch fist.
Imperial policy negatively also influenced the development of the Russian people, because he was forced spend our efforts toward the realization that interfere with its own national development. As a result, Ukrainian patriots and progressive Russian figures are often united by a common opposition to the imperial Indeed, understanding the need to struggle for its elimination and democratic transformation life in all its peoples.
The main causes of social Ukrainian peasant protests during the first half of the nineteenth century. were strengthening of feudal oppression and abuse of many imperial officials.
Rid of the landlords dependence, and will gain ground and become free producers - these the main goal, which would reach farmers due to their performances. Protest peasants took place in different forms. Farmers greater hash tools, vidroblyaty serfdom and refused to carry duty, set fire to landlords estates, killing landlords and their managers, did the armed resistance of the local administration and Russian troops were escaping from their masters.
Evidence of respect for the laws and to solve disputes in a civilized way of the Ukrainian peasantry was considerable spread complaints of abuse in rural landowners. However, the imperial government responded by banning landlords complain about the serfs under threat of punishment. Severe punishment for complaints caused gradual peasant fading hopes for "justice" of the emperor and his officials. Sometimes they were accompanied by reprisals against the owners of estates that vchynyalysya by participation of most villagers. In response, the authorities launched a prosecution rebels. Selah "vtyhomyryuvalysya" troops are guilty of peasants mess sent thousands into exile and slavery. Only during the 1822-1833 biennium of Dnieper Ukraine was sent into exile to Siberia more than 12 thousand otchayduhiv.
Excerpts from regulations Russian government punishment of serfs
308. To keep the serfs in obedience and good order of the landowner's right to use home remedies and punishment at their discretion, but without injury and the more danger to their life.
311. For guilt, in fact, against owner or his rights, as well as police officers for misdemeanors, serfs, on the his request, police are punished with a return to previous housing or maintenance worker in upokoryuvalnyh and homes for the period determined by the owner.
388. Riot against the authorities Government established, is considered and every peasant unrest or yard people against their landlords, owners or managers and against the district and public administrations.
1108. For every stubborn disobedience, though without the express rebellion, their masters, or persons who have them for legitimate transferred under their authority, in whole or with restrictions in serfs when owner, not wishing to use himself granted him by law correctional home means, notify the proper officers, and are given the circumstances ... Punishment beaten from twenty to fifty strokes. From this excluded only cases where they did not submit orders that contradict law and the implementation of which would make them the most participants in the crime.
1909. Serfs for submission to landowners of their complaints to law are punished to be beaten fifty strokes.
Judge: 1. Whose interests protected order Russian government: the landlords or serfs? Move the text document facts that confirm your opinion. 2. Indicating that the serfs were totally disfranchised and were at the mercy of their masters. 3. Why the Russian government would punish villagers for submitting complaints to the landlords?
Terrible living conditions and lack of opportunities to achieve their change causing massive flight of peasants. Especially significant spread of escape came on the Right Bank and Left Bank. Only in Kiev province in 1816 there were 25 thousand peasants runaway. Majority they journeyed to the South or territories and Don Black Sea Cossack troops. The government took measures to search for and return of refugees and punish them. But stop a moment I will not be eliminating their causes, it was impossible. In some regions created peasant rebel groups that waged a guerrilla against landowners and government forces. Defeat the imperial army peasant groups could not because their performances were natural and had a local character. Protest Ukrainian peasants in the first half of the nineteenth century. were demonstration against the hated feudal order that was imposed upon them Ukrainian Russian Empire.
In the first half of the nineteenth century. When many farmers speeches Dnieper Ukraine. Most of them were on Right Bank, where concentrated the largest number of serfs, and the exploitation of peasants was the cruelest. In some places farmers struggle was becoming stubborn and durable character.
In the Volyn province serfs landowner Zakashevskoyi resisted his mistress during the 1811-1847 biennium Mass executions, carried out by military requests landowner could not crack down on peasants admitting defeat, Zakashevska sold goods. But villagers resisted and a new host - Mr. Zahryazkomu. New owner not survive long in the same year asked the Russian government atone for his estate to the Crown, as the peasants ukorenylysya the freedom of thought, he wrote, "I do not see any means to curb them.
In addition to strengthening the feudal oppression, peasant performances were The result too heavy taxes and hunger lean years. In particular, during 1832-1833 he was the poor harvest peasant movements Left Bank captured and southern Ukraine. Many speeches state peasants occurred in the South 1833, when imperial officials by force styahuvaly arrears on taxes that are due to crop failure to pay farmers could not.
Wave of discontent caused Dnieper introduction of military settlements. The real explosion of protests Cossacks replied the stork, when after the Napoleonic wars and the return in their native land were actually turned in napivkripatskyy state in the form military settlements. Deceived Cossacks rose in September, 1817 under Centurion by Theodore Barvinskyi in Kherson. The Russian government on 10000th with troops and guns brutally suppressed the uprising. Kazakov, who refused to become military settlers, pricked peaks, stoked in the university, drove the "green street" (through the formation of soldiers, who beat the guilty shpitsrutenamy - sticks 500-1000 times, pocketing most of the death) and sent to Siberia. Less than a year stork Cossacks again raised the uprising lasted over a month and were also ruthlessly suppressed. The rest of the Bug Cossacks were settled in the area m.Chuhuyeva in Kharkiv, where in summer 1819 also ignited the uprising. After the suppression of uprisings by two infantry regiments were arrested around 2 thousand of its members, of whom 273 were sentenced to death. However, the founder of the military settlements O. Arakcheyev that personally led the killings, "repented" and sentenced to death sentence replaced shpitsrutenamy punishment - to 12 thousand hits each. Some sources indicate that terrible death in the "green street" killed at least 80 people and the remainder transported to the hospital unconscious, but spared no one in Arakcheyeva pleaded. A friend who visited those who survived the executions, in the hospital, wrote, that "the only voice you can know that they were people, not a pile of meat.
Events in Chuguev a major impression on most segments of the then Ukrainian society. Founder Vasily Kharkov University Karasin, like other progressive representatives Ukrainian nobility, sharply condemned this senseless cruelty.
Great performances by military settlers were also in the villages Bazaliyivka (1817-1818 biennium) and Shebelynka (1829).
Especially cruel nature entered the struggle against national and social oppression on the tail, which acted "Ukrainian Robin Hood", a national hero, the avenger of glory enveloped folk wrong Ustyma Karmelyuk (1787–1835).
Portrait Karmelyuka. Nineteenth century.
The figure of national avenger Ustyma Karmelyuka also now raises more questions than answers about the activities This uniquely eccentric personality. Official Russian documents describing it as dark, relentlessly harsh man without moral standards, with preference criminal offender. Folk tradition Karmelyuka praised as a hero-avenger, who was fair man, spitefully defender and has absorbed the best human qualities.
However, even the Russian government, generally describing the activities Karmelyuka negative, objectively recognized rebel leader's popularity among the Ukrainian people, their knowledge of human psychology and the impact on farmers. Farmers honored for his generosity (all seized property and handing out the peasants, and his never amassed), courage and commitment to the struggle for national and social liberation. Landlords and imperial officials hated for the same purpose, but also gave tribute to his intelligence and education (as opposed to illiterate peasants, he knew Ukrainian, Russian, Polish and Hebrew).
Karmelyuk was the son of its time and symbolized his neodnomirnu and controversial era. Do not forget that among its victims were innocent people, but remember also that he is on the historical stage when social tension among oppressed Ukrainian peasants came to the land and threatened bloody rebellion. Therefore, many farmers went into the forces to fight against Karmelyuka oppressors. You can, of course, condemn the actions of the modern civilized experience solving social contradictions, but this name, for words of Taras Shevchenko, the famous knight "will forever remain in Ukrainian history.
In 1812 young Karmelyuka Mr. rebelliousness put in by soldiers, but a year Ustyma escaped and returned to homes. In 1814 Karmelyuk led insurgency against the nobility and the Russian administration. For 23 years of fighting rebel groups made over a thousand attacks on the landlords' estates, Russian officials institutions, with many offenders cruelly people. All seized property and money The rebels handed out to farmers. In 1830-1835 he insurgency led Karmelyuka, which involved more than 20 thousand odchayduhiv, covering all Skirts and the adjacent Volyn, Kyiv region, Bessarabia. Karmelyuka repeatedly arrested six times he escaped from prison and hard labor. Karmelyuka many had to endure torture, he managed to survive after one thousand beats shpitsrutenamy. Escaped from Siberia, on foot back on skirts and continued fighting.
Realizing the danger of insurgent movement that rozhortavsya increasingly, the Russian government created in 1833 for the fight against insurgents special commission headed by imperial officials special assignments. However, the Polish landowners, rather than relying on the government, organized own troops, who destroyed Ukrainian insurgents. Two years hunted landowners for Karmelyuka elusive until he accidentally killed by a bullet, fired from ambush Polish nobleman.
Nevertheless, the authorities took another five years to finally crush the insurgency. Ukrainian people preserved good memories of people's avenger, he has dedicated numerous songs, legends and legends.
Social protests Ukrainian population had a positive impact on development Dnieper Ukraine. First, they are showing that people remember the old times of free and is not going to tolerate the existing state of affairs. Peasant performances were factor which somewhat poslablyav exploitation Ukrainian population and limited nevsytymu lust nobility - the lords of manors. Second, deprived of their rights situation robbed, but not subjugated people prompted some representatives of the Ukrainian nobility to seek ways of changing circumstances. Activities of Ukrainian nobles-patriots from the return of lost human his people launched the national revival in bank Ukraine.
1. Discover the main features of policy Russian Empire on Ukraine in the first half of the nineteenth century.
2. What were the form and character protests of the Ukrainian population?
3. Describe the most rural unrest, and military Cossack settlers in the first half of the nineteenth century.
4. Identify features that distinguish insurgency led Ustyma Karmelyuka among other social protests of the Ukrainian population of this age.
5. Why Karmelyuka called "Ukrainian Robin Hood"?
6. There is a saying: "Every epoch has his characters. Explain to him the example of figure Ustyma Karmelyuka.
7. What was the significance of protests Ukrainian population in the first half of the nineteenth century. for further public development?