§ 7. A new model of socio-economic development of Southern Ukraine (textbook)

§ 7. New model of socio-economic development of Southern Ukraine

Remember: 1. As a result of the events Russian invaded lands of Southern Ukraine? 2. What qualities inherent in feudal-serf and market methods of management?

 

1. Settling the Southern Ukraine

Colonization of the Southern Ukraine was importance for the history of the nineteenth century. because at this time there actually there was great social experiment. South was the economic ground Empire, where detection and new economic model: the gradual displacement feudal order due to economic benefits free "labor.

Russian Empress Catherine II announced in a special document that the land zaselyatymutsya only free colonize. For their own benefit the Russian government for a long time "not noticed" that in southern Ukraine fleeing serfs and lords not facilitated the return of slaves to the old masters.

In 1796 empress Catherine II signed a decree under which the peasants of the South were to remain on the places where they lived at the time. Although the law usually interpreted as extending serfdom rights to the South, the results of its implementation were paradoxical. Actually, He freed the serfs, fugitives who settled in new lands, depending on former owners and hindered the spread is subject to general orders "Personal property". This policy was the first attempt to limit serfdom in the Russian Empire and possibly first awareness of inadequacies in the top of the whole imperial serfdom management system. And it should be noted that serfdom in Southern lands completely abolished was not. Landowners can establish their own serfs, but their number was always negligible. In 1861 only one tenth of land in southern landowners estates treated serfs, the rest - camp follower employees.

The value of the South for economic development was to Naddniprianshchyna that it was drafting new economic factor in the relationships between individual regions. Inheritance of last century, a focus on economic ties left bank of Russia and Right Bank of Poland. Due to successful economic development in Nineteenth century. South became a center of economic gravity, repositioning trade relations and the Left Bank Right Bank Ukraine. Concomitant new economic system, connected through the Azov-Black Sea ports with the world producers.

In the mid-nineteenth century. contradiction between the economically backward regions, where the dominant forced labor of serfs and freedom on the periphery of the empire worsened. This was one of the factors that prompted the Russian government to go for the abolition of serfdom in the empire 1861 The contribution of the South in a feasibility peasant reform lies in the fact that its inhabitants with their jobs unaochnyly advantage of new economic model based on free labor personally manufacturers.

 

2. Development of South Ukraine

In the early colonization of land Southern Ukraine leading sector economy was raising. It does not required a significant investment of funds (excluding acquisition costs of animals) and guaranteed quick returns. Natural conditions contributed to breeding Black Sea steppes sheep. Sheep wool was the main export commodities of the South in the early development these lands. Sent it by sea, to the factories of Europe and America, as well as carts to Moscow. In 1825 from Black Sea ports were taken 40 thousand pounds of wool, and 16 years of its exports to the border has increased six times and won second largest after wheat.

Along with the significant place of sheep economy at South occupied cattle farming livestock. Great customers were inside the Empire's army and navy. Meanwhile in huge demand on global market enjoyed livestock products, particularly fat (fat) with which made soap and candles. It was the largest buyer of England.

Other agricultural product, which began to enjoy strong demand, was wine. Viticulture was one of the most common classes inhabitants of the South. Raising tariffs for imported wine has created favorable conditions for the development of local production. It was in the first half of the nineteenth century. in the vicinity of Odessa and solar mountain slopes of the Southern Crimea have grape plantations, which are then brought honor the land. The foreigners thought that the Crimean wines, especially champagne, surpass high quality wines of France. The annual sale of Crimean wines reached early 30's Nineteenth century. record figure - 12 million bottles.

Changes in demand on world market (Falling prices for wool in connection with the breeding of sheep in Australia and increased demand bread) contributed to the championship in the economy gradually took over the South cereals.

Fertility of Southern black allowed to get very high yields. In official documents saved messages in 1835 grain harvest in the South "Exceeded the amount of grain sown twenty times. This yields happened, of course, not every year, but significantly more than the usual norm in their regions. In natural fertility, and contributed to growing crops plenty of free land. Growing demand for wheat abroad led to the development of these lands.

South also had large opportunities to promote economy and neighboring lands due trade. Major role in transporting grain from the Right Bank and Left Bank Ukraine played Chumakov. According to foreigners in the first decade Nineteenth century. to Odessa, the main port of the South, just a day came from 500 to 1000 wagons. This method remained the main cargo to the appearance railways.

 

3. Features of social relations in Southern Ukraine

During the first half Nineteenth century. population due to migration of the South grew more rapidly than other regions of the Dnieper area. Number of taxable persons in male South Ukraine was in 1795 520 thousand, 1850 1 million The peculiarity of these lands was that new arrivals have not experienced the usual system of agriculture, as in other areas Empire, where this system was based on serfdom.

However, free to own land as it was, say, the American Wild West, many settlers did not could. Most of the villagers working on state or private lands, owned by the imperial nobility.

Characterized population of the South the early nineteenth century. was slight spread of serfdom. In 1801 among peasants who worked on state and private lands, there were serfs only 6,5% of all residents. This trend is preserved in the middle of the century. Owner of the estate interested in the rapid development of economy, understood inefficiency of serf labor and relied on "free".

 

Number of slaves per owner
provinces in the south and in the Kiev province

 

Province

Owners serfs

The number of serfs

Average

Tavria

543

21 144

3893

Yecaterinoslav

2621

158 859

6060

Kherson

2813

151 142

5372

Kiev

1584

521 245

31 906

 

According to the 1857 all three provinces of South Ukraine number of serfs was less than one of the Kiev province.

A concrete example of new farm relations in the South may be business Novorossiysk Governor-General Count Vorontsov. He carried with estates in Central Russia, and placed on South of his serfs, while turning them into tenants. Contemporaries who visited the possession count, certify that all villagers living as American farmers. They are not burdened with forced labor, and simply pay rents and processing. Under these conditions, they believed, farmers work the land better, that beneficial for both farmers and the owner, and in general for the state. In all areas its huge economy - agriculture, livestock farming, Winery - Vorontsov relied mainly on wage labor. New Model economy, created earl in his possession, followed the then the Western capitalist system of agriculture.

A characteristic feature of the economy South was the prevalence of small estates. Most are owned and commoners small traders, who were together typical middle layer, or the petty bourgeoisie. Meanwhile, in other provinces of the empire, which dominated feudal relations there were huge estates with thousands of souls bond. Landowners South relied primarily on seasonal wage labor and the size of their holdings limited to labor shortages.

 

4. Odessa - a city of a new era

Center of Southern Ukraine, capital of New Russia was founded in 1794 Odessa. In the midst of large cities modern Europe it is one of the youngest. Still, none of them can compared to Odessa for growth in the nineteenth century.

The emergence of Odessa is concerned with consequences of the Russo-Turkish War of 1787-1791 biennium Losers Turkey was forced to give Russian Black Sea coast between the South and the Bug Dnestr. These lands occupied the Turkish fortress of Yeni-Danube (New Danube) in Hadzhibey area, captured one of the favorites of the Russian Empress Catherine II, the Spaniard "soldier of fortune" Jose де Ribas. On location of this fortress by the Empress was laid a city that had become main port and the center of a new imperial province, named Novorossiia. The main builders of the city has become the de Ribas, whose name was and still is one of main streets of Odessa - Deribassovskaya. Developed first painted plan meet the then Western European urban traditions. Streets peredilyaly city into separate rectangular blocks. The plan also provided the major highway and free space for movement outside. The administrative center of the city had become the seafront.

Odessa Development provided port construction, Admiralty, barracks, private homes, churches, public buildings, gardens, markets, etc.. Two years after the beginning construction of the city appeared Stock Exchange building and censorship - personification of contemporary commercial and cultural life.

Appearance of Odessa, in the opinion travelers, the city resembled a new American West. However, this similarity vycherpuvalasya because Odessa residents had very limited opportunity to participate in urban governance. Chairman of the city administration was mayor, appointed directly by the emperor, but was subject he Governor-General New Russia. For Odessa characteristic was that unlike from other imperial cities of its administration became more autonomy than expected. There was much less bureaucratic procedures, typical cities of central provinces.

The population of Odessa was extremely motley for national and social composition. The first settlers were of preferably free or those that considered themselves free. One historian estimated the end of XVIII century. third of the residents of Odessa were illegal migrants. Dilemma - recover fugitives owners or use of their work - the imperial government decided in its favor. Many among the people of Odessa were foreign immigrants. There were many Greeks, Albanians, Moldova, Jews, Italians, Germans, Armenians, Serbs and others. The imperial government promised religious tolerance to all immigrants, each house Family and loan in order to start a new life. For ten years they were exempted from all duties and services and of military duty - forever.

In the early nineteenth century. appearance Odessa was far from in the plan and it resembled, as was considered contemporaries rather pirated colony than decent city. Embodied most plans life in new governor general Novorossiia mayor and city Duke (Duke) de Richelieu (1767–1822).

French immigrant Arman Emmanuel du Ples - Duc de Richelieu was a descendant of a prominent noble kind. His pradyadkom was famous Cardinal Richelieu. For eleven years his rule city and all Novorossiia he won wide recognition for abroad and in the empire as a prudent statesman. His reputation in Russia was unblemished and neshytnoyu. Emperor Alexander said of him that Perhaps the French Revolution was not such a bad thing, because if it Russia has Richelieu.

One of the main results Richelieu was the building of Odessa. Then it turned into elegant city, built up like a contemporary Western architecture. There is a theater that his Odessa compared with Paris opera. Between the sea and the port of Duke ordered the construction of boulevards, where opening has excellent sea view.

Richelieu strongly promoted the planting of city. Duke brought his own expenses from Vienna acacia and distributed them to everyone who promised them to plant and care. Odessa and now known for its unique white acacias. The most famous urban park was the "Garden at Duke, where gathered Richelieu samples of various local and foreign flowers and plants. The main buildings in the city were an Orthodox cathedral, school, hospital, college finishing school. Guests Odessa wondered how during the presidency of Duke changed the city.

In his memoirs, summing made up, Richelieu wrote that when he came to Odessa, lived here 7-8 thousand souls in 400 homes. After 11 years, when the Duke left the city, its population grew to 35 thousand and the number of houses - to 2600.

Grateful citizens charged sculptor Ivan Martos cast in bronze statue of Duke. Completed 1828, and it now adorns the top of the Potemkin stairs that lead down to the coast. Dressed in a toga handy ruler indicates sea vyriznyayuchy thus one of the main sources of wealth.

During 1815-1861, the Odessa continued to grow rapidly and become a city naynaselenishe Dnipro region, and significantly - thanks to immigrants. Contemporaries said that in Odessa speak twenty languages and practicing ten religions. Such multi-way enchanting travelers, the city provided unique look.

The multinational composition of the population identified and the specific social and political life. Various ethnic communities were the reason that in Odessa has never been united and effective political community. The city, for example, operated a Greek company national liberation. Beside them, their secret group created by Bulgarian and Polish, Ukrainian and Russian patriots-conspirators Decembrists. The composition formed in 1817 Masonic Lodge "Pontus Euxine" went even the governor-general Earl O. Lanzheron. No wonder foreigners believed Odessa most free city of the empire.

In St. Petersburg, for example, Smoking allowed on the streets, walking in nezascheplenyh frock and even - wear a flower in the lapel. Draw the people with glasses or a beard meant suspicion in radical sentiments. In Odessa, on the contrary, young people walked in the most fashionable European dress, and even burned trooper. On the streets resounded music and merry voices - this relaxed atmosphere was simply impossible in the imperial capital. Nicholas thought Odessa "nest of conspirators."

 

5. Trade Development

The main source of prosperity as across South of Ukraine and its main port - Odessa was trade. The main product in the heyday of trade was grain. Large grain producers with Right Bank and the Provinces of South dopravlyaly wheat to Odessa - main Port Empire grain trade. Grain trade steadily increased. In 1795 Black Sea in search of grain crossed and entered the Port of Odessa only 39 ships, in 1815 - 1500 ships.

On the demand for Black Sea wheat influenced by various European events. When in 1814 in France during the Hundred Days "Napoleon tried to restore power, unexpected mobilization of large armies sharply increased demand for Ukrainian grain. South Ukraine also helped her overcome agricultural Europeans threat of starvation in the lean years. Historians called the 1816, when the terrible rains destroyed grain fields of Europe, "the last major food crisis "of European history. It is then exhausted to the Napoleonic wars of Europe a terrible ghost of hunger, fortunately, was useful Black Sea wheat.

So, in the first half Nineteenth century. South Ukraine became part of the world grain market. Achieve this she could, especially because the region was the prevalence of new economic relations.

 

Questions and Tasks

1. Identify the features of socio-economic situation during the colonization of Southern Ukraine.

2. As there was economic development of the South during the first half of XIX century.?

3. What social relations formed in the south, differed from other regions of the Dnieper area?

4. Using material paragraph and  Prepare the story: Odessa new city in this new land.

5. Explain why trade considered main source of growth in well-being of the South.

6. How to promote South establish new economic ties between individual regions Naddniprianshchyna?

7. Describe the main features of the new socio-economic model that prevailed in the South during the first half Nineteenth century. Expand the content of these features.