Remember: 1. What is the place occupied Ukrainian lands system of international relations in the XVIII century.? 2. What were the causes of the Franco-Russian war in 1812? 3. What were the results and consequences Russo-Turkish wars of the second half of XVIII century.?
Stay under the imperial government changed the nature of Ukraine's participation in European international politics. Lack of their own state led to the fact that she could not speak an active subject in international relations. Now, she played a role object in political combinations of other states.
The dissertation for Ukraine first half century has repeatedly drawn the attention of European politicians who were developing plans for easing the Russian Empire through separation of the territories it conquered.
Ukrainian issue has attracted attention of the French Emperor Napoleon when he began preparations for war against the Russian Empire. The official newspaper of the French government "Publicist" wrote in 1807, based on the received information in the higher circles, that "with Poland bordering ancient Cossack Ukraine, one of the most productive countries in the world that their wealth deserves utmost attention to our state. Now, when it Poland solved, and has mainly to solving the case fertile homeland Mazepa. Under the influence of their posts diplomats and secret agents of spread anti-Russian sentiments among different populations Naddniprianshchyna Napoleon commissioned the Ministry of Foreign Affairs to develop several projects regarding its future. These plans involved the separation of the Ukrainian lands from the Russian Empire and its division into several parts. Earth Volyn French Austrian emperor promised to pass on its assistance in the war against Russia. All other land right-bank Ukraine were to move away to Poland. In the Left Bank and Southern Ukraine were to be made two Ukrainian state under the protection of France. At the same time do not exclude any possibility of return of land And Kherson provinces of the Ottoman Empire Tavricheskoy if its demands.
Ukraine plans to Napoleon
Implementation of these plans could not only dramatically change the situation of the Ukrainian people but also created new political situation in Central and Eastern Europe. But Napoleon's defeat in the war against Russian Empire crossed them.
In the early nineteenth century. between Russian and Ottoman empires and took a short period of peace and even short-term union. Unites these countries constantly warring common danger from France. However, this alliance could not be solid and durable, as Russia, capturing from the war against the Turkish Black Sea and Crimea, not going stop its expansion. When in 1804 anti-Turkish uprising broke out in Serbia, Russia sent ships insurgents with weapons. In response, Turkey closed the Straits to Russian warships and by providing support to a France announced in December 1806 Russia's war.
As the Ukrainian lands were directly close to the main theater of war in Moldavia, Wallachia and Bulgaria, they are fully felt the burden.
In Chernihiv, Kharkiv, Poltava, Kiev, Kherson and Katerinoslav provinces were announced to set militia. Each province was to send Russian troops several thousand militias. For the needs of the Army of the Left Bank Ukraine was requisitioned more than 6 thousand chariots, about 14 thousand oxen, more than 1 thousand horses, accompanied by four thousand peasants teamsters. The Cossacks were forced, as Ukrainian part of Russian army to fight for foreign interests and shed blood fellow brothers.
The war lasted a long time without any decisive action from both sides to 1812, when Russia, feeling approximation War with France, their operations and inflicted a decisive defeat Turkish army under Ruschukom. In May, 1812 Bucharest was signed peace, as a result of which Russia gained Bessarabia. The majority of the population consisted Moldovans, but part of its territory (Khotyn, Akermanskyy and Ismail counties) lived in Ukrainian.
Ukrainian ground in the international relations of the first half XIХ Art. (1806-1812 biennium)
Echo of the Napoleonic wars that raged in Western Europe, reached the Ukrainian lands. On the eve of war Right Bank Russians detained several persons who were profrantsuzku agitation had a map of Ukraine. Among the peasants of Kyiv and Kharkiv distributed leaflets in which was spoken about the fact that Napoleon's intent is to release the peasants from serfdom, so simple villagers came to fear the French would make no sense. Agitation, deployed on the Ukrainian lands was one of the reasons for distrust of the Russian Emperor Alexander I to Napoleon.
Attitudes toward Napoleon and need for self-determination in case of war divided the two empires representatives of the higher spheres of society. Most of the Polish nobility Right Bank supported with Napoleon, believing that it will help restore the Polish state. Many members of these families were in the ranks Napoleon's army. However, many nobles Right Bank Russian authorities perfectly suited, and act against it, risking losing their possessions in case of defeat, they did not want. Kept them well and that the distributed by French proclamations were agitators assertion that Napoleon liberate peasants from serfdom.
Among the landowners of the South Napoleon's attitude was negative. Ability to change the usual socio-economic system scared and did their loyal supporters of the Russian emperor.
The positions of the Ukrainian nobility Left Bank on a war between two empires were divided. Representatives of the seed Cossack expressed hope that in the event of a victory of Napoleon Ukraine will become autonomous, and possibly an independent state, it will be distributed action of the famous Civil Code Napoleon. However, the vast majority Ukrainian nobility adhered to opposing views. In possibility that Napoleon save Ukraine from the Russian authorities did not believe it. Tim vidlyakuvaly and its more radical slogans of the French Revolution and related it changes. So they supported the Russian government as the guarantor of their rights and privileges.
Most of the Ukrainian peasantry not responded to the approaching war. Suppressed by hard work, they wanted only a better life.
In the night of 12 (24) June 1812 through r.Niman Kovna near the border of the Russian Empire moved 448,000th "Great Army" led by the same Napoleon.
Napoleon's army enters Russian border
The French emperor had planned capture Moscow, which is considered the heart of Russia, and from there to dictate their conditions Alexander I. What would be further difficult to imagine as long-range plans Napoleon had, in accordance with its rule of the famous - at first vv'yazatysya in battle, and be seen.
The army of Alexander I consisted of 317 thousand soldiers and significantly inferior French not only number, but the outdated system of acquisition (rekrutchyna, 25 years of service soldiers), and conditions of service of officers. French writer Victor Hugo wrote that the soldier's service in the Russian army "is heavier on misery to others countries. Officers (as opposed to Napoleon's army) was completed not on capabilities, by origin - exclusively from the gentry, many of which proud that in addition to regimental orders nothing in life is not read. Numerous defects Russian army command was forced to take a "Scythian" tactics - retreat and to avoid major battles, trying to simultaneously gather strength for further combat.
Both emperors took away a significant place in their war plans of Ukraine. Napoleon, but intends to raise anti-Russian peasant uprising, and hoped to receive military Gear for the "Great Army". However, the annexation of these lands has Russia would be weakened, because only one factory producing powder Shostkinsky third of all explosives in the Empire. On the eve of war in Ukraine, in many cities (Kiev, Zhitomir, Sosnytsya etc.). was laid Army Depot store. To meet the needs of the Russian army is concentrated thousand tons of flour, cereals, oats and barley, which exceeded half of all public stocks Russian Empire. The loss of Ukraine to the Russian Empire without exaggeration equaled death.
Both Empire tried Ukrainian use to gain victory. The "Great Army" went in and Polish legion of "Wisla", which were Ukrainian. One of his two Ulanskii regiments were manned by the people from skirts. Military units, where Ukrainian even prevailed was Austrian 30000th Corps Gen. Charles Schwarzenberg, who acted in Volhynia. Five of his eight regiments in komplektuvalysya Galicia.
However, action on housing Schwarzenberg Volyn led to other consequences than those that are expected to Napoleon. Angry requisition food and the behavior of soldiers during Postoj, villagers left their homes and created guerrilla units to fight against Napoleon's troops. So, again after Spain had fought Napoleon not only against the regular army, but feel that is a traditional guerrilla war "Contrary to the rules," as the French Emperor was indignant.
The disastrous situation in which appeared on Alexander and the outbreak of war, and lack in the Russian army of light cavalry forced him to seek ways to improve its army. Dude Emperor Count I. de Witt, recalled a good experience with a set of militia during the Russo-Turkish war years 1806-1812, suggested Alexander and use known susceptibility to the Ukrainian military. The emperor agreed and ordered the formation of Ukrainian Cossack regiments in Kiev and Podolia provinces.
Extract from the previous order the establishment of Ukrainian Cossack army, stated Alexander And hard (5 June 1812)
"The army is expected to form in Ukraine with people, capable and Cossack life long habit of known and willingly to it.
It must be 4 bands: every regiment - with 8 squads, and squads - with 150 Cossacks ... People You can assign the Cossacks, in spite of years, no growth, and unimportant blemish, but only just keeping one's abilities to life of this kind.
Commencing in Ukrainian regiments need, they dissolved in their homes but remain forever adequate army and by the first request should appear in the service and make back their shelves, what they should have a regular function on weapons, clothes and horses, keeping all this expense, but relieved from all but other duties throughout the State. Their children, born of (time) entering army, also belong to it. And those of them whose landlords have not found favorable for him to take in their village, population vidvedutsya for land SOE - which will be adopted if a separate statute ... "
Judge: 1. What promised to villagers who will to serve the Ukrainian Cossack army? 2. Why farmers realized the content available to as renewal Cossack status and dismissal of serfdom?
After a month of the located in Volhynia 3 Army General Tormasova set sail Ukrainian Cossack army headed by Col de Witt, comprising four regiments, which were 3 thousand Cossacks. Sometime after of these regiments was established Ukrainian Cossack horse division, which operated in Europe during a foreign trip of the Russian Army 1813-1814 biennium
Alexander I also helped a Cossack formation and in the former Hetman, where official data, there were about 500 thousand people Kozak. "Imperial rescript dated July 17, 1812 Alexander and charged Little Russian governor-general to Prince Ya.Lobanovu Rostov-form in Poltava and Chernihiv provinces of horse-15 Little Cossack regiments under the same conditions as the Right Bank.
When started forming regiments heated debate unfolded between the Governor-General and representatives patriotic circles of the Ukrainian nobility - Poltava Judge Basil Kapnist province and Marshall (director) nobility Dmitry Troscyns'kyj. Governor-General wanted to meet system regiments adopted in imperial Army, and representatives of Ukrainian nobles demanded that the regiments were exclusively in Ukrainian Cossack officers' ranks and uniforms. The situation in the Russian army contributed to a long dispute, and Lobanov-Rostov was forced to agree to latest requirements.
Renewal of the Cossacks aroused the enthusiasm of the Left. During the two months that the formation vidvodylysya regiments, instead of the planned eight was formed in 1915 - 9 and 6 Poltava Chernihiv. Expenses for equipment Cossacks lay on the shoulders of townsmen, nobles and peasant communities. However, the enthusiasm of the masses do not coincide with the attitude to this idea, the Ukrainian nobility Left Bank. The descendants of Cossack not believed the empire and were skeptical of patriotic slogans and promises Governor-General.
Among the nine regiments, formed in Poltava province, appointed governor-general commanders of the three refused to go to war. Author of the "Aeneid", nobleman John Kotljarevs'kyj, formed a 5-Regiment, but refused to go fight in person, arguing that can not leave without burns his aging mother. In general, his regiment was not single representative of Ukrainian officers. This situation was in other regiments. When the Ukrainian armies came into the Russian army, the field marshal M. Kutuzov indignantly demanded Little Governor-General to send officers-officers, because "in all Little Cossack regiments that now came to the army, which I commanded, almost total lack of officers, and even noncommissioned officers is not enough. "
Russian Army Chief of Mikhail Kutuzov
Simultaneously with the formation of Cossack regiments began forming hiking and cavalry regiments of militia peasant serfs in Chernigov, Poltava, Ukrainian-Sloboda, Kiev, Katerinoslav, Kherson and Taurian Province. After 7-14 days, vidvodylysya on forming bands, they were willing to give the province more than 80 thousand militias. However, frightened by the massive entry to the hosts of peasants, landowners turned to Alexander and to cancel this decision. At their request militias in all provinces except Chernihiv and Poltava, was disbanded. From these two provinces were taken 43 083-Cossack militias. Thus, the former Hetman given together with 18 thousand horse Cossack army 61 083 Cossacks.
Besides these units, in part of the Russian army were three regiments Black Sea Cossack forces, three Bug Cossack regiments of troops, border troops "forest Cossacks formed in right-bank provinces and squadron (over a thousand riders) Kherson Cossacks under the command of V. Skarchynskoho.
Number Ukrainian military units within the Russian army
Equestrian Cossack regiments
(Each icon is one regiment)
Ukrainian Cossack Host * * * * (vershn.)
Little Russian equestrian Cossack regiments
Poltava * * * * * * * * * (Vershn.)
Chernihiv * * * * * * (Vershn.)
Bug Cossack Host * * * (vershn.)
Black Cossack Host * * * (vershn.)
Detachments "Forest Cossacks and Cossack squadron Kherson V. Skarchynskoho * * * * * (Vershn.)
(Each icon is 4 thousand persons)
Chernihiv Address * * * * * * * (peh.)
Poltava Address * (peh.)
The main tasks that they had Ukrainian perform as part of the Russian army in the first stage War in June - September 1812 were as follows:
· Ukrainian Cossack Army of the Right Bank had together, protect Kyiv direction from the Austrian corps K. Schwarzenberg;
· militia of Chernigov and Poltava was requested to keep the 800-kilometer "der chain, to defend against attempts to penetrate the French through the northern border of Ukraine;
· Little Russian equestrian Cossack regiments joined the Russian army, with which they have participated in military operations.
In the decisive battle between the Russian and French armies at Borodino village on the way to Moscow to take part regular regiments formed in the Ukrainian provinces - Kharkiv, Kyiv, Chernihiv, Novorossiysk Dragoon regiments Ohtirsky, Sumy, Mariupol, Izyumsky Hussar, Glukhivsky, and Ekaterynoslavsky Little Russia kirasyrski shelves.
In the midst of the Battle of Borodino five Chernigov Dragoon Regiment soldiers suddenly broke into French battery service and destroyed, reversing the gun, opened fire on storopilyh Frenchman. Defending the junction between 1 st and 2 nd Armies of the French attempts to break through it, almost died Tavria Infantry Regiment. Warriors Izyumskogo, Yelysavethradskoho and Chernihiv regiment during the raid buildings F. M. Platov and Uvarov rejected by r.Voynu Italian Cavalry Division and destroyed three squadrons of French army.
The heroic actions of Russian soldiers Army could not change the overall course of battle, because the Russians had rebuff double or triple overlapping forces. At the end of the battle Napoleon conquered all Russian positions. The French lost the battle 28 thousand soldiers, the Russians - 46.6 thousand people. Last thereafter left Moscow, and then sought Napoleon because he thought the battle won. However, M. Kutuzov told Alexander and the victory of Russian army.
Scene of War in 1812
September 2, when Russian troops Moscow cast, pre pidpalyvshy it to the Russian capital to take French. Lunar stay in Moscow was a trap for "Grand Army, which was strong, while moving and fought, and seized the town quickly transformed to pack marauders. Napoleon and the deterioration of the situation that Alexander and rejected his repeated proposals for a peace agreement.
After much hesitation Napoleon decided to leave Moscow and retreat to the Ukraine. "Since under these circumstances plan should focus on the most safe, - he explained his decision - I courage to retreat to Kyiv, which can most profitable. However, the Russians managed to frustrate the plan. In the battle of Maloyaroslavtsem (12/10/1812 City) they defeated the French and forced them to retreat from Russia ravaged Smolensk road. Attempts to rear parts of the French army to break through Ukraine through "der chain has also been udaremneni of Poltava and Chernihiv militia.
Once the offensive, Ukrainian opolchenski regiments joined the Russian army and with it were French pursue the retreating. Together with the Russian army, they were participation in the liberation of Belarus. Meanwhile, "Big Army retreated gradually decreasing and becoming demoralized mass. In late November 1812 a few thousand ragged French soldiers left over from her crossed the Russian Empire. Alexander I decided to start overseas campaign and eventually destroy the empire of Napoleon.
In Volyn in December 1812 focused all 15 Little equestrian Cossack regiments of militia and the Ukrainian Cossack horse division. The total number of Ukrainian formations that took part in foreign campaigns, exceeded 55 thousand
As before, the Russian Command of the Ukrainian pinned to solve complex problems. 32000th militia from Chernigov and Poltava with Cossack regiments had to polish the fortress Zamosc, Mozlin, Thorne et al. The remaining parts fought on German territory.
Ukrainian part of the encounter and with the renowned "Battle of people" 16-18 October 1813 in Leipzig. In this grand battle, which converges to half a million soldiers in the Russian stock Army was eight Ukrainian Cossack regiments. After the victory in Leipzig Russian troops took possession of Paris. In the battles for the French capital distinguished Bug 'three regiments of Cossacks and the Ukrainian Cossack horse division.
Monument to the Battle of people near Leipzig
With part of Russian Ukrainian part of the army placed in Paris as an occupying army. Here Ukrainian had the opportunity to meet close to the ideas of the French Revolution: principles of equality, brotherhood, freedom, human rights and civil and most important - the recognition of the nation's sole source of state power is likely encouraged to think about the possibility of their home country.
Entry winners to Paris
In October - November 1814 Ukrainian units returned from overseas trip home. Losses in the Ukrainian part were significant. Only from the Little equestrian Cossack regiment were killed during a foreign trip for more than 5,5 thousand soldiers. This is the other people were full of understanding of importance that they made, who hoped for a better fate. But hope to improve their lives and the fate of his native land failed.
Ukrainian lands in the international relations of the first half XIХ Art. (1812-1830 biennium)
Now that Alexander I had laurels winner over Napoleon, he quickly forgot their applications, data Stormy 1812 By decree of the emperor all the Cossack regiments and militia were disbanded. Most militias returned to serf status and for their Service each received two awards rubles.
Since the emperor refused their promises, the Cossacks of Little Russia equestrian Cossack regiments, which wanted to carry military service, was forced to leave the Kuban Black Sea Cossack forces. Others returned to their homes, because most of them were very wealthy and belonged to the state farmers.
Formed on the Right Bank mostly of peasants, horse-Ukrainian Cossack division with shelves Bug Cossack troops became the object of cruel social experiment tsarism committed. In order to reduce the cost of the army of the Emperor the offer of his friend O. Arakcheyeva, issued a decree on the organization of military settlements in which military service is combined with agricultural labor. In Ukraine, the military settlement was organized in Sloboda-Ukrainian Katerinoslav, Kiev and Kherson provinces.
Solomenna TVOA Arakcheyev
This may be said to Alexander I formally kept his promise and did not return the Cossacks in serfdom, but the situation military settlers were even worse than the peasant serfs.
All life settlers from morning to Military Night regulated manner. Numerous prescription and instructions defined privacy in the family, teach the children, the order of the house and others. Frequent unannounced inspections at any time, houses, military parades are not given the possibility to farm and made their lives worse than in prison. That was thanks to Alexander and valiant Ukrainian Cossacks - rescuers his empire.
Relations between the Russian and Ottoman Empire again exacerbated in the 20-ies Nineteenth century. Because first insisted on its right to act as protector of all Orthodox Sultan subjects. Russia's support to Greek liberation uprising against the Turks caused the beginning of another war. Like previous wars, the Russo-Turkish war years 1828-1829 fell heavily on Ukrainian land. Again, farmers should were required to supply the Russian army food and feed to oxen and carts to transport goods.
The Russian army has been weakened A. Arakcheyeva experiments with the creation of settlements and the military had the necessary forces for a sustained war. In this difficult situation emperor Nicholas, like his predecessor, made mention of Cossacks. In 1828 was Danube Cossack Host was established in Southern Bessarabia, where for two decades of settled Danubian Cossacks, who were returning from Turkey to Ukraine. Danube army was one of the most combat-ready units of the Russian army.
Turn-aid received under the war the Russian army and Cossacks from zadunaytsiv.
Participation in Cossacks zadunaytsiv Russo-Turkish war of 1828-1829 biennium
As the war was successful operations quickly completed. Turkey was defeated and was forced by Adrianopolsky contract in 1829 Russia to give mouth of the Danube and east Black Sea coast. Ukrainian again, once again, helped the Empire realize its geopolitical interests.
1. Give facts that Russo-Turkish War he 18061812 was a heavy burden for the population Naddniprianshchyna.
2. What was remarkable attitude Franco-Russian War of different social classes Naddniprianshchyna?
3. What has taken place in Ukraine military plans of the French and Russian emperors?
4. Why and how was created Ukrainian military units within the Russian army?
5. Describe contribution Ukrainian military formations in the victory of the Russian Empire at War.
6. What was the fate of Ukrainian participants in the Franco-Russian war in 1812?
7. Determine the impact of the French war and the Russian empires outlook Little nobility, Cossacks, peasants.
8. Model the likely consequences the plans of Napoleon for the future of Ukrainian lands.
9. What are the common features characterize Naddniprianshchyna place in the Russian-Turkish wars of the first half of the nineteenth century.?